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Date:   Tue, 4 Apr 2023 12:04:39 +0200
From:   Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>
To:     Baokun Li <libaokun1@...wei.com>
Cc:     Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>, linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org, tytso@....edu,
        adilger.kernel@...ger.ca, ritesh.list@...il.com,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, yi.zhang@...wei.com,
        yangerkun@...wei.com, yukuai3@...wei.com
Subject: Re: [PATCH] ext4: only update i_reserved_data_blocks on successful
 block allocation

On Mon 03-04-23 22:02:56, Baokun Li wrote:
> On 2023/3/30 0:22, Jan Kara wrote:
> > On Wed 29-03-23 15:23:19, Baokun Li wrote:
> > > On 2023/3/28 18:00, Jan Kara wrote:
> > > > On Mon 27-03-23 21:09:42, Baokun Li wrote:
> > > > > On 2023/3/27 20:47, Jan Kara wrote:
> > > > > > On Sat 25-03-23 14:34:43, Baokun Li wrote:
> > > > > > > In our fault injection test, we create an ext4 file, migrate it to
> > > > > > > non-extent based file, then punch a hole and finally trigger a WARN_ON
> > > > > > > in the ext4_da_update_reserve_space():
> > > > > > > 
> > > > > > > EXT4-fs warning (device sda): ext4_da_update_reserve_space:369:
> > > > > > > ino 14, used 11 with only 10 reserved data blocks
> > > > > > > 
> > > > > > > When writing back a non-extent based file, if we enable delalloc, the
> > > > > > > number of reserved blocks will be subtracted from the number of blocks
> > > > > > > mapped by ext4_ind_map_blocks(), and the extent status tree will be
> > > > > > > updated. We update the extent status tree by first removing the old
> > > > > > > extent_status and then inserting the new extent_status. If the block range
> > > > > > > we remove happens to be in an extent, then we need to allocate another
> > > > > > > extent_status with ext4_es_alloc_extent().
> > > > > > > 
> > > > > > >           use old    to remove   to add new
> > > > > > >        |----------|------------|------------|
> > > > > > >                  old extent_status
> > > > > > > 
> > > > > > > The problem is that the allocation of a new extent_status failed due to a
> > > > > > > fault injection, and __es_shrink() did not get free memory, resulting in
> > > > > > > a return of -ENOMEM. Then do_writepages() retries after receiving -ENOMEM,
> > > > > > > we map to the same extent again, and the number of reserved blocks is again
> > > > > > > subtracted from the number of blocks in that extent. Since the blocks in
> > > > > > > the same extent are subtracted twice, we end up triggering WARN_ON at
> > > > > > > ext4_da_update_reserve_space() because used > ei->i_reserved_data_blocks.
> > > > > > Hum, but this second call to ext4_map_blocks() should find already allocated
> > > > > > blocks in the indirect block and thus should not be subtracting
> > > > > > ei->i_reserved_data_blocks for the second time. What am I missing?
> > > > > > 
> > > > > > 								Honza
> > > > > > 
> > > > > ext4_map_blocks
> > > > >     1. Lookup extent status tree firstly
> > > > >          goto found;
> > > > >     2. get the block without requesting a new file system block.
> > > > > found:
> > > > >     3. ceate and map the block
> > > > > 
> > > > > When we call ext4_map_blocks() for the second time, we directly find the
> > > > > corresponding blocks in the extent status tree, and then go directly to step
> > > > > 3,
> > > > > because our flag is brand new and therefore does not contain EXT4_MAP_MAPPED
> > > > > but contains EXT4_GET_BLOCKS_CREATE, thus subtracting
> > > > > ei->i_reserved_data_blocks
> > > > > for the second time.
> > > > Ah, I see. Thanks for explanation. But then the problem is deeper than just
> > > > a mismatch in number of reserved delalloc block. The problem really is that
> > > > if extent status tree update fails, we have inconsistency between what is
> > > > stored in the extent status tree and what is stored on disk. And that can
> > > > cause even data corruption issues in some cases.
> > > The scenario we encountered was this:
> > > ```
> > > write:
> > >      ext4_es_insert_delayed_block
> > >      [0/16) 576460752303423487 (U,D)
> > > writepages:
> > >      alloc lblk 11 pblk 35328
> > >      [0/16) 576460752303423487 (U,D)
> > >      -- remove block 11 from extent
> > >        [0/11) 576460752303423487 (U,D,R)  +  (Newly allocated)[12/4)
> > > 549196775151 (U,D,R)
> > >        --Failure to allocate memory for a new extent will undo as:
> > >              [0/16) 576460752303423487 (U,D,R)
> > Yes, this is what I was expecting. So now extent status tree is
> > inconsistent with the on-disk allocation info because the block 11 is
> > already allocated on disk but recorded as unallocated in the extent status
> > tree.
> 
> Yes! There is an inconsistency here, but do_writepages finds that the
> writeback returns -ENOMEM and keeps retrying until it succeeds, at which
> point the above inconsistency does not exist.

Well, do_writepages() will not retry if wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_NONE. So
the inconsistency can stay for a long time.

> > If the similar problem happened say when we punch a hole into a middle of a
> > written extent and so block on disk got freed but extent status tree would
> > still record it as allocated, user would be able to access freed block thus
> > potentially exposing sensitive data.
> 
> ext4_punch_hole
>   // remove extents in extents status tree
>   ext4_es_remove_extent
>   // remove extents tree on disk
>   ext4_ext_remove_space
> 
> In this scenario, we always try to delete the extents in the in-memory
> extents status tree first, and then delete the extents tree on disk. So
> even if we fail in deleting extents in memory, there is no inconsistency,
> am I missing something?

No, you are right, this case is safe. Still I suspect inconsistencies with
extent status tree can cause more problems and possibly stale data
exposure.

> > >      -- if success insert block 11 to extent status tree
> > >        [0/11) 576460752303423487 (U,D,R) + (Newly allocated)[11/1) 35328 (W)
> > > + [12/4) 549196775151 (U,D,R)
> > > 
> > > U: UNWRITTEN
> > > D: DELAYED
> > > W: WRITTEN
> > > R: REFERENCED
> > > ```
> > > 
> > > When we fail to allocate a new extent, we don't map buffer and we don't do
> > > io_submit, so why is the extent tree in memory inconsistent with the one
> > > stored on disk? Am I missing something?
> > > 
> > > I would appreciate it if you could explain under what cases and what kind of
> > > data corruption issues can be caused.
> > See above.
> > 
> > > > And this should also fix the problem you've hit because in case of
> > > > allocation failure we may just end up with removed extent from the extent
> > > > status tree and thus we refetch info from the disk and find out blocks are
> > > > already allocated.
> > > Reloading extent tree from disk I don't quite understand here, how do we
> > > handle reserved blocks? could you explain it in more detail?
> > > 
> > > Logically, I think it is still necessary to update i_reserved_data_blocks
> > > only after a successful allocation. This is also done in
> > > ext4_ext_map_blocks().
> > I guess there is some misunderstanding here. Both with
> > ext4_ext_map_blocks() and ext4_ind_map_blocks() we end up updating
> > i_reserved_data_blocks only after the blocks are successfully allocated and
> > inserted in the respective data structure but *before* updating extent
> > status tree. If extent status tree operation fails, we currently get
> > inconsistency between extent status tree and on-disk info in both cases
> > AFAICS. Am I missing something?
> 
> Yes, our code is indeed designed to only update the number of reserved
> blocks after the block allocation is complete. We have different
> treatment for extent based file and non-extent based file in commit
> 5f634d064c70 ("ext4: Fix quota accounting error with fallocate").
> 
> For extent based file, we update the number of reserved blocks before the
> "got_allocated_blocks" tag after the blocks are successfully allocated in
> ext4_ext_map_blocks().
> 
> For the non-extent based file we update the number of reserved blocks
> after ext4_ind_map_blocks() is executed, which leads to the problem that
> when we call ext4_ind_map_blocks() to create a block, it does not always
> create a block.  For example, if the extents status tree we encountered
> earlier does not match the extents tree on disk, this is of course a
> problem in itself, but in terms of code logic, updating the number of
> reserved blocks as ext4_ext_map_blocks() does can prevent us from trying
> to create a block and not creating it, resulting in an incorrect number
> of reserved blocks.

I see, thanks for explanation! Indeed it may be good to cleanup this code
so that indirect block and extent based inodes are handled in the same way.

								Honza
-- 
Jan Kara <jack@...e.com>
SUSE Labs, CR

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