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Date:	Fri, 15 Apr 2011 22:39:07 +0900
From:	Toshiyuki Okajima <toshi.okajima@...fujitsu.com>
To:	Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>
CC:	toshi.okajima@...fujitsu.com, Ted Ts'o <tytso@....edu>,
	Masayoshi MIZUMA <m.mizuma@...fujitsu.com>,
	Andreas Dilger <adilger.kernel@...ger.ca>,
	linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org, linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org,
	sandeen@...hat.com
Subject: Re: [RFC][PATCH] Re: [BUG] ext4: cannot unfreeze a filesystem due
 to a deadlock

Hi, sorry for my late response.

(2011/04/07 2:46), Jan Kara wrote:
>    Hello,
>
> On Wed 06-04-11 16:40:15, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>> (2011/04/06 14:57), Jan Kara wrote:
>>> On Wed 06-04-11 14:09:14, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>> (2011/04/06 7:54), Jan Kara wrote:
>>>>> On Tue 05-04-11 19:25:44, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>>>> (2011/03/31 21:03), Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>>>>> Hi, thanks for your reviewing.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> (2011/03/30 23:12), Jan Kara wrote:
>>>>>>>> Hello,
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> On Mon 28-03-11 17:06:28, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>>>>>>> On Thu, 17 Feb 2011 11:45:52 +0100
>>>>>>>>> Jan Kara<jack@...e.cz>    wrote:
>>>>>>>>>> On Thu 17-02-11 12:50:51, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>> (2011/02/16 23:56), Jan Kara wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>>> On Wed 16-02-11 08:17:46, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>>>> On Tue, 15 Feb 2011 18:29:54 +0100
>>>>>>>>>>>>> Jan Kara<jack@...e.cz>    wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>>>>> On Tue 15-02-11 12:03:52, Ted Ts'o wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> On Tue, Feb 15, 2011 at 05:06:30PM +0100, Jan Kara wrote:
>>>>>>> <SNIP>
>>>>>>>>> I have deeply continued to examined the root cause of this problem, then
>>>>>>>>> I found it.
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> It is that we can write a memory which is mmaped to a file. Then the memory
>>>>>>>>> becomes "DIRTY" so then the flusher thread (ex. wb_do_writeback) tries to
>>>>>>>>> "writeback" the memory.
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> Therefore, the root cause of this hangup is not only ext4 component (with
>>>>>>>>> delayed allocation feature) but also writeback mechanism for mmap. If you
>>>>>>>>> use the other filesystem, you can write something to the filesystem though
>>>>>>>>> you have freezed the filesystem.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> Well, you can write something only in the caches, not to the on disk
>>>>>>>> image. So it's not a problem as such.
>>>>>>> My reproducer uses the loopback device(/dev/loopX). By using it, I have confirmed that
>>>>>>> we can write in not only the caches but also the loopback device. However,
>>>>>>> I don't still confirm that we can write to the real device(/dev/sdaX).
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> A sample problem is attached on this mail. Try to execute it then you can
>>>>>>>>> confirm that we can write some data to your filesystem while freezing the
>>>>>>>>> filesystem.
>>>>>>>>> (If you change FS variable in go.sh from ext3 to ext4 and you execute
>>>>>>>>> "fsfreeze -u mnt" manually on other prompt, you can also confirm this deadlock.)
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> I think the best approach to fix this problem is to let users not to write
>>>>>>>>> memory which is mapped to a certain file while the filesystem is freezing.
>>>>>>>>> However, it is very difficult to control users not to write memory which has
>>>>>>>>> been already mapped to the file.
>>>>>>>> It is actually possible. In case of ext4, you could add a check (+ wait)
>>>>>>>> in ext4_page_mkwrite() whether the filesystem is frozen or in the process
>>>>>>>> of being frozen and if so, wait for it to get unfrozen. The only tough
>>>>>>>> problem here might be the locking as ext4_page_mkwrite() is called with
>>>>>>>> mmap_sem held and I'm not sure we can take s_umount with mmap_sem held.
>>>>>>>> But you'd have to fix all filesystems (and all paths possibly creating
>>>>>>>> dirty data) in this way.
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> Therefore, I think there is only actual method that we stop writeback thread
>>>>>>>>> to resolve the mmap problem. Also, by this fix, the original problem
>>>>>>>>> (ext4 delayed write vs unfreeze) can be solved.
>>>>>>>> Hmm, I had a look at the code again and think we could fix the issue
>>>>>>>> cleanly (i.e. all possible users of s_umount) as follows: The lock
>>>>>>>> ordering will be
>>>>>>>> s_umount ->    "fs frozen"
>>>>>>>> and there will be a new mutex s_freeze_mutex protecting changes of
>>>>>>>> s_frozen.
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> freeze_bdev() already observes this lock ordering, it will only take
>>>>>>>> s_freeze_mutex for the changes of s_frozen values. The only other code
>>>>>>>> that is relevant for the lock ordering is thaw_super() (the freezing
>>>>>>>> process is not expected to reenter kernel for the frozen filesystem).
>>>>>>>> In thaw_super() we could take s_freeze_mutex, do all the thawing work,
>>>>>>>> set s_frozen, release s_freeze_mutex and put superblock reference.
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> So something like the patch below - it seems to work for me, can you test
>>>>>>>> it please?
>>>>>>> I think your patch looks good, so, the original problem seems to be solved.
>>>>>>> OK, I will test your patch.
>>>>>>> This weekend I cannot test it. So, I will reply next week.
>>>>>> I have tested whether Mizuma-san's reproducer can cause to deadlock with your
>>>>>> patch. And then any problems didn't hit while the reproducer was running.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> I think your patch solves the original deadlock problem which is reported by
>>>>>> Mizuma-san.
>>>>>    Good. Thanks.
>>>>>
>>>>>>> Reported-by: Toshiyuki Okajima<toshi.okajima@...fujitsu.com>
>>>>>>> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara<jack@...e.cz>
>>>>>>> ---
>>>>>>> fs/super.c         |   40 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>>>>>>> include/linux/fs.h |    1 +
>>>>>>> 2 files changed, 35 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>>>>>>
>>>>
>>>>>> However, I think a write which causes the deadlock is from mmapped dirty
>>>>>> pages. So, I guess we also need to fix in the mmap path while fsfreezing.
>>>>>    Why? If you dirty a page, writeback thread can come and try to write it -
>>>>> which blocks - but now that does not matter...
>>
>>>> I have not understood the code around writeback thread very much...
>>>> Please explain me the concrete function name which blocks some writes?
>>>    It would block in ext4_da_writepages() function.
>> In ext4 with delayed allocation case, I understand it blocks.
>> (Original deadlock problem is just this case.)
>> But in ext4 without delayed allocation or other filesystems case, which function
>> can block writing?

