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Date:   Tue, 10 Jul 2018 10:16:49 -0700
From:   "Darrick J. Wong" <darrick.wong@...cle.com>
To:     tytso@....edu, darrick.wong@...cle.com
Cc:     linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org
Subject: [PATCH 01/13] ext4: move ext4.txt into its own directory

From: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@...cle.com>

Move Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt into
Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst in preparation for adding more
ext4 documentation.

Note that the documentation isn't in rst format yet, but as it's not
linked from anywhere it won't cause build errors.

Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@...cle.com>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt      |  627 -------------------------------
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst |  627 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 627 insertions(+), 627 deletions(-)
 delete mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst


diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 7f628b9f7c4b..000000000000
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,627 +0,0 @@
-
-Ext4 Filesystem
-===============
-
-Ext4 is an advanced level of the ext3 filesystem which incorporates
-scalability and reliability enhancements for supporting large filesystems
-(64 bit) in keeping with increasing disk capacities and state-of-the-art
-feature requirements.
-
-Mailing list:	linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org
-Web site:	http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org
-
-
-1. Quick usage instructions:
-===========================
-
-Note: More extensive information for getting started with ext4 can be
-      found at the ext4 wiki site at the URL:
-      http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Ext4_Howto
-
-  - Compile and install the latest version of e2fsprogs (as of this
-    writing version 1.41.3) from:
-
-    http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=2406
-	
-	or
-
-    https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/tytso/e2fsprogs/
-
-	or grab the latest git repository from:
-
-    git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/fs/ext2/e2fsprogs.git
-
-  - Note that it is highly important to install the mke2fs.conf file
-    that comes with the e2fsprogs 1.41.x sources in /etc/mke2fs.conf. If
-    you have edited the /etc/mke2fs.conf file installed on your system,
-    you will need to merge your changes with the version from e2fsprogs
-    1.41.x.
-
-  - Create a new filesystem using the ext4 filesystem type:
-
-    	# mke2fs -t ext4 /dev/hda1
-
-    Or to configure an existing ext3 filesystem to support extents: 
-
-	# tune2fs -O extents /dev/hda1
-
-    If the filesystem was created with 128 byte inodes, it can be
-    converted to use 256 byte for greater efficiency via:
-
-        # tune2fs -I 256 /dev/hda1
-
-    (Note: we currently do not have tools to convert an ext4
-    filesystem back to ext3; so please do not do try this on production
-    filesystems.)
-
-  - Mounting:
-
-	# mount -t ext4 /dev/hda1 /wherever
-
-  - When comparing performance with other filesystems, it's always
-    important to try multiple workloads; very often a subtle change in a
-    workload parameter can completely change the ranking of which
-    filesystems do well compared to others.  When comparing versus ext3,
-    note that ext4 enables write barriers by default, while ext3 does
-    not enable write barriers by default.  So it is useful to use
-    explicitly specify whether barriers are enabled or not when via the
-    '-o barriers=[0|1]' mount option for both ext3 and ext4 filesystems
-    for a fair comparison.  When tuning ext3 for best benchmark numbers,
-    it is often worthwhile to try changing the data journaling mode; '-o
-    data=writeback' can be faster for some workloads.  (Note however that
-    running mounted with data=writeback can potentially leave stale data
-    exposed in recently written files in case of an unclean shutdown,
-    which could be a security exposure in some situations.)  Configuring
-    the filesystem with a large journal can also be helpful for
-    metadata-intensive workloads.
-
-2. Features
-===========
-
-2.1 Currently available
-
-* ability to use filesystems > 16TB (e2fsprogs support not available yet)
-* extent format reduces metadata overhead (RAM, IO for access, transactions)
-* extent format more robust in face of on-disk corruption due to magics,
-* internal redundancy in tree
-* improved file allocation (multi-block alloc)
-* lift 32000 subdirectory limit imposed by i_links_count[1]
-* nsec timestamps for mtime, atime, ctime, create time
-* inode version field on disk (NFSv4, Lustre)
-* reduced e2fsck time via uninit_bg feature
-* journal checksumming for robustness, performance
-* persistent file preallocation (e.g for streaming media, databases)
-* ability to pack bitmaps and inode tables into larger virtual groups via the
-  flex_bg feature
-* large file support
-* inode allocation using large virtual block groups via flex_bg
-* delayed allocation
-* large block (up to pagesize) support
-* efficient new ordered mode in JBD2 and ext4 (avoid using buffer head to force
-  the ordering)
-
-[1] Filesystems with a block size of 1k may see a limit imposed by the
-directory hash tree having a maximum depth of two.
-
-2.2 Candidate features for future inclusion
-
-* online defrag (patches available but not well tested)
-* reduced mke2fs time via lazy itable initialization in conjunction with
-  the uninit_bg feature (capability to do this is available in e2fsprogs
-  but a kernel thread to do lazy zeroing of unused inode table blocks
-  after filesystem is first mounted is required for safety)
-
-There are several others under discussion, whether they all make it in is
-partly a function of how much time everyone has to work on them. Features like
-metadata checksumming have been discussed and planned for a bit but no patches
-exist yet so I'm not sure they're in the near-term roadmap.
-
-The big performance win will come with mballoc, delalloc and flex_bg
-grouping of bitmaps and inode tables.  Some test results available here:
-
- - http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/20080818-ffsb/ffsb-write-2.6.27-rc1.html
- - http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/20080818-ffsb/ffsb-readwrite-2.6.27-rc1.html
-
-3. Options
-==========
-
-When mounting an ext4 filesystem, the following option are accepted:
-(*) == default
-
-ro                   	Mount filesystem read only. Note that ext4 will
-                     	replay the journal (and thus write to the
-                     	partition) even when mounted "read only". The
-                     	mount options "ro,noload" can be used to prevent
-		     	writes to the filesystem.
-
-journal_checksum	Enable checksumming of the journal transactions.
-			This will allow the recovery code in e2fsck and the
-			kernel to detect corruption in the kernel.  It is a
-			compatible change and will be ignored by older kernels.
