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Date:   Thu, 1 Sep 2022 12:34:34 -0700
From:   Guenter Roeck <linux@...ck-us.net>
To:     Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>,
        Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@...ux-m68k.org>
Cc:     Wolfram Sang <wsa+renesas@...g-engineering.com>,
        Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>,
        Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>,
        Len Baker <len.baker@....com>,
        "Gustavo A. R. Silva" <gustavoars@...nel.org>,
        Francis Laniel <laniel_francis@...vacyrequired.com>,
        Paolo Abeni <pabeni@...hat.com>, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-doc@...r.kernel.org, linux-hardening@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2] string: Introduce strtomem() and strtomem_pad()

On 9/1/22 12:09, Kees Cook wrote:
> One of the "legitimate" uses of strncpy() is copying a NUL-terminated
> string into a fixed-size non-NUL-terminated character array. To avoid
> the weaknesses and ambiguity of intent when using strncpy(), provide
> replacement functions that explicitly distinguish between trailing
> padding and not, and require the destination buffer size be discoverable
> by the compiler.
> 
> For example:
> 
> struct obj {
> 	int foo;
> 	char small[4] __nonstring;
> 	char big[8] __nonstring;
> 	int bar;
> };
> 
> struct obj p;
> 
> /* This will truncate to 4 chars with no trailing NUL */
> strncpy(p.small, "hello", sizeof(p.small));
> /* p.small contains 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l' */
> 
> /* This will NUL pad to 8 chars. */
> strncpy(p.big, "hello", sizeof(p.big));
> /* p.big contains 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0', '\0', '\0' */
> 
> When the "__nonstring" attributes are missing, the intent of the
> programmer becomes ambiguous for whether the lack of a trailing NUL
> in the p.small copy is a bug. Additionally, it's not clear whether
> the trailing padding in the p.big copy is _needed_. Both cases
> become unambiguous with:
> 
> strtomem(p.small, "hello");
> strtomem_pad(p.big, "hello", 0);
> 
> See also https://github.com/KSPP/linux/issues/90
> 
> Expand the memcpy KUnit tests to include these functions.
> 
> Cc: Wolfram Sang <wsa+renesas@...g-engineering.com>
> Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
> Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@...ux-m68k.org>
> Cc: Guenter Roeck <linux@...ck-us.net>
> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
> ---
> v2:
>   - updated deprecated.rst to include strtomem*()
>   - added kerndoc and replacement table to strncpy()
>   - switched to ULONG_MAX in KUnit tests (Geert)
>   - fix typo in commit log example (Geert)
> v1: https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20220831230006.1016236-1-keescook@chromium.org
> ---
>   Documentation/process/deprecated.rst | 11 +++---
>   include/linux/fortify-string.h       | 30 ++++++++++++++++
>   include/linux/string.h               | 43 ++++++++++++++++++++++
>   lib/memcpy_kunit.c                   | 53 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>   4 files changed, 133 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/process/deprecated.rst b/Documentation/process/deprecated.rst
> index a6e36d9c3d14..783b0488cf4d 100644
> --- a/Documentation/process/deprecated.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/process/deprecated.rst
> @@ -138,17 +138,20 @@ be NUL terminated. This can lead to various linear read overflows and
>   other misbehavior due to the missing termination. It also NUL-pads
>   the destination buffer if the source contents are shorter than the
>   destination buffer size, which may be a needless performance penalty
> -for callers using only NUL-terminated strings. The safe replacement is
> +for callers using only NUL-terminated strings.
> +
> +When the destination is required to be NUL-terminated, the replacement is
>   strscpy(), though care must be given to any cases where the return value
>   of strncpy() was used, since strscpy() does not return a pointer to the
>   destination, but rather a count of non-NUL bytes copied (or negative
>   errno when it truncates). Any cases still needing NUL-padding should
>   instead use strscpy_pad().
>   
> -If a caller is using non-NUL-terminated strings, