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Date:	Tue, 22 Sep 2015 16:28:39 -0400
From:	"Pocas, Jamie" <>
To:	Eric Sandeen <>,
	"" <>
Subject: RE: resize2fs stuck in ext4_group_extend with 100% CPU Utilization
 With Small Volumes

Thanks for the prompt reply. Yes the "0" in mkfs was an accidental copy and paste. It's not supposed to be there.

Your sequence works, but it's a tad bit more synthetic than what's really happening in my case. In your example, the backing store (testfile in this case) is being resized using truncate before the contained filesystem is mounted. In my case the underlying device is being grown while the filesystem is mounted. If I do the following instead, which is more analogous to the way that the underlying device is resized at runtime, it reproduces the 100% consumption.

$ truncate --size=100M testfile
# mkfs.ext4 -O uninit_bg -E nodiscard,lazy_itable_init=1 -F testfile
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
25688 inodes, 102400 blocks
5120 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=33685504
13 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
1976 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
	8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729

Allocating group tables: done                            
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done 

# mount -o loop testfile mnt
# truncate --size=1G testfile
# losetup -c /dev/loop0 ## Cause loop device to reread size of backing file while still online
# resize2fs /dev/loop0
resize2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem at /dev/loop0 is mounted on /home/jpocas/source/hulk.1/mnt; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 1, new_desc_blocks = 8

##... it's hung here spinning at 100%, at least I got SOME output though.
##  From another shell I can see the following

# top | head
top - 16:22:53 up  6:02,  6 users,  load average: 1.05, 0.80, 0.40
Tasks: 518 total,   2 running, 516 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
%Cpu(s):  0.6 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 98.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
KiB Mem :  5933160 total,  1864476 free,  1196476 used,  2872208 buff/cache
KiB Swap:  3670012 total,  3670012 free,        0 used.  4403764 avail Mem 

   PID USER      PR  NI    VIRT    RES    SHR S  %CPU %MEM     TIME+ COMMAND                                                                                                                                       
 13664 root      20   0  116548   1032    864 R 100.0  0.0   5:54.61 resize2fs                                                                                                                                     
  2214 root      20   0  264300  72876   8756 S   6.2  1.2   2:19.58 Xorg                                                                                                                                          
  3892 jpocas    20   0  432920   7884   6052 S   6.2  0.1   0:56.68 ibus-x11                                                                                                                                      
## BTW, I am not sure why the heading only shows the 1.42.9 on CentOS but I surely have the 1.42.9-7 rpm installed.
# rpm -q e2fsprogs

-----Original Message-----
From: Eric Sandeen [] 
Sent: Tuesday, September 22, 2015 3:33 PM
To: Pocas, Jamie;
Subject: Re: resize2fs stuck in ext4_group_extend with 100% CPU Utilization With Small Volumes

On 9/22/15 2:12 PM, Pocas, Jamie wrote:
> Hi,
> I apologize in advance if this is a well-known issue but I don't see 
> it as an open bug in I'm not able to open a bug there 
> without permission, so I am writing you here.

the centos bug tracker may be the right place for your distro...

> I have a very reproducible spin in resize2fs (x86_64) on both CentOS
> 6 latest rpms and CentOS 7. It will peg one core at 100%. This happens 
> with both e2fsprogs version 1.41.12 on CentOS 6 w/ latest
> 2.6.32 kernel rpm installed and e2fsprogs version 1.42.9 on CentOS 7 
> with latest 3.10 kernel rpm installed. The key to reproducing this 
> seems to be when creating small filesystems. For example if I create 
> an ext4 filesystem on a 100MiB disk (or file), and then increase the 
> size of the underlying disk (or file) to say 1GiB, it will spin and 
> consume 100% CPU and not finish even after hours (it should take a few 
> seconds).
> Here are the flags used when creating the fs.
> mkfs.ext4 -O uninit_bg -E nodiscard,lazy_itable_init=1 -F 0 /dev/sdz

AFAIK -F doesn't take an argument, is that 0 supposed to be there?

but if I test this:

# truncate --size=100m testfile
# mkfs.ext4 -O uninit_bg -E nodiscard,lazy_itable_init=1 -F testfile
# truncate --size=1g testfile
# mount -o loop testfile mnt
#resize2fs /dev/loop0

that works fine on my rhel7 box, with kernel-3.10.0-229.el7 and

Do those same steps fail for you?


> Some of these may not be necessary anymore but were very experimental 
> when I first started testing on CentOS 5 way back. I think all of 
> these options except "nodiscard" are the defaults now anyway. I only 
> use the option because in the application I am using this for, it 
> doesn't make sense to discard the existing devices which are initially 
> zeroed anyway. I suppose with volumes this small it doesn't take much 
> extra time anyway, but I don't want to go down that rat hole. I am not 
> doing anything custom with the number of inodes, smaller blocksize 
> (1k), etc... just what you see above. So it's taking the default 
> settings for those, which maybe are bogus and broken for small volumes 
> nowadays. I don't know.
> Here is the stack...
> [root@...alhost ~]# cat /proc/8403/stack [<ffffffff8106ee1a>] 
> __cond_resched+0x2a/0x40 [<ffffffff8112860b>] find_lock_page+0x3b/0x80 
> [<ffffffff8112874f>] find_or_create_page+0x3f/0xb0 
> [<ffffffff811c8540>] __getblk+0xf0/0x2a0 [<ffffffff811c9ad3>] 
> __bread+0x13/0xb0 [<ffffffffa056098c>] ext4_group_extend+0xfc/0x410 
> [ext4] [<ffffffffa05498a0>] ext4_ioctl+0x660/0x920 [ext4] 
> [<ffffffff811a7372>] vfs_ioctl+0x22/0xa0 [<ffffffff811a7514>] 
> do_vfs_ioctl+0x84/0x580 [<ffffffff811a7a91>] sys_ioctl+0x81/0xa0 
> [<ffffffff8100b0d2>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b 
> [<ffffffffffffffff>] 0xffffffffffffffff
> It seems to be sleeping, waiting for a free page, and then sleeping 
> again in the kernel. I don't get ANY output after the version heading 
> prints out, even with the -d debug flags turned up all the way. It's 
> really getting stuck very early on with no I/O going to the disk 
> during this CPU spinning. I don't see anything in the dmesg related to 
> this activity either.
> I haven't finished binary searching for the specific boundary where 
> the problem occurs, but I initially noticed that 1GiB and larger 
> always worked and took only a few seconds. Then I stepped down to 
> 500MiB and it hung in the same way. Then stepped up to 750MiB and it 
> works normally. So there is some kind of boundary between 500-750MiB 
> that I haven't found yet.
> I understand that these are really small filesystems nowadays other 
> than something that might fit on a CD, but I'm hoping that it's 
> something simple that could probably be fixed easily. I suspect that 
> due to the disk size, there are probably bad or unusual defaults being 
> selected, or there is a structure that is being undersized, or with 
> unexpected filesystem dimensions such that the conditions it's 
> expecting are invalid and will never be satisfied. On that note I am 
> wondering with disks this small if it is relying on the antiquated 
> geometry reporting from the device because I know that sometimes with 
> small virtual disks like there, there can sometimes be problems trying 
> to accurately emulate a fake C/H/S geometry with disks this small and 
> sometimes rounding down is necessary. I wonder if a mismatch could 
> cause this. I don't want to steer anyone off into the weeds though.
> I haven't dug into the code much yet, but I was wondering if anyone 
> had any ideas what could be going on. I think at the very least this 
> is a bug in the resize code in the ext4 code in the kernel itself 
> because even if the resize2fs program is giving bad parameters, I 
> would not expect this type of hang to be able to be initiated from 
> user space.> Regards, Jamie
> --
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