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Date:   Thu, 14 May 2020 15:58:03 +0000
From:   Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@...mcloud.com>
To:     "linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org" <linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 1/2] ext4: mballoc to prefetch groups ahead of scanning 

Please, hold on with this patch - the updated version will be sent quickly.

Thanks, Alex


> On 28 Apr 2020, at 08:20, Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@...mcloud.com> wrote:
> 
> Hi,
> 
> Here is a refreshed patch to improve bitmap loading.
> This should significantly improve bitmap loading, especially for flex groups as it tries
> to load all bitmaps within a flex.group instead of one by one synchronously.
> 
> Prefetching is done in 8 * flex_bg groups, so it should be 8 read-ahead
> reads for a single allocating thread. At the end of allocation the
> thread waits for read-ahead completion and initializes buddy information
> so that read-aheads are not lost in case of memory pressure.
> 
> At cr=0 the number of prefetching IOs is limited per allocation context
> to prevent a situation when mballoc loads thousands of bitmaps looking
> for a perfect group and ignoring groups with good chunks.
> 
> Together with the patch "ext4: limit scanning of uninitialized groups"
> the mount time of a 1PB filesystem is reduced significantly:
> 
>               0% full    50%-full unpatched    patched
>  mount time       33s                9279s       563s
> 
> Lustre-bug-id: https://jira.whamcloud.com/browse/LU-12988
> Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@...mcloud.com>
> Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@...mcloud.com>
> ---
> fs/ext4/balloc.c  |  12 +++++-
> fs/ext4/ext4.h    |   5 ++-
> fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 106 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> fs/ext4/mballoc.h |   2 +
> fs/ext4/sysfs.c   |   4 ++
> 5 files changed, 125 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> index a32e5f7b5385..dc6cc8c7b0f8 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> @@ -413,7 +413,8 @@ static int ext4_validate_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
>  * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
>  */
> struct buffer_head *
> -ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> +ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
> +				 int ignore_locked)
> {
> 	struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> @@ -444,6 +445,13 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
> 		goto verify;
> 
> +	if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
> +		/* buffer under IO already, do not wait
> +		 * if called for prefetching */
> +		put_bh(bh);
> +		return NULL;
> +	}
> +
> 	lock_buffer(bh);
> 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh)) {
> 		unlock_buffer(bh);
> @@ -534,7 +542,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> 	struct buffer_head *bh;
> 	int err;
> 
> -	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group);
> +	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group, 0);
> 	if (IS_ERR(bh))
> 		return bh;
> 	err = ext4_wait_block_bitmap(sb, block_group, bh);
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> index 91eb4381cae5..1a4afaecc967 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> @@ -1483,6 +1483,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
> 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_start;
> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch;
> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch_limit;
> 
> 	/* stats for buddy allocator */
> 	atomic_t s_bal_reqs;	/* number of reqs with len > 1 */
> @@ -2420,7 +2422,8 @@ extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
> extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);
> 
> extern struct buffer_head *ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
> -						ext4_group_t block_group);
> +						ext4_group_t block_group,
> +						int ignore_locked);
> extern int ext4_wait_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
> 				  ext4_group_t block_group,
> 				  struct buffer_head *bh);
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index 30d5d97548c4..e84c298e739b 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> @@ -861,7 +861,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore, gfp_t gfp)
> 			bh[i] = NULL;
> 			continue;
> 		}
> -		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group);
> +		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, 0);
> 		if (IS_ERR(bh[i])) {
> 			err = PTR_ERR(bh[i]);
> 			bh[i] = NULL;
> @@ -2104,6 +2104,87 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> 	return 0;
> }
> 
> +/*
> + * each allocation context (i.e. a thread doing allocation) has own
> + * sliding prefetch window of @s_mb_prefetch size which starts at the
> + * very first goal and moves ahead of scaning.
> + * a side effect is that subsequent allocations will likely find
> + * the bitmaps in cache or at least in-flight.
> + */
> +static void
> +ext4_mb_prefetch(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> +		    ext4_group_t start)
> +{
> +	struct super_block *sb = ac->ac_sb;
> +	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> +	struct ext4_group_info *grp;
> +	ext4_group_t group = start;
> +	struct buffer_head *bh;
> +	int nr;
> +
> +	/* limit prefetching at cr=0, otherwise mballoc can
> +	 * spend a lot of time loading imperfect groups */
> +	if (ac->ac_criteria < 2 && ac->ac_prefetch_ios >= sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit)
> +		return;
> +
> +	/* batch prefetching to get few READs in flight */
> +	nr = ac->ac_prefetch - group;
> +	if (ac->ac_prefetch < group)
> +		/* wrapped to the first groups */
> +		nr += ngroups;
> +	if (nr > 0)
> +		return;
> +	BUG_ON(nr < 0);
> +
> +	nr = sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
> +	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
> +		/* align to flex_bg to get more bitmas with a single IO */
> +		nr = (group / sbi->s_mb_prefetch) * sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
> +		nr = nr + sbi->s_mb_prefetch - group;
> +	}
> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
> +		grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
> +		/* ignore empty groups - those will be skipped
> +		 * during the scanning as well */
> +		if (grp->bb_free > 0 && EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)) {
> +			bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, 1);
> +			if (bh && !IS_ERR(bh)) {
> +				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
> +					ac->ac_prefetch_ios++;
> +				brelse(bh);
> +			}
> +		}
> +		if (++group >= ngroups)
> +			group = 0;
> +	}
> +	ac->ac_prefetch = group;
> +}
> +
> +static void
> +ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> +{
> +	struct ext4_group_info *grp;
> +	ext4_group_t group;
> +	int nr, rc;
> +
> +	/* initialize last window of prefetched groups */
> +	nr = ac->ac_prefetch_ios;
> +	if (nr > EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb)->s_mb_prefetch)
> +		nr = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb)->s_mb_prefetch;
> +	group = ac->ac_prefetch;
> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
> +		grp = ext4_get_group_info(ac->ac_sb, group);
> +		if (grp->bb_free > 0 && EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)) {
> +			rc = ext4_mb_init_group(ac->ac_sb, group, GFP_NOFS);
> +			if (rc)
> +				break;
> +		}
> +		if (group-- == 0)
> +			group = ext4_get_groups_count(ac->ac_sb) - 1;
> +	}
> +}
> +
> static noinline_for_stack int
> ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> {
> @@ -2177,6 +2258,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> 		 * from the goal value specified
> 		 */
> 		group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
> +		ac->ac_prefetch = group;
> 
> 		for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
> 			int ret = 0;
> @@ -2188,6 +2270,8 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> 			if (group >= ngroups)
> 				group = 0;
> 
> +			ext4_mb_prefetch(ac, group);
> +
> 			/* This now checks without needing the buddy page */
> 			ret = ext4_mb_good_group(ac, group, cr);
> 			if (ret <= 0) {
> @@ -2260,6 +2344,8 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> out:
> 	if (!err && ac->ac_status != AC_STATUS_FOUND && first_err)
> 		err = first_err;
> +	/* use prefetched bitmaps to init buddy so that read info is not lost */
> +	ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(ac);
> 	return err;
> }
> 
> @@ -2776,6 +2862,24 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
> 				atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_preallocated),
> 				atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_discarded));
> 	}
> +	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
> +		/* a single flex group is supposed to be read by a single IO */
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 1 << sbi->s_es->s_log_groups_per_flex;
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch *= 8; /* 8 prefetch IOs in flight at most */
> +	} else {
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 32;
> +	}
> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +	/* now many real IOs to prefetch within a single allocation at cr=0
> +	 * given cr=0 is an CPU-related optimization we shouldn't try to
> +	 * load too many groups, at some point we should start to use what
> +	 * we've got in memory.
> +	 * with an average random access time 5ms, it'd take a second to get
> +	 * 200 groups (* N with flex_bg), so let's make this limit 4 */
> +	sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = sbi->s_mb_prefetch * 4;
> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> 
> 	free_percpu(sbi->s_locality_groups);
> 
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> index 88c98f17e3d9..c96a2bd81f72 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> @@ -175,6 +175,8 @@ struct ext4_allocation_context {
> 	struct page *ac_buddy_page;
> 	struct ext4_prealloc_space *ac_pa;
> 	struct ext4_locality_group *ac_lg;
> +	ext4_group_t ac_prefetch;
> +	int ac_prefetch_ios; /* number of initialied prefetch IO */
> };
> 
> #define AC_STATUS_CONTINUE	1
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> index 04bfaf63752c..5f443f9d54b8 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> @@ -240,6 +240,8 @@ EXT4_RO_ATTR_ES_STRING(last_error_func, s_last_error_func, 32);
> EXT4_ATTR(first_error_time, 0444, first_error_time);
> EXT4_ATTR(last_error_time, 0444, last_error_time);
> EXT4_ATTR(journal_task, 0444, journal_task);
> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch, s_mb_prefetch);
> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch_limit, s_mb_prefetch_limit);
> 
> static unsigned int old_bump_val = 128;
> EXT4_ATTR_PTR(max_writeback_mb_bump, 0444, pointer_ui, &old_bump_val);
> @@ -283,6 +285,8 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
> #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> 	ATTR_LIST(simulate_fail),
> #endif
> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch),
> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch_limit),
> 	NULL,
> };
> ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(ext4);
> -- 
> 

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