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Date:	Mon, 18 Apr 2011 12:51:05 +0200
From:	Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>
To:	Toshiyuki Okajima <toshi.okajima@...fujitsu.com>
Cc:	Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>, Ted Ts'o <tytso@....edu>,
	Masayoshi MIZUMA <m.mizuma@...fujitsu.com>,
	Andreas Dilger <adilger.kernel@...ger.ca>,
	linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org, linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org,
	sandeen@...hat.com
Subject: Re: [RFC][PATCH] Re: [BUG] ext4: cannot unfreeze a filesystem due
 to a deadlock

On Mon 18-04-11 18:05:01, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
> >On Fri 15-04-11 22:39:07, Toshiyuki Okajima wrote:
> >>>   For ext3 or ext4 without delayed allocation we block inside writepage()
> >>>function. But as I wrote to Dave Chinner, ->page_mkwrite() should probably
> >>>get modified to block while minor-faulting the page on frozen fs because
> >>>when blocks are already allocated we may skip starting a transaction and so
> >>>we could possibly modify the filesystem.
> >>OK. I think ->page_mkwrite() should also block writing the minor-faulting pages.
> >>
> >>(minor-pagefault)
> >>->  do_wp_page()
> >>    ->  page_mkwrite(= ext4_mkwrite())
> >>       =>  BLOCK!
> >>
> >>(major-pagefault)
> >>->  do_liner_fault()
> >>    ->  page_mkwrite(= ext4_mkwrite())
> >>       =>  BLOCK!
> >>
> >>>
> >>>>>>Mizuma-san's reproducer also writes the data which maps to the file (mmap).
> >>>>>>The original problem happens after the fsfreeze operation is done.
> >>>>>>I understand the normal write operation (not mmap) can be blocked while
> >>>>>>fsfreezing. So, I guess we don't always block all the write operation
> >>>>>>while fsfreezing.
> >>>>>   Technically speaking, we block all the transaction starts which means we
> >>>>>end up blocking all the writes from going to disk. But that does not mean
> >>>>>we block all the writes from going to in-memory cache - as you properly
> >>>>>note the mmap case is one of such exceptions.
> >>>>Hm, I also think we can allow the writes to in-memory cache but we can't allow
> >>>>the writes to disk while fsfreezing. I am considering that mmap path can
> >>>>write to disk while fsfreezing because this deadlock problem happens after
> >>>>fsfreeze operation is done...
> >>>   I'm sorry I don't understand now - are you speaking about the case above
> >>>when writepage() does not wait for filesystem being frozen or something
> >>>else?
> >>Sorry, I didn't understand around the page fault path.
> >>So, I had read the kernel source code around it, then I maybe understand...
> >>
> >>I worry whether we can update the file data in mmap case while fsfreezing.
> >>Of course, I understand that we can write to in-memory cache, and it is not a
> >>problem. However, if we can write to disk while fsfreezing, it is a problem.
> >>So, I summarize the cases whether we can write to disk or not.
> >>
> >>--------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >>Cases (Whether we can write the data mmapped to the file on the disk
> >>while fsfreezing)
> >>
> >>[1] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. And
> >>  the page is not allocated yet. (major fault?)
> >>
> >>    (1) user dirtys a page
> >>    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
> >>    (3) __do_falut is called.
> >>    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
> >>    (5) ext4_write_begin is called
> >>    (6) ext4_journal_start_sb       =>  We can STOP!
> >>
> >>[2] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. But
> >>  the page is already allocated, and the buffer_heads of the page
> >>  are not mapped (BH_Mapped).  (minor fault?)
> >>
> >>    (1) user dirtys a page
> >>    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
> >>    (3) do_wp_page is called.
> >>    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
> >>    (5) ext4_write_begin is called
> >>    (6) ext4_journal_start_sb       =>  We can STOP!
> >>
> >>[3] One of the page which has been mmapped is not bound. But
> >>  the page is already allocated, and the buffer_heads of the page
> >>  are mapped (BH_Mapped).  (minor fault?)
> >>
> >>    (1) user dirtys a page
> >>    (2) a page fault occurs (do_page_fault)
> >>    (3) do_wp_page is called.
> >>    (4) ext4_page_mkwrite is called
> >>    * Cannot block the dirty page to be written because all bh is mapped.
> >>    (5) user munmaps the page (munmap)
> >>    (6) zap_pte_range dirtys the page (struct page) which is pte_dirtyed.
> >>    (7) writeback thread writes the page (struct page) to disk
> >>                                            =>  We cannot STOP!
> >>
> >>[4] One of the page which has been mmapped is bound. And
> >>  the page is already allocated.
> >>
> >>    (1) user dirtys a page
> >>    ( ) no page fault occurs
> >>    (2) user munmaps the page (munmap)
> >>    (3) zap_pte_range dirtys the page (struct page) which is pte_dirtyed.
> >>    (4) writeback thread writes the page (struct page) to disk
> >>                                            =>  We cannot STOP!
> >>--------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >>
> >>So, we can block the cases [1], [2].
> >>But I think we cannot block the cases [3], [4] now.
> >>If fixing the page_mkwrite, we can also block the case [3].
> >>But the case [4] is not blocked because no page fault occurs
> >>when we dirty the mmapped page.
> >>
> >>Therefore, to repair this problem, we need to fix the cases [3], [4].
> >>I think we must modify the writeback thread to fix the case [4].
> >   The trick here is that when we write a page to disk, we write-protect
> >the page (you seem to call this that "the page is bound", I'm not sure why).
> Hm, I want to understand how to write-protect the page under fsfreezing.
  Look at what page_mkclean() called from clear_page_dirty_for_io() does...

> But, anyway, I understand we don't need to consider the case [4].
  Yes.

> >So we are guaranteed to receive a minor fault (case [3]) if user tries to
> >modify a page after we finish writeback while freezing the filesystem.
> >So principially all we need to do is just wait in ext4_page_mkwrite().
> OK. I understand.
> Are there any concrete ideas to fix this?
> For ext4, we can rescue from the case [3] by modifying ext4_page_mkwrite().
  Yes.

> But for ext3 or other FSs, we must implement ->page_mkwrite() to prevent it?
  Sadly I don't see a simple way to fix this issue for all filesystems at
once. Implementing proper wait in block_page_mkwrite() should fix the issue
for xfs. Other filesystems like GFS2 or Btrfs will have to be fixed
separately as ext4. For ext3, we'd have to add ->page_mkwrite() support. I
have patches for this already for some time but I have to get to properly
testing them in more exotic conditions like 64k pages...

								Honza
-- 
Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>
SUSE Labs, CR
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