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Date:   Mon,  6 Jan 2020 12:54:10 -0800
From:   Eric Biggers <>
        Victor Hsieh <>,
Subject: [PATCH v3] fs-verity: implement readahead for FS_IOC_ENABLE_VERITY

From: Eric Biggers <>

When it builds the first level of the Merkle tree, FS_IOC_ENABLE_VERITY
sequentially reads each page of the file using read_mapping_page().
This works fine if the file's data is already in pagecache, which should
normally be the case, since this ioctl is normally used immediately
after writing out the file.

But in any other case this implementation performs very poorly, since
only one page is read at a time.

Fix this by implementing readahead using the functions from

This improves performance in the uncached case by about 20x, as seen in
the following benchmarks done on a 250MB file (on x86_64 with SHA-NI):

    FS_IOC_ENABLE_VERITY uncached (before) 3.299s
    FS_IOC_ENABLE_VERITY uncached (after)  0.160s
    FS_IOC_ENABLE_VERITY cached            0.147s
    sha256sum uncached                     0.191s
    sha256sum cached                       0.145s

Note: we could instead switch to kernel_read().  But that would mean
we'd no longer be hashing the data directly from the pagecache, which is
a nice optimization of its own.  And using kernel_read() would require
allocating another temporary buffer, hashing the data and tree pages
separately, and explicitly zero-padding the last page -- so it wouldn't
really be any simpler than direct pagecache access, at least for now.

Signed-off-by: Eric Biggers <>

Changed v2 => v3:
  - Ensure that the pages continue being marked accessed when they're
    already cached and Uptodate.

Changed v1 => v2:
  - Only do sync readahead when the page wasn't found in the pagecache
    at all.
  - Use ->f_mapping so that the inode doesn't have to be passed.

 fs/verity/enable.c | 45 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
 1 file changed, 39 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/verity/enable.c b/fs/verity/enable.c
index b79e3fd19d115..9c93c17f1c1cd 100644
--- a/fs/verity/enable.c
+++ b/fs/verity/enable.c
@@ -13,13 +13,42 @@
 #include <linux/sched/signal.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
-static int build_merkle_tree_level(struct inode *inode, unsigned int level,
+ * Read a file data page for Merkle tree construction.  Do aggressive readahead,
+ * since we're sequentially reading the entire file.
+ */
+static struct page *read_file_data_page(struct file *filp, pgoff_t index,
+					struct file_ra_state *ra,
+					unsigned long remaining_pages)
+	struct page *page;
+	page = find_get_page_flags(filp->f_mapping, index, FGP_ACCESSED);
+	if (!page || !PageUptodate(page)) {
+		if (page)
+			put_page(page);
+		else
+			page_cache_sync_readahead(filp->f_mapping, ra, filp,
+						  index, remaining_pages);
+		page = read_mapping_page(filp->f_mapping, index, NULL);
+		if (IS_ERR(page))
+			return page;
+	}
+	if (PageReadahead(page))
+		page_cache_async_readahead(filp->f_mapping, ra, filp, page,
+					   index, remaining_pages);
+	return page;
+static int build_merkle_tree_level(struct file *filp, unsigned int level,
 				   u64 num_blocks_to_hash,
 				   const struct merkle_tree_params *params,
 				   u8 *pending_hashes,
 				   struct ahash_request *req)
+	struct inode *inode = file_inode(filp);
 	const struct fsverity_operations *vops = inode->i_sb->s_vop;
+	struct file_ra_state ra = { 0 };
 	unsigned int pending_size = 0;
 	u64 dst_block_num;
 	u64 i;
@@ -36,6 +65,8 @@ static int build_merkle_tree_level(struct inode *inode, unsigned int level,
 		dst_block_num = 0; /* unused */
+	file_ra_state_init(&ra, filp->f_mapping);
 	for (i = 0; i < num_blocks_to_hash; i++) {
 		struct page *src_page;
@@ -45,7 +76,8 @@ static int build_merkle_tree_level(struct inode *inode, unsigned int level,
 		if (level == 0) {
 			/* Leaf: hashing a data block */
-			src_page = read_mapping_page(inode->i_mapping, i, NULL);
+			src_page = read_file_data_page(filp, i, &ra,
+						       num_blocks_to_hash - i);
 			if (IS_ERR(src_page)) {
 				err = PTR_ERR(src_page);
@@ -103,17 +135,18 @@ static int build_merkle_tree_level(struct inode *inode, unsigned int level,
- * Build the Merkle tree for the given inode using the given parameters, and
+ * Build the Merkle tree for the given file using the given parameters, and
  * return the root hash in @root_hash.
  * The tree is written to a filesystem-specific location as determined by the
  * ->write_merkle_tree_block() method.  However, the blocks that comprise the
  * tree are the same for all filesystems.
-static int build_merkle_tree(struct inode *inode,
+static int build_merkle_tree(struct file *filp,
 			     const struct merkle_tree_params *params,
 			     u8 *root_hash)
+	struct inode *inode = file_inode(filp);
 	u8 *pending_hashes;
 	struct ahash_request *req;
 	u64 blocks;
@@ -139,7 +172,7 @@ static int build_merkle_tree(struct inode *inode,
 	blocks = (inode->i_size + params->block_size - 1) >>
 	for (level = 0; level <= params->num_levels; level++) {
-		err = build_merkle_tree_level(inode, level, blocks, params,
+		err = build_merkle_tree_level(filp, level, blocks, params,
 					      pending_hashes, req);
 		if (err)
 			goto out;
@@ -227,7 +260,7 @@ static int enable_verity(struct file *filp,
 	pr_debug("Building Merkle tree...\n");
 	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(desc->root_hash) < FS_VERITY_MAX_DIGEST_SIZE);
-	err = build_merkle_tree(inode, &params, desc->root_hash);
+	err = build_merkle_tree(filp, &params, desc->root_hash);
 	if (err) {
 		fsverity_err(inode, "Error %d building Merkle tree", err);
 		goto rollback;

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