>    For ext3 or ext4 without delayed allocation we block inside writepage()
> function. But as I wrote to Dave Chinner, ->page_mkwrite() should probably
> get modified to block while minor-faulting the page on frozen fs because
> when blocks are already allocated we may skip starting a transaction and so
> we could possibly modify the filesystem.
OK. I think ->page_mkwrite() should also block writing the minor-faulting pages.

(minor-pagefault)
-> do_wp_page()
    -> page_mkwrite(= ext4_mkwrite())
       => BLOCK!

(major-pagefault)
-> do_liner_fault()
    -> page_mkwrite(= ext4_mkwrite())
       => BLOCK!

>
>>>> Mizuma-san's reproducer also writes the data which maps to the file (mmap).
>>>> The original problem happens after the fsfreeze operation is done.
>>>> I understand the normal write operation (not mmap) can be blocked while
>>>> fsfreezing. So, I guess we don't always block all the write operation
>>>> while fsfreezing.
>>>    Technically speaking, we block all the transaction starts which means we
>>> end up blocking all the writes from going to disk. But that does not mean
>>> we block all the writes from going to in-memory cache - as you properly
>>> note the mmap case is one of such exceptions.
>> Hm, I also think we can allow the writes to in-memory cache but we can't allow
>> the writes to disk while fsfreezing. I am considering that mmap path can
>> write to disk while fsfreezing because this deadlock problem happens after
>> fsfreeze operation is done...
>    I'm sorry I don't understand now - are you speaking about the case above
> when writepage() does not wait for filesystem being frozen or something
> else?
Sorry, I didn't understand around the page fault path.
So, I had read the kernel source code around it, then I maybe understand...

I worry whether we can update the file data in mmap case while fsfreezing.
Of course, I understand that we can write to in-memory cache, and it is not a
problem. However, if we can write to disk while fsfreezing, it is a problem.
So, I summarize the cases whether we can write to disk or not.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cases (Whether we can write the data mmapped to the file on the disk
while fsfreezing)

[1] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. And
  the page is not allocated yet. (major fault?)

    (1) user dirtys a page
    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
    (3) __do_falut is called.
    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
    (5) ext4_write_begin is called
    (6) ext4_journal_start_sb       => We can STOP!

[2] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. But
  the page is already allocated, and the buffer_heads of the page
  are not mapped (BH_Mapped).  (minor fault?)

    (1) user dirtys a page
    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
    (3) do_wp_page is called.
    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
    (5) ext4_write_begin is called
    (6) ext4_journal_start_sb       => We can STOP!

[3] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. But
  the page is already allocated, and the buffer_heads of the page
  are mapped (BH_Mapped).  (minor fault?)

    (1) user dirtys a page
    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
    (3) do_wp_page is called.
    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
    * Cannot block the dirty page to be written because all bh is mapped.
    (5) user munmaps the page (munmap)
    (6) zap_pte_range dirtys the page (struct page) which is pte_dirtyed.
    (7) writeback thread writes the page (struct page) to disk
                                            => We cannot STOP!

[4] One of the page which has been mmapped is bound. And
  the page is already allocated.

    (1) user dirtys a page
    ( ) no page fault occurs
    (2) user munmaps the page (munmap)
    (3) zap_pte_range dirtys the page (struct page) which is pte_dirtyed.
    (4) writeback thread writes the page (struct page) to disk
                                            => We cannot STOP!
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

So, we can block the cases [1], [2].
But I think we cannot block the cases [3], [4] now.
If fixing the page_mkwrite, we can also block the case [3].
But the case [4] is not blocked because no page fault occurs
when we dirty the mmapped page.

Therefore, to repair this problem, we need to fix the cases [3], [4].
I think we must modify the writeback thread to fix the case [4].

Thanks,
Toshiyuki Okajima

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