-
-journal_async_commit	Commit block can be written to disk without waiting
-			for descriptor blocks. If enabled older kernels cannot
-			mount the device. This will enable 'journal_checksum'
-			internally.
-
-journal_path=path
-journal_dev=devnum	When the external journal device's major/minor numbers
-			have changed, these options allow the user to specify
-			the new journal location.  The journal device is
-			identified through either its new major/minor numbers
-			encoded in devnum, or via a path to the device.
-
-norecovery		Don't load the journal on mounting.  Note that
-noload			if the filesystem was not unmounted cleanly,
-                     	skipping the journal replay will lead to the
-                     	filesystem containing inconsistencies that can
-                     	lead to any number of problems.
-
-data=journal		All data are committed into the journal prior to being
-			written into the main file system.  Enabling
-			this mode will disable delayed allocation and
-			O_DIRECT support.
-
-data=ordered	(*)	All data are forced directly out to the main file
-			system prior to its metadata being committed to the
-			journal.
-
-data=writeback		Data ordering is not preserved, data may be written
-			into the main file system after its metadata has been
-			committed to the journal.
-
-commit=nrsec	(*)	Ext4 can be told to sync all its data and metadata
-			every 'nrsec' seconds. The default value is 5 seconds.
-			This means that if you lose your power, you will lose
-			as much as the latest 5 seconds of work (your
-			filesystem will not be damaged though, thanks to the
-			journaling).  This default value (or any low value)
-			will hurt performance, but it's good for data-safety.
-			Setting it to 0 will have the same effect as leaving
-			it at the default (5 seconds).
-			Setting it to very large values will improve
-			performance.
-
-barrier=<0|1(*)>	This enables/disables the use of write barriers in
-barrier(*)		the jbd code.  barrier=0 disables, barrier=1 enables.
-nobarrier		This also requires an IO stack which can support
-			barriers, and if jbd gets an error on a barrier
-			write, it will disable again with a warning.
-			Write barriers enforce proper on-disk ordering
-			of journal commits, making volatile disk write caches
-			safe to use, at some performance penalty.  If
-			your disks are battery-backed in one way or another,
-			disabling barriers may safely improve performance.
-			The mount options "barrier" and "nobarrier" can
-			also be used to enable or disable barriers, for
-			consistency with other ext4 mount options.
-
-inode_readahead_blks=n	This tuning parameter controls the maximum
-			number of inode table blocks that ext4's inode
-			table readahead algorithm will pre-read into
-			the buffer cache.  The default value is 32 blocks.
-
-nouser_xattr		Disables Extended User Attributes.  See the
-			attr(5) manual page for more information about
-			extended attributes.
-
-noacl			This option disables POSIX Access Control List
-			support. If ACL support is enabled in the kernel
-			configuration (CONFIG_EXT4_FS_POSIX_ACL), ACL is
-			enabled by default on mount. See the acl(5) manual
-			page for more information about acl.
-
-bsddf		(*)	Make 'df' act like BSD.
-minixdf			Make 'df' act like Minix.
-
-debug			Extra debugging information is sent to syslog.
-
-abort			Simulate the effects of calling ext4_abort() for
-			debugging purposes.  This is normally used while
-			remounting a filesystem which is already mounted.
-
-errors=remount-ro	Remount the filesystem read-only on an error.
-errors=continue		Keep going on a filesystem error.
-errors=panic		Panic and halt the machine if an error occurs.
-                        (These mount options override the errors behavior
-                        specified in the superblock, which can be configured
-                        using tune2fs)
-
-data_err=ignore(*)	Just print an error message if an error occurs
-			in a file data buffer in ordered mode.
-data_err=abort		Abort the journal if an error occurs in a file
-			data buffer in ordered mode.
-
-grpid			New objects have the group ID of their parent.
-bsdgroups
-
-nogrpid		(*)	New objects have the group ID of their creator.
-sysvgroups
-
-resgid=n		The group ID which may use the reserved blocks.
-
-resuid=n		The user ID which may use the reserved blocks.
-
-sb=n			Use alternate superblock at this location.
-
-quota			These options are ignored by the filesystem. They
-noquota			are used only by quota tools to recognize volumes
-grpquota		where quota should be turned on. See documentation
-usrquota		in the quota-tools package for more details
-			(http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota).
-
-jqfmt=<quota type>	These options tell filesystem details about quota
-usrjquota=<file>	so that quota information can be properly updated
-grpjquota=<file>	during journal replay. They replace the above
-			quota options. See documentation in the quota-tools
-			package for more details
-			(http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota).
-
-stripe=n		Number of filesystem blocks that mballoc will try
-			to use for allocation size and alignment. For RAID5/6
-			systems this should be the number of data
-			disks *  RAID chunk size in file system blocks.
-
-delalloc	(*)	Defer block allocation until just before ext4
-			writes out the block(s) in question.  This
-			allows ext4 to better allocation decisions
-			more efficiently.
-nodelalloc		Disable delayed allocation.  Blocks are allocated
-			when the data is copied from userspace to the
-			page cache, either via the write(2) system call
-			or when an mmap'ed page which was previously
-			unallocated is written for the first time.
-
-max_batch_time=usec	Maximum amount of time ext4 should wait for
-			additional filesystem operations to be batch
-			together with a synchronous write operation.
-			Since a synchronous write operation is going to
-			force a commit and then a wait for the I/O
-			complete, it doesn't cost much, and can be a
-			huge throughput win, we wait for a small amount
-			of time to see if any other transactions can
-			piggyback on the synchronous write.   The
-			algorithm used is designed to automatically tune
-			for the speed of the disk, by measuring the
-			amount of time (on average) that it takes to
-			finish committing a transaction.  Call this time
-			the "commit time".  If the time that the
-			transaction has been running is less than the
-			commit time, ext4 will try sleeping for the
-			commit time to see if other operations will join
-			the transaction.   The commit time is capped by
-			the max_batch_time, which defaults to 15000us
-			(15ms).   This optimization can be turned off
-			entirely by setting max_batch_time to 0.
-
-min_batch_time=usec	This parameter sets the commit time (as
-			described above) to be at least min_batch_time.
-			It defaults to zero microseconds.  Increasing
-			this parameter may improve the throughput of
-			multi-threaded, synchronous workloads on very
-			fast disks, at the cost of increasing latency.
-
-journal_ioprio=prio	The I/O priority (from 0 to 7, where 0 is the
-			highest priority) which should be used for I/O
-			operations submitted by kjournald2 during a
-			commit operation.  This defaults to 3, which is
-			a slightly higher priority than the default I/O
-			priority.
-
-auto_da_alloc(*)	Many broken applications don't use fsync() when 
-noauto_da_alloc		replacing existing files via patterns such as
-			fd = open("foo.new")/write(fd,..)/close(fd)/
-			rename("foo.new", "foo"), or worse yet,
-			fd = open("foo", O_TRUNC)/write(fd,..)/close(fd).
-			If auto_da_alloc is enabled, ext4 will detect
-			the replace-via-rename and replace-via-truncate
-			patterns and force that any delayed allocation
-			blocks are allocated such that at the next
-			journal commit, in the default data=ordered
-			mode, the data blocks of the new file are forced
-			to disk before the rename() operation is
-			committed.  This provides roughly the same level
-			of guarantees as ext3, and avoids the
-			"zero-length" problem that can happen when a
-			system crashes before the delayed allocation
-			blocks are forced to disk.
-
-noinit_itable		Do not initialize any uninitialized inode table
-			blocks in the background.  This feature may be
-			used by installation CD's so that the install
-			process can complete as quickly as possible; the
-			inode table initialization process would then be
-			deferred until the next time the  file system
-			is unmounted.
-
-init_itable=n		The lazy itable init code will wait n times the
-			number of milliseconds it took to zero out the
-			previous block group's inode table.  This
-			minimizes the impact on the system performance
-			while file system's inode table is being initialized.
-
-discard			Controls whether ext4 should issue discard/TRIM
-nodiscard(*)		commands to the underlying block device when
-			blocks are freed.  This is useful for SSD devices
-			and sparse/thinly-provisioned LUNs, but it is off
-			by default until sufficient testing has been done.
-
-nouid32			Disables 32-bit UIDs and GIDs.  This is for
-			interoperability  with  older kernels which only
-			store and expect 16-bit values.
-
-block_validity(*)	These options enable or disable the in-kernel
-noblock_validity	facility for tracking filesystem metadata blocks
-			within internal data structures.  This allows multi-
-			block allocator and other routines to notice
-			bugs or corrupted allocation bitmaps which cause
-			blocks to be allocated which overlap with
-			filesystem metadata blocks.
-
-dioread_lock		Controls whether or not ext4 should use the DIO read
-dioread_nolock		locking. If the dioread_nolock option is specified
-			ext4 will allocate uninitialized extent before buffer
-			write and convert the extent to initialized after IO
-			completes. This approach allows ext4 code to avoid
-			using inode mutex, which improves scalability on high
-			speed storages. However this does not work with
-			data journaling and dioread_nolock option will be
-			ignored with kernel warning. Note that dioread_nolock
-			code path is only used for extent-based files.
-			Because of the restrictions this options comprises
-			it is off by default (e.g. dioread_lock).
-
-max_dir_size_kb=n	This limits the size of directories so that any
-			attempt to expand them beyond the specified
-			limit in kilobytes will cause an ENOSPC error.
-			This is useful in memory constrained
-			environments, where a very large directory can
-			cause severe performance problems or even
-			provoke the Out Of Memory killer.  (For example,
-			if there is only 512mb memory available, a 176mb
-			directory may seriously cramp the system's style.)
-
-i_version		Enable 64-bit inode version support. This option is
-			off by default.
-
-dax			Use direct access (no page cache).  See
-			Documentation/filesystems/dax.txt.  Note that
-			this option is incompatible with data=journal.
-
-Data Mode
-=========
-There are 3 different data modes:
-
-* writeback mode
-In data=writeback mode, ext4 does not journal data at all.  This mode provides
-a similar level of journaling as that of XFS, JFS, and ReiserFS in its default
-mode - metadata journaling.  A crash+recovery can cause incorrect data to
-appear in files which were written shortly before the crash.  This mode will
-typically provide the best ext4 performance.
-
-* ordered mode
-In data=ordered mode, ext4 only officially journals metadata, but it logically
-groups metadata information related to data changes with the data blocks into a
-single unit called a transaction.  When it's time to write the new metadata
-out to disk, the associated data blocks are written first.  In general,
-this mode performs slightly slower than writeback but significantly faster than journal mode.
-
-* journal mode
-data=journal mode provides full data and metadata journaling.  All new data is
-written to the journal first, and then to its final location.
-In the event of a crash, the journal can be replayed, bringing both data and
-metadata into a consistent state.  This mode is the slowest except when data
-needs to be read from and written to disk at the same time where it
-outperforms all others modes.  Enabling this mode will disable delayed
-allocation and O_DIRECT support.
-
-/proc entries
-=============
-
-Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
-/proc/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
-/proc/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /proc/fs/ext4/hdc or
-/proc/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
-in table below.
-
-Files in /proc/fs/ext4/<devname>
-..............................................................................
- File            Content
- mb_groups       details of multiblock allocator buddy cache of free blocks
-..............................................................................
-
-/sys entries
-============
-
-Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
-/sys/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
-/sys/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /sys/fs/ext4/hdc or
-/sys/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
-in table below.
-
-Files in /sys/fs/ext4/<devname>
-(see also Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-fs-ext4)
-..............................................................................
- File                         Content
-
- delayed_allocation_blocks    This file is read-only and shows the number of
-                              blocks that are dirty in the page cache, but
-                              which do not have their location in the
-                              filesystem allocated yet.
-
- inode_goal                   Tuning parameter which (if non-zero) controls
-                              the goal inode used by the inode allocator in
-                              preference to all other allocation heuristics.
-                              This is intended for debugging use only, and
-                              should be 0 on production systems.
-
- inode_readahead_blks         Tuning parameter which controls the maximum
-                              number of inode table blocks that ext4's inode
-                              table readahead algorithm will pre-read into
-                              the buffer cache
-
- lifetime_write_kbytes        This file is read-only and shows the number of
-                              kilobytes of data that have been written to this
-                              filesystem since it was created.
-
- max_writeback_mb_bump        The maximum number of megabytes the writeback
-                              code will try to write out before move on to
-                              another inode.
-
- mb_group_prealloc            The multiblock allocator will round up allocation
-                              requests to a multiple of this tuning parameter if
-                              the stripe size is not set in the ext4 superblock
-
- mb_max_to_scan               The maximum number of extents the multiblock
-                              allocator will search to find the best extent
-
- mb_min_to_scan               The minimum number of extents the multiblock
-                              allocator will search to find the best extent
-
- mb_order2_req                Tuning parameter which controls the minimum size
-                              for requests (as a power of 2) where the buddy
-                              cache is used
-
- mb_stats                     Controls whether the multiblock allocator should
-                              collect statistics, which are shown during the
-                              unmount. 1 means to collect statistics, 0 means
-                              not to collect statistics
-
- mb_stream_req                Files which have fewer blocks than this tunable
-                              parameter will have their blocks allocated out
-                              of a block group specific preallocation pool, so
-                              that small files are packed closely together.
-                              Each large file will have its blocks allocated
-                              out of its own unique preallocation pool.
-
- session_write_kbytes         This file is read-only and shows the number of
-                              kilobytes of data that have been written to this
-                              filesystem since it was mounted.
-
- reserved_clusters            This is RW file and contains number of reserved
-                              clusters in the file system which will be used
-                              in the specific situations to avoid costly
-                              zeroout, unexpected ENOSPC, or possible data
-                              loss. The default is 2% or 4096 clusters,
-                              whichever is smaller and this can be changed
-                              however it can never exceed number of clusters
-                              in the file system. If there is not enough space
-                              for the reserved space when mounting the file
-                              mount will _not_ fail.
-..............................................................................
-
-Ioctls
-======
-
-There is some Ext4 specific functionality which can be accessed by applications
-through the system call interfaces. The list of all Ext4 specific ioctls are
-shown in the table below.
-
-Table of Ext4 specific ioctls
-..............................................................................
- Ioctl			      Description
- EXT4_IOC_GETFLAGS	      Get additional attributes associated with inode.
-			      The ioctl argument is an integer bitfield, with
-			      bit values described in ext4.h. This ioctl is an
-			      alias for FS_IOC_GETFLAGS.
-
- EXT4_IOC_SETFLAGS	      Set additional attributes associated with inode.
-			      The ioctl argument is an integer bitfield, with
-			      bit values described in ext4.h. This ioctl is an
-			      alias for FS_IOC_SETFLAGS.
-
- EXT4_IOC_GETVERSION
- EXT4_IOC_GETVERSION_OLD
-			      Get the inode i_generation number stored for
-			      each inode. The i_generation number is normally
-			      changed only when new inode is created and it is
-			      particularly useful for network filesystems. The
-			      '_OLD' version of this ioctl is an alias for
-			      FS_IOC_GETVERSION.
-
- EXT4_IOC_SETVERSION
- EXT4_IOC_SETVERSION_OLD
-			      Set the inode i_generation number stored for
-			      each inode. The '_OLD' version of this ioctl
-			      is an alias for FS_IOC_SETVERSION.
-
- EXT4_IOC_GROUP_EXTEND	      This ioctl has the same purpose as the resize
-			      mount option. It allows to resize filesystem
-			      to the end of the last existing block group,
-			      further resize has to be done with resize2fs,
-			      either online, or offline. The argument points
-			      to the unsigned logn number representing the
-			      filesystem new block count.
-
- EXT4_IOC_MOVE_EXT	      Move the block extents from orig_fd (the one
-			      this ioctl is pointing to) to the donor_fd (the
-			      one specified in move_extent structure passed
-			      as an argument to this ioctl). Then, exchange
-			      inode metadata between orig_fd and donor_fd.
-			      This is especially useful for online
-			      defragmentation, because the allocator has the
-			      opportunity to allocate moved blocks better,
-			      ideally into one contiguous extent.
-
- EXT4_IOC_GROUP_ADD	      Add a new group descriptor to an existing or
-			      new group descriptor block. The new group
-			      descriptor is described by ext4_new_group_input
-			      structure, which is passed as an argument to
-			      this ioctl. This is especially useful in
-			      conjunction with EXT4_IOC_GROUP_EXTEND,
-			      which allows online resize of the filesystem
-			      to the end of the last existing block group.
-			      Those two ioctls combined is used in userspace
-			      online resize tool (e.g. resize2fs).
-
- EXT4_IOC_MIGRATE	      This ioctl operates on the filesystem itself.
-			      It converts (migrates) ext3 indirect block mapped
-			      inode to ext4 extent mapped inode by walking
-			      through indirect block mapping of the original
-			      inode and converting contiguous block ranges
-			      into ext4 extents of the temporary inode. Then,
-			      inodes are swapped. This ioctl might help, when
-			      migrating from ext3 to ext4 filesystem, however
-			      suggestion is to create fresh ext4 filesystem
-			      and copy data from the backup. Note, that
-			      filesystem has to support extents for this ioctl
-			      to work.
-
- EXT4_IOC_ALLOC_DA_BLKS	      Force all of the delay allocated blocks to be
-			      allocated to preserve application-expected ext3
-			      behaviour. Note that this will also start
-			      triggering a write of the data blocks, but this
-			      behaviour may change in the future as it is
-			      not necessary and has been done this way only
-			      for sake of simplicity.
-
- EXT4_IOC_RESIZE_FS	      Resize the filesystem to a new size.  The number
-			      of blocks of resized filesystem is passed in via
-			      64 bit integer argument.  The kernel allocates
-			      bitmaps and inode table, the userspace tool thus
-			      just passes the new number of blocks.
-
- EXT4_IOC_SWAP_BOOT	      Swap i_blocks and associated attributes
-			      (like i_blocks, i_size, i_flags, ...) from
-			      the specified inode with inode
-			      EXT4_BOOT_LOADER_INO (#5). This is typically
-			      used to store a boot loader in a secure part of
-			      the filesystem, where it can't be changed by a
-			      normal user by accident.
