lists  /  announce  owl-users  owl-dev  john-users  john-dev  passwdqc-users  yescrypt  popa3d-users  /  oss-security  kernel-hardening  musl  sabotage  tlsify  passwords  /  crypt-dev  xvendor  /  Bugtraq  Full-Disclosure  linux-kernel  linux-netdev  linux-ext4  PHC 
Open Source and information security mailing list archives
Hash Suite for Android: free password hash cracker in your pocket
[<prev] [next>] [thread-next>] [day] [month] [year] [list]
Date:	Tue, 22 Sep 2015 15:12:53 -0400
From:	"Pocas, Jamie" <>
To:	"" <>
Subject: resize2fs stuck in ext4_group_extend with 100% CPU Utilization With
 Small Volumes


I apologize in advance if this is a well-known issue but I don't see it as an open bug in I'm not able to open a bug there without permission, so I am writing you here.

I have a very reproducible spin in resize2fs (x86_64) on both CentOS 6 latest rpms and CentOS 7. It will peg one core at 100%. This happens with both e2fsprogs version 1.41.12 on CentOS 6 w/ latest 2.6.32 kernel rpm installed and e2fsprogs version 1.42.9 on CentOS 7 with latest 3.10 kernel rpm installed. The key to reproducing this seems to be when creating small filesystems. For example if I create an ext4 filesystem on a 100MiB disk (or file), and then increase the size of the underlying disk (or file) to say 1GiB, it will spin and consume 100% CPU and not finish even after hours (it should take a few seconds).

Here are the flags used when creating the fs.

mkfs.ext4 -O uninit_bg -E nodiscard,lazy_itable_init=1 -F 0 /dev/sdz

Some of these may not be necessary anymore but were very experimental when I first started testing on CentOS 5 way back. I think all of these options except "nodiscard" are the defaults now anyway. I only use the option because in the application I am using this for, it doesn't make sense to discard the existing devices which are initially zeroed anyway. I suppose with volumes this small it doesn't take much extra time anyway, but I don't want to go down that rat hole. I am not doing anything custom with the number of inodes, smaller blocksize (1k), etc... just what you see above. So it's taking the default settings for those, which maybe are bogus and broken for small volumes nowadays. I don't know. 

Here is the stack...

[root@...alhost ~]# cat /proc/8403/stack
[<ffffffff8106ee1a>] __cond_resched+0x2a/0x40
[<ffffffff8112860b>] find_lock_page+0x3b/0x80
[<ffffffff8112874f>] find_or_create_page+0x3f/0xb0
[<ffffffff811c8540>] __getblk+0xf0/0x2a0
[<ffffffff811c9ad3>] __bread+0x13/0xb0
[<ffffffffa056098c>] ext4_group_extend+0xfc/0x410 [ext4]
[<ffffffffa05498a0>] ext4_ioctl+0x660/0x920 [ext4]
[<ffffffff811a7372>] vfs_ioctl+0x22/0xa0
[<ffffffff811a7514>] do_vfs_ioctl+0x84/0x580
[<ffffffff811a7a91>] sys_ioctl+0x81/0xa0
[<ffffffff8100b0d2>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b
[<ffffffffffffffff>] 0xffffffffffffffff

It seems to be sleeping, waiting for a free page, and then sleeping again in the kernel. I don't get ANY output after the version heading prints out, even with the -d debug flags turned up all the way. It's really getting stuck very early on with no I/O going to the disk during this CPU spinning. I don't see anything in the dmesg related to this activity either.

I haven't finished binary searching for the specific boundary where the problem occurs, but I initially noticed that 1GiB and larger always worked and took only a few seconds. Then I stepped down to 500MiB and it hung in the same way. Then stepped up to 750MiB and it works normally. So there is some kind of boundary between 500-750MiB that I haven't found yet.

I understand that these are really small filesystems nowadays other than something that might fit on a CD, but I'm hoping that it's something simple that could probably be fixed easily. I suspect that due to the disk size, there are probably bad or unusual defaults being selected, or there is a structure that is being undersized, or with unexpected filesystem dimensions such that the conditions it's expecting are invalid and will never be satisfied. On that note I am wondering with disks this small if it is relying on the antiquated geometry reporting from the device because I know that sometimes with small virtual disks like there, there can sometimes be problems trying to accurately emulate a fake C/H/S geometry with disks this small and sometimes rounding down is necessary. I wonder if a mismatch could cause this. I don't want to steer anyone off into the weeds though.

I haven't dug into the code much yet, but I was wondering if anyone had any ideas what could be going on. I think at the very least this is a bug in the resize code in the ext4 code in the kernel itself because even if the resize2fs program is giving bad parameters, I would not expect this type of hang to be able to be initiated from user space.


To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-ext4" in
the body of a message to
More majordomo info at

Powered by blists - more mailing lists