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Date:   Tue,  9 Jan 2018 09:10:41 -0500
From:   Jeff Layton <jlayton@...nel.org>
To:     linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org
Cc:     linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, viro@...iv.linux.org.uk,
        linux-nfs@...r.kernel.org, bfields@...ldses.org, neilb@...e.de,
        jack@...e.de, linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org, tytso@....edu,
        adilger.kernel@...ger.ca, linux-xfs@...r.kernel.org,
        darrick.wong@...cle.com, david@...morbit.com,
        linux-btrfs@...r.kernel.org, clm@...com, jbacik@...com,
        dsterba@...e.com, linux-integrity@...r.kernel.org,
        zohar@...ux.vnet.ibm.com, dmitry.kasatkin@...il.com,
        linux-afs@...ts.infradead.org, dhowells@...hat.com,
        jaltman@...istor.com, krzk@...nel.org
Subject: [PATCH v5 01/19] fs: new API for handling inode->i_version

From: Jeff Layton <jlayton@...hat.com>

Add a documentation blob that explains what the i_version field is, how
it is expected to work, and how it is currently implemented by various
filesystems.

We already have inode_inc_iversion. Add several other functions for
manipulating and accessing the i_version counter. For now, the
implementation is trivial and basically works the way that all of the
open-coded i_version accesses work today.

Future patches will convert existing users of i_version to use the new
API, and then convert the backend implementation to do things more
efficiently.

Signed-off-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@...hat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>
---
 fs/btrfs/file.c          |   1 +
 fs/btrfs/inode.c         |   1 +
 fs/btrfs/ioctl.c         |   1 +
 fs/btrfs/xattr.c         |   1 +
 fs/ext4/inode.c          |   1 +
 fs/ext4/namei.c          |   1 +
 fs/inode.c               |   1 +
 include/linux/fs.h       |  15 ---
 include/linux/iversion.h | 236 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 9 files changed, 243 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 include/linux/iversion.h

diff --git a/fs/btrfs/file.c b/fs/btrfs/file.c
index eb1bac7c8553..c95d7b2efefb 100644
--- a/fs/btrfs/file.c
+++ b/fs/btrfs/file.c
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
 #include <linux/slab.h>
 #include <linux/btrfs.h>
 #include <linux/uio.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include "ctree.h"
 #include "disk-io.h"
 #include "transaction.h"
diff --git a/fs/btrfs/inode.c b/fs/btrfs/inode.c
index e1a7f3cb5be9..27f008b33fc1 100644
--- a/fs/btrfs/inode.c
+++ b/fs/btrfs/inode.c
@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@
 #include <linux/posix_acl_xattr.h>
 #include <linux/uio.h>
 #include <linux/magic.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include "ctree.h"
 #include "disk-io.h"
 #include "transaction.h"
diff --git a/fs/btrfs/ioctl.c b/fs/btrfs/ioctl.c
index 2ef8acaac688..aa452c9e2eff 100644
--- a/fs/btrfs/ioctl.c
+++ b/fs/btrfs/ioctl.c
@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@
 #include <linux/uuid.h>
 #include <linux/btrfs.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include "ctree.h"
 #include "disk-io.h"
 #include "transaction.h"
diff --git a/fs/btrfs/xattr.c b/fs/btrfs/xattr.c
index 2c7e53f9ff1b..5258c1714830 100644
--- a/fs/btrfs/xattr.c
+++ b/fs/btrfs/xattr.c
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@
 #include <linux/xattr.h>
 #include <linux/security.h>
 #include <linux/posix_acl_xattr.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include "ctree.h"
 #include "btrfs_inode.h"
 #include "transaction.h"
diff --git a/fs/ext4/inode.c b/fs/ext4/inode.c
index 7df2c5644e59..fa5d8bc52d2d 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/inode.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/inode.c
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
 #include <linux/slab.h>
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
 #include <linux/iomap.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 
 #include "ext4_jbd2.h"
 #include "xattr.h"
diff --git a/fs/ext4/namei.c b/fs/ext4/namei.c
index 798b3ac680db..bcf0dff517be 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/namei.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/namei.c
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
 #include <linux/quotaops.h>
 #include <linux/buffer_head.h>
 #include <linux/bio.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include "ext4.h"
 #include "ext4_jbd2.h"
 
diff --git a/fs/inode.c b/fs/inode.c
index 03102d6ef044..19e72f500f71 100644
--- a/fs/inode.c
+++ b/fs/inode.c
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@
 #include <linux/buffer_head.h> /* for inode_has_buffers */
 #include <linux/ratelimit.h>
 #include <linux/list_lru.h>
+#include <linux/iversion.h>
 #include <trace/events/writeback.h>
 #include "internal.h"
 
diff --git a/include/linux/fs.h b/include/linux/fs.h
index 511fbaabf624..76382c24e9d0 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -2036,21 +2036,6 @@ static inline void inode_dec_link_count(struct inode *inode)
 	mark_inode_dirty(inode);
 }
 
-/**
- * inode_inc_iversion - increments i_version
- * @inode: inode that need to be updated
- *
- * Every time the inode is modified, the i_version field will be incremented.
- * The filesystem has to be mounted with i_version flag
- */
-
-static inline void inode_inc_iversion(struct inode *inode)
-{
-       spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-       inode->i_version++;
-       spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-}
-
 enum file_time_flags {
 	S_ATIME = 1,
 	S_MTIME = 2,
diff --git a/include/linux/iversion.h b/include/linux/iversion.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d09cc3a08740
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/iversion.h
@@ -0,0 +1,236 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#ifndef _LINUX_IVERSION_H
+#define _LINUX_IVERSION_H
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+/*
+ * The change attribute (i_version) is mandated by NFSv4 and is mostly for
+ * knfsd, but is also used for other purposes (e.g. IMA). The i_version must
+ * appear different to observers if there was a change to the inode's data or
+ * metadata since it was last queried.
+ *
+ * Observers see the i_version as a 64-bit number that never changes. If it
+ * remains the same since it was last checked, then nothing has changed in the
+ * inode. If it's different then something has changed. Observers cannot infer
+ * anything about the nature or magnitude of the changes from the value, only
+ * that the inode has changed in some fashion.
+ *
+ * Not all filesystems properly implement the i_version counter. Subsystems that
+ * want to use i_version field on an inode should first check whether the
+ * filesystem sets the SB_I_VERSION flag (usually via the IS_I_VERSION macro).
+ *
+ * Those that set SB_I_VERSION will automatically have their i_version counter
+ * incremented on writes to normal files. If the SB_I_VERSION is not set, then
+ * the VFS will not touch it on writes, and the filesystem can use it how it
+ * wishes. Note that the filesystem is always responsible for updating the
+ * i_version on namespace changes in directories (mkdir, rmdir, unlink, etc.).
+ * We consider these sorts of filesystems to have a kernel-managed i_version.
+ *
+ * Note that some filesystems (e.g. NFS and AFS) just use the field to store
+ * a server-provided value (for the most part). For that reason, those
+ * filesystems do not set SB_I_VERSION. These filesystems are considered to
+ * have a self-managed i_version.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * inode_set_iversion_raw - set i_version to the specified raw value
+ * @inode: inode to set
+ * @new: new i_version value to set
+ *
+ * Set @inode's i_version field to @new. This function is for use by
+ * filesystems that self-manage the i_version.
+ *
+ * For example, the NFS client stores its NFSv4 change attribute in this way,
+ * and the AFS client stores the data_version from the server here.
+ */
+static inline void
+inode_set_iversion_raw(struct inode *inode, u64 new)
+{
+	inode->i_version = new;
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_set_iversion - set i_version to a particular value
+ * @inode: inode to set
+ * @new: new i_version value to set
+ *
+ * Set @inode's i_version field to @new. This function is for filesystems with
+ * a kernel-managed i_version.
+ *
+ * For now, this just does the same thing as the _raw variant.
+ */
+static inline void
+inode_set_iversion(struct inode *inode, u64 new)
+{
+	inode_set_iversion_raw(inode, new);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_set_iversion_queried - set i_version to a particular value and set
+ *                              flag to indicate that it has been viewed
+ * @inode: inode to set
+ * @new: new i_version value to set
+ *
+ * When loading in an i_version value from a backing store, we typically don't
+ * know whether it was previously viewed before being stored or not. Thus, we
+ * must assume that it was, to ensure that any changes will result in the
+ * value changing.
+ *
+ * This function will set the inode's i_version, and possibly flag the value
+ * as if it has already been viewed at least once.
+ *
+ * For now, this just does what inode_set_iversion does.
+ */
+static inline void
+inode_set_iversion_queried(struct inode *inode, u64 new)
+{
+	inode_set_iversion(inode, new);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_maybe_inc_iversion - increments i_version
+ * @inode: inode with the i_version that should be updated
+ * @force: increment the counter even if it's not necessary
+ *
+ * Every time the inode is modified, the i_version field must be seen to have
+ * changed by any observer.
+ *
+ * In this implementation, we always increment it after taking the i_lock to
+ * ensure that we don't race with other incrementors.
+ *
+ * Returns true if counter was bumped, and false if it wasn't.
+ */
+static inline bool
+inode_maybe_inc_iversion(struct inode *inode, bool force)
+{
+	spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+	inode->i_version++;
+	spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+	return true;
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_inc_iversion - forcibly increment i_version
+ * @inode: inode that needs to be updated
+ *
+ * Forcbily increment the i_version field. This always results in a change to
+ * the observable value.
+ */
+static inline void
+inode_inc_iversion(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	inode_maybe_inc_iversion(inode, true);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_iversion_need_inc - is the i_version in need of being incremented?
+ * @inode: inode to check
+ *
+ * Returns whether the inode->i_version counter needs incrementing on the next
+ * change.
+ *
+ * For now, we assume that it always does.
+ */
+static inline bool
+inode_iversion_need_inc(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return true;
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_peek_iversion_raw - grab a "raw" iversion value
+ * @inode: inode from which i_version should be read
+ *
+ * Grab a "raw" inode->i_version value and return it. The i_version is not
+ * flagged or converted in any way. This is mostly used to access a self-managed
+ * i_version.
+ *
+ * With those filesystems, we want to treat the i_version as an entirely
+ * opaque value.
+ */
+static inline u64
+inode_peek_iversion_raw(const struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return inode->i_version;
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_inc_iversion_raw - forcibly increment raw i_version
+ * @inode: inode that needs to be updated
+ *
+ * Forcbily increment the raw i_version field. This always results in a change
+ * to the raw value.
+ *
+ * NFS will use the i_version field to store the value from the server. It
+ * mostly treats it as opaque, but in the case where it holds a write
+ * delegation, it must increment the value itself. This function does that.
+ */
+static inline void
+inode_inc_iversion_raw(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	inode_inc_iversion(inode);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_peek_iversion - read i_version without flagging it to be incremented
+ * @inode: inode from which i_version should be read
+ *
+ * Read the inode i_version counter for an inode without registering it as a
+ * query.
+ *
+ * This is typically used by local filesystems that need to store an i_version
+ * on disk. In that situation, it's not necessary to flag it as having been
+ * viewed, as the result won't be used to gauge changes from that point.
+ */
+static inline u64
+inode_peek_iversion(const struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return inode_peek_iversion_raw(inode);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_query_iversion - read i_version for later use
+ * @inode: inode from which i_version should be read
+ *
+ * Read the inode i_version counter. This should be used by callers that wish
+ * to store the returned i_version for later comparison. This will guarantee
+ * that a later query of the i_version will result in a different value if
+ * anything has changed.
+ *
+ * This implementation just does a peek.
+ */
+static inline u64
+inode_query_iversion(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return inode_peek_iversion(inode);
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_cmp_iversion_raw - check whether the raw i_version counter has changed
+ * @inode: inode to check
+ * @old: old value to check against its i_version
+ *
+ * Compare the current raw i_version counter with a previous one. Returns 0 if
+ * they are the same or non-zero if they are different.
+ */
+static inline s64
+inode_cmp_iversion_raw(const struct inode *inode, u64 old)
+{
+	return (s64)inode_peek_iversion_raw(inode) - (s64)old;
+}
+
+/**
+ * inode_cmp_iversion - check whether the i_version counter has changed
+ * @inode: inode to check
+ * @old: old value to check against its i_version
+ *
+ * Compare an i_version counter with a previous one. Returns 0 if they are
+ * the same or non-zero if they are different.
+ */
+static inline s64
+inode_cmp_iversion(const struct inode *inode, u64 old)
+{
+	return (s64)inode_peek_iversion(inode) - (s64)old;
+}
+#endif
-- 
2.14.3

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