-			      The data blocks of the previous boot loader
-			      will be associated with the given inode.
-
-..............................................................................
-
-References
-==========
-
-kernel source:	<file:fs/ext4/>
-		<file:fs/jbd2/>
-
-programs:	http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
-
-useful links:	http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/ext3-devel
-		http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/
-		http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page
-		http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Features/Ext4
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7f628b9f7c4b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ext4.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,627 @@
+
+Ext4 Filesystem
+===============
+
+Ext4 is an advanced level of the ext3 filesystem which incorporates
+scalability and reliability enhancements for supporting large filesystems
+(64 bit) in keeping with increasing disk capacities and state-of-the-art
+feature requirements.
+
+Mailing list:	linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org
+Web site:	http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org
+
+
+1. Quick usage instructions:
+===========================
+
+Note: More extensive information for getting started with ext4 can be
+      found at the ext4 wiki site at the URL:
+      http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Ext4_Howto
+
+  - Compile and install the latest version of e2fsprogs (as of this
+    writing version 1.41.3) from:
+
+    http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=2406
+	
+	or
+
+    https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/tytso/e2fsprogs/
+
+	or grab the latest git repository from:
+
+    git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/fs/ext2/e2fsprogs.git
+
+  - Note that it is highly important to install the mke2fs.conf file
+    that comes with the e2fsprogs 1.41.x sources in /etc/mke2fs.conf. If
+    you have edited the /etc/mke2fs.conf file installed on your system,
+    you will need to merge your changes with the version from e2fsprogs
+    1.41.x.
+
+  - Create a new filesystem using the ext4 filesystem type:
+
+    	# mke2fs -t ext4 /dev/hda1
+
+    Or to configure an existing ext3 filesystem to support extents: 
+
+	# tune2fs -O extents /dev/hda1
+
+    If the filesystem was created with 128 byte inodes, it can be
+    converted to use 256 byte for greater efficiency via:
+
+        # tune2fs -I 256 /dev/hda1
+
+    (Note: we currently do not have tools to convert an ext4
+    filesystem back to ext3; so please do not do try this on production
+    filesystems.)
+
+  - Mounting:
+
+	# mount -t ext4 /dev/hda1 /wherever
+
+  - When comparing performance with other filesystems, it's always
+    important to try multiple workloads; very often a subtle change in a
+    workload parameter can completely change the ranking of which
+    filesystems do well compared to others.  When comparing versus ext3,
+    note that ext4 enables write barriers by default, while ext3 does
+    not enable write barriers by default.  So it is useful to use
+    explicitly specify whether barriers are enabled or not when via the
+    '-o barriers=[0|1]' mount option for both ext3 and ext4 filesystems
+    for a fair comparison.  When tuning ext3 for best benchmark numbers,
+    it is often worthwhile to try changing the data journaling mode; '-o
+    data=writeback' can be faster for some workloads.  (Note however that
+    running mounted with data=writeback can potentially leave stale data
+    exposed in recently written files in case of an unclean shutdown,
+    which could be a security exposure in some situations.)  Configuring
+    the filesystem with a large journal can also be helpful for
+    metadata-intensive workloads.
+
+2. Features
+===========
+
+2.1 Currently available
+
+* ability to use filesystems > 16TB (e2fsprogs support not available yet)
+* extent format reduces metadata overhead (RAM, IO for access, transactions)
+* extent format more robust in face of on-disk corruption due to magics,
+* internal redundancy in tree
+* improved file allocation (multi-block alloc)
+* lift 32000 subdirectory limit imposed by i_links_count[1]
+* nsec timestamps for mtime, atime, ctime, create time
+* inode version field on disk (NFSv4, Lustre)
+* reduced e2fsck time via uninit_bg feature
+* journal checksumming for robustness, performance
+* persistent file preallocation (e.g for streaming media, databases)
+* ability to pack bitmaps and inode tables into larger virtual groups via the
+  flex_bg feature
+* large file support
+* inode allocation using large virtual block groups via flex_bg
+* delayed allocation
+* large block (up to pagesize) support
+* efficient new ordered mode in JBD2 and ext4 (avoid using buffer head to force
+  the ordering)
+
+[1] Filesystems with a block size of 1k may see a limit imposed by the
+directory hash tree having a maximum depth of two.
+
+2.2 Candidate features for future inclusion
+
+* online defrag (patches available but not well tested)
+* reduced mke2fs time via lazy itable initialization in conjunction with
+  the uninit_bg feature (capability to do this is available in e2fsprogs
+  but a kernel thread to do lazy zeroing of unused inode table blocks
+  after filesystem is first mounted is required for safety)
+
+There are several others under discussion, whether they all make it in is
+partly a function of how much time everyone has to work on them. Features like
+metadata checksumming have been discussed and planned for a bit but no patches
+exist yet so I'm not sure they're in the near-term roadmap.
+
+The big performance win will come with mballoc, delalloc and flex_bg
+grouping of bitmaps and inode tables.  Some test results available here:
+
+ - http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/20080818-ffsb/ffsb-write-2.6.27-rc1.html
+ - http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/20080818-ffsb/ffsb-readwrite-2.6.27-rc1.html
+
+3. Options
+==========
+
+When mounting an ext4 filesystem, the following option are accepted:
+(*) == default
+
+ro                   	Mount filesystem read only. Note that ext4 will
+                     	replay the journal (and thus write to the
+                     	partition) even when mounted "read only". The
+                     	mount options "ro,noload" can be used to prevent
+		     	writes to the filesystem.
+
+journal_checksum	Enable checksumming of the journal transactions.
+			This will allow the recovery code in e2fsck and the
+			kernel to detect corruption in the kernel.  It is a
+			compatible change and will be ignored by older kernels.
+
+journal_async_commit	Commit block can be written to disk without waiting
+			for descriptor blocks. If enabled older kernels cannot
+			mount the device. This will enable 'journal_checksum'
+			internally.
+
+journal_path=path
+journal_dev=devnum	When the external journal device's major/minor numbers
+			have changed, these options allow the user to specify
+			the new journal location.  The journal device is
+			identified through either its new major/minor numbers
+			encoded in devnum, or via a path to the device.
+
+norecovery		Don't load the journal on mounting.  Note that
+noload			if the filesystem was not unmounted cleanly,
+                     	skipping the journal replay will lead to the
+                     	filesystem containing inconsistencies that can
+                     	lead to any number of problems.
+
+data=journal		All data are committed into the journal prior to being
+			written into the main file system.  Enabling
+			this mode will disable delayed allocation and
+			O_DIRECT support.
+
+data=ordered	(*)	All data are forced directly out to the main file
+			system prior to its metadata being committed to the
+			journal.
+
+data=writeback		Data ordering is not preserved, data may be written
+			into the main file system after its metadata has been
+			committed to the journal.
+
+commit=nrsec	(*)	Ext4 can be told to sync all its data and metadata
+			every 'nrsec' seconds. The default value is 5 seconds.
+			This means that if you lose your power, you will lose
+			as much as the latest 5 seconds of work (your
+			filesystem will not be damaged though, thanks to the
+			journaling).  This default value (or any low value)
+			will hurt performance, but it's good for data-safety.
+			Setting it to 0 will have the same effect as leaving
+			it at the default (5 seconds).
+			Setting it to very large values will improve
+			performance.
+
+barrier=<0|1(*)>	This enables/disables the use of write barriers in
+barrier(*)		the jbd code.  barrier=0 disables, barrier=1 enables.
+nobarrier		This also requires an IO stack which can support
+			barriers, and if jbd gets an error on a barrier
+			write, it will disable again with a warning.
+			Write barriers enforce proper on-disk ordering
+			of journal commits, making volatile disk write caches
+			safe to use, at some performance penalty.  If
+			your disks are battery-backed in one way or another,
+			disabling barriers may safely improve performance.
+			The mount options "barrier" and "nobarrier" can
+			also be used to enable or disable barriers, for
+			consistency with other ext4 mount options.
+
+inode_readahead_blks=n	This tuning parameter controls the maximum
+			number of inode table blocks that ext4's inode
+			table readahead algorithm will pre-read into
+			the buffer cache.  The default value is 32 blocks.
+
+nouser_xattr		Disables Extended User Attributes.  See the
+			attr(5) manual page for more information about
+			extended attributes.
+
+noacl			This option disables POSIX Access Control List
+			support. If ACL support is enabled in the kernel
+			configuration (CONFIG_EXT4_FS_POSIX_ACL), ACL is
+			enabled by default on mount. See the acl(5) manual
+			page for more information about acl.
+
+bsddf		(*)	Make 'df' act like BSD.
+minixdf			Make 'df' act like Minix.
+
+debug			Extra debugging information is sent to syslog.
+
+abort			Simulate the effects of calling ext4_abort() for
+			debugging purposes.  This is normally used while
+			remounting a filesystem which is already mounted.
+
+errors=remount-ro	Remount the filesystem read-only on an error.
+errors=continue		Keep going on a filesystem error.
+errors=panic		Panic and halt the machine if an error occurs.
+                        (These mount options override the errors behavior
+                        specified in the superblock, which can be configured
+                        using tune2fs)
+
+data_err=ignore(*)	Just print an error message if an error occurs
+			in a file data buffer in ordered mode.
+data_err=abort		Abort the journal if an error occurs in a file
+			data buffer in ordered mode.
+
+grpid			New objects have the group ID of their parent.
+bsdgroups
+
+nogrpid		(*)	New objects have the group ID of their creator.
+sysvgroups
+
+resgid=n		The group ID which may use the reserved blocks.
+
+resuid=n		The user ID which may use the reserved blocks.
+
+sb=n			Use alternate superblock at this location.
+
+quota			These options are ignored by the filesystem. They
+noquota			are used only by quota tools to recognize volumes
+grpquota		where quota should be turned on. See documentation
+usrquota		in the quota-tools package for more details
+			(http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota).
+
+jqfmt=<quota type>	These options tell filesystem details about quota
+usrjquota=<file>	so that quota information can be properly updated
+grpjquota=<file>	during journal replay. They replace the above
+			quota options. See documentation in the quota-tools
+			package for more details
+			(http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota).
+
+stripe=n		Number of filesystem blocks that mballoc will try
+			to use for allocation size and alignment. For RAID5/6
+			systems this should be the number of data
+			disks *  RAID chunk size in file system blocks.
+
+delalloc	(*)	Defer block allocation until just before ext4
+			writes out the block(s) in question.  This
+			allows ext4 to better allocation decisions
+			more efficiently.
+nodelalloc		Disable delayed allocation.  Blocks are allocated
+			when the data is copied from userspace to the
+			page cache, either via the write(2) system call
+			or when an mmap'ed page which was previously
+			unallocated is written for the first time.
+
+max_batch_time=usec	Maximum amount of time ext4 should wait for
+			additional filesystem operations to be batch
+			together with a synchronous write operation.
+			Since a synchronous write operation is going to
+			force a commit and then a wait for the I/O
+			complete, it doesn't cost much, and can be a
+			huge throughput win, we wait for a small amount
+			of time to see if any other transactions can
+			piggyback on the synchronous write.   The
+			algorithm used is designed to automatically tune
+			for the speed of the disk, by measuring the
+			amount of time (on average) that it takes to
+			finish committing a transaction.  Call this time
+			the "commit time".  If the time that the
+			transaction has been running is less than the
+			commit time, ext4 will try sleeping for the
+			commit time to see if other operations will join
+			the transaction.   The commit time is capped by
+			the max_batch_time, which defaults to 15000us
+			(15ms).   This optimization can be turned off
+			entirely by setting max_batch_time to 0.
+
+min_batch_time=usec	This parameter sets the commit time (as
+			described above) to be at least min_batch_time.
+			It defaults to zero microseconds.  Increasing
+			this parameter may improve the throughput of
+			multi-threaded, synchronous workloads on very
+			fast disks, at the cost of increasing latency.
+
+journal_ioprio=prio	The I/O priority (from 0 to 7, where 0 is the
+			highest priority) which should be used for I/O
+			operations submitted by kjournald2 during a
+			commit operation.  This defaults to 3, which is
+			a slightly higher priority than the default I/O
+			priority.
+
+auto_da_alloc(*)	Many broken applications don't use fsync() when 
+noauto_da_alloc		replacing existing files via patterns such as
+			fd = open("foo.new")/write(fd,..)/close(fd)/
+			rename("foo.new", "foo"), or worse yet,
+			fd = open("foo", O_TRUNC)/write(fd,..)/close(fd).
+			If auto_da_alloc is enabled, ext4 will detect
+			the replace-via-rename and replace-via-truncate
+			patterns and force that any delayed allocation
+			blocks are allocated such that at the next
+			journal commit, in the default data=ordered
+			mode, the data blocks of the new file are forced
+			to disk before the rename() operation is
+			committed.  This provides roughly the same level
+			of guarantees as ext3, and avoids the
+			"zero-length" problem that can happen when a
+			system crashes before the delayed allocation
+			blocks are forced to disk.
+
+noinit_itable		Do not initialize any uninitialized inode table
+			blocks in the background.  This feature may be
+			used by installation CD's so that the install
+			process can complete as quickly as possible; the
+			inode table initialization process would then be
+			deferred until the next time the  file system
+			is unmounted.
+
+init_itable=n		The lazy itable init code will wait n times the
+			number of milliseconds it took to zero out the
+			previous block group's inode table.  This
+			minimizes the impact on the system performance
+			while file system's inode table is being initialized.
+
+discard			Controls whether ext4 should issue discard/TRIM
+nodiscard(*)		commands to the underlying block device when
+			blocks are freed.  This is useful for SSD devices
+			and sparse/thinly-provisioned LUNs, but it is off
+			by default until sufficient testing has been done.
+
+nouid32			Disables 32-bit UIDs and GIDs.  This is for
+			interoperability  with  older kernels which only
+			store and expect 16-bit values.
+
+block_validity(*)	These options enable or disable the in-kernel
+noblock_validity	facility for tracking filesystem metadata blocks
+			within internal data structures.  This allows multi-
+			block allocator and other routines to notice
+			bugs or corrupted allocation bitmaps which cause
+			blocks to be allocated which overlap with
+			filesystem metadata blocks.
+
+dioread_lock		Controls whether or not ext4 should use the DIO read
+dioread_nolock		locking. If the dioread_nolock option is specified
+			ext4 will allocate uninitialized extent before buffer
+			write and convert the extent to initialized after IO
+			completes. This approach allows ext4 code to avoid
+			using inode mutex, which improves scalability on high
+			speed storages. However this does not work with
+			data journaling and dioread_nolock option will be
+			ignored with kernel warning. Note that dioread_nolock
+			code path is only used for extent-based files.
+			Because of the restrictions this options comprises
+			it is off by default (e.g. dioread_lock).
+
+max_dir_size_kb=n	This limits the size of directories so that any
+			attempt to expand them beyond the specified
+			limit in kilobytes will cause an ENOSPC error.
+			This is useful in memory constrained
+			environments, where a very large directory can
+			cause severe performance problems or even
+			provoke the Out Of Memory killer.  (For example,
+			if there is only 512mb memory available, a 176mb
+			directory may seriously cramp the system's style.)
+
+i_version		Enable 64-bit inode version support. This option is
+			off by default.
+
+dax			Use direct access (no page cache).  See
+			Documentation/filesystems/dax.txt.  Note that
+			this option is incompatible with data=journal.
+
+Data Mode
+=========
+There are 3 different data modes:
+
+* writeback mode
+In data=writeback mode, ext4 does not journal data at all.  This mode provides
+a similar level of journaling as that of XFS, JFS, and ReiserFS in its default
+mode - metadata journaling.  A crash+recovery can cause incorrect data to
+appear in files which were written shortly before the crash.  This mode will
+typically provide the best ext4 performance.
+
+* ordered mode
+In data=ordered mode, ext4 only officially journals metadata, but it logically
+groups metadata information related to data changes with the data blocks into a
+single unit called a transaction.  When it's time to write the new metadata
+out to disk, the associated data blocks are written first.  In general,
+this mode performs slightly slower than writeback but significantly faster than journal mode.
+
+* journal mode
+data=journal mode provides full data and metadata journaling.  All new data is
+written to the journal first, and then to its final location.
+In the event of a crash, the journal can be replayed, bringing both data and
+metadata into a consistent state.  This mode is the slowest except when data
+needs to be read from and written to disk at the same time where it
+outperforms all others modes.  Enabling this mode will disable delayed
+allocation and O_DIRECT support.
+
+/proc entries
+=============
+
+Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
+/proc/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
+/proc/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /proc/fs/ext4/hdc or
+/proc/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
+in table below.
+
+Files in /proc/fs/ext4/<devname>
+..............................................................................
+ File            Content
+ mb_groups       details of multiblock allocator buddy cache of free blocks
+..............................................................................
+
+/sys entries
+============
+
+Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
+/sys/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
+/sys/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /sys/fs/ext4/hdc or
+/sys/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
+in table below.
+
+Files in /sys/fs/ext4/<devname>
+(see also Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-fs-ext4)
+..............................................................................
+ File                         Content
+
+ delayed_allocation_blocks    This file is read-only and shows the number of
+                              blocks that are dirty in the page cache, but
+                              which do not have their location in the
+                              filesystem allocated yet.
+
+ inode_goal                   Tuning parameter which (if non-zero) controls
+                              the goal inode used by the inode allocator in
+                              preference to all other allocation heuristics.
+                              This is intended for debugging use only, and
+                              should be 0 on production systems.
+
+ inode_readahead_blks         Tuning parameter which controls the maximum
+                              number of inode table blocks that ext4's inode
+                              table readahead algorithm will pre-read into
+                              the buffer cache
+
+ lifetime_write_kbytes        This file is read-only and shows the number of
+                              kilobytes of data that have been written to this
+                              filesystem since it was created.
+
+ max_writeback_mb_bump        The maximum number of megabytes the writeback
+                              code will try to write out before move on to
+                              another inode.
+
+ mb_group_prealloc            The multiblock allocator will round up allocation
+                              requests to a multiple of this tuning parameter if
+                              the stripe size is not set in the ext4 superblock
+
+ mb_max_to_scan               The maximum number of extents the multiblock
+                              allocator will search to find the best extent
+
+ mb_min_to_scan               The minimum number of extents the multiblock
+                              allocator will search to find the best extent
+
+ mb_order2_req                Tuning parameter which controls the minimum size
+                              for requests (as a power of 2) where the buddy
+                              cache is used
+
+ mb_stats                     Controls whether the multiblock allocator should
+                              collect statistics, which are shown during the
+                              unmount. 1 means to collect statistics, 0 means
+                              not to collect statistics
+
+ mb_stream_req                Files which have fewer blocks than this tunable
+                              parameter will have their blocks allocated out
+                              of a block group specific preallocation pool, so
+                              that small files are packed closely together.
+                              Each large file will have its blocks allocated
+                              out of its own unique preallocation pool.
+
+ session_write_kbytes         This file is read-only and shows the number of
+                              kilobytes of data that have been written to this
+                              filesystem since it was mounted.
+
+ reserved_clusters            This is RW file and contains number of reserved
+                              clusters in the file system which will be used
+                              in the specific situations to avoid costly
+                              zeroout, unexpected ENOSPC, or possible data
+                              loss. The default is 2% or 4096 clusters,
+                              whichever is smaller and this can be changed
+                              however it can never exceed number of clusters
+                              in the file system. If there is not enough space
+                              for the reserved space when mounting the file
+                              mount will _not_ fail.
+..............................................................................
+
+Ioctls
+======
+
+There is some Ext4 specific functionality which can be accessed by applications
+through the system call interfaces. The list of all Ext4 specific ioctls are
+shown in the table below.
+
+Table of Ext4 specific ioctls
+..............................................................................
+ Ioctl			      Description
+ EXT4_IOC_GETFLAGS	      Get additional attributes associated with inode.
+			      The ioctl argument is an integer bitfield, with
+			      bit values described in ext4.h. This ioctl is an
+			      alias for FS_IOC_GETFLAGS.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_SETFLAGS	      Set additional attributes associated with inode.
+			      The ioctl argument is an integer bitfield, with
+			      bit values described in ext4.h. This ioctl is an
+			      alias for FS_IOC_SETFLAGS.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_GETVERSION
+ EXT4_IOC_GETVERSION_OLD
+			      Get the inode i_generation number stored for
+			      each inode. The i_generation number is normally
+			      changed only when new inode is created and it is
+			      particularly useful for network filesystems. The
+			      '_OLD' version of this ioctl is an alias for
+			      FS_IOC_GETVERSION.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_SETVERSION
+ EXT4_IOC_SETVERSION_OLD
+			      Set the inode i_generation number stored for
+			      each inode. The '_OLD' version of this ioctl
+			      is an alias for FS_IOC_SETVERSION.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_GROUP_EXTEND	      This ioctl has the same purpose as the resize
+			      mount option. It allows to resize filesystem
+			      to the end of the last existing block group,
+			      further resize has to be done with resize2fs,
+			      either online, or offline. The argument points
+			      to the unsigned logn number representing the
+			      filesystem new block count.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_MOVE_EXT	      Move the block extents from orig_fd (the one
+			      this ioctl is pointing to) to the donor_fd (the
+			      one specified in move_extent structure passed
+			      as an argument to this ioctl). Then, exchange
+			      inode metadata between orig_fd and donor_fd.
+			      This is especially useful for online
+			      defragmentation, because the allocator has the
+			      opportunity to allocate moved blocks better,
+			      ideally into one contiguous extent.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_GROUP_ADD	      Add a new group descriptor to an existing or
+			      new group descriptor block. The new group
+			      descriptor is described by ext4_new_group_input
+			      structure, which is passed as an argument to
+			      this ioctl. This is especially useful in
+			      conjunction with EXT4_IOC_GROUP_EXTEND,
+			      which allows online resize of the filesystem
+			      to the end of the last existing block group.
+			      Those two ioctls combined is used in userspace
+			      online resize tool (e.g. resize2fs).
+
+ EXT4_IOC_MIGRATE	      This ioctl operates on the filesystem itself.
+			      It converts (migrates) ext3 indirect block mapped
+			      inode to ext4 extent mapped inode by walking
+			      through indirect block mapping of the original
+			      inode and converting contiguous block ranges
+			      into ext4 extents of the temporary inode. Then,
+			      inodes are swapped. This ioctl might help, when
+			      migrating from ext3 to ext4 filesystem, however
+			      suggestion is to create fresh ext4 filesystem
+			      and copy data from the backup. Note, that
+			      filesystem has to support extents for this ioctl
+			      to work.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_ALLOC_DA_BLKS	      Force all of the delay allocated blocks to be
+			      allocated to preserve application-expected ext3
+			      behaviour. Note that this will also start
+			      triggering a write of the data blocks, but this
+			      behaviour may change in the future as it is
+			      not necessary and has been done this way only
+			      for sake of simplicity.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_RESIZE_FS	      Resize the filesystem to a new size.  The number
+			      of blocks of resized filesystem is passed in via
+			      64 bit integer argument.  The kernel allocates
+			      bitmaps and inode table, the userspace tool thus
+			      just passes the new number of blocks.
+
+ EXT4_IOC_SWAP_BOOT	      Swap i_blocks and associated attributes
+			      (like i_blocks, i_size, i_flags, ...) from
+			      the specified inode with inode
+			      EXT4_BOOT_LOADER_INO (#5). This is typically
+			      used to store a boot loader in a secure part of
+			      the filesystem, where it can't be changed by a
+			      normal user by accident.
+			      The data blocks of the previous boot loader
+			      will be associated with the given inode.
+
+..............................................................................
+
+References
+==========
+
+kernel source:	<file:fs/ext4/>
+		<file:fs/jbd2/>
+
+programs:	http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
+
+useful links:	http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/ext3-devel
+		http://www.bullopensource.org/ext4/
+		http://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page
+		http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Features/Ext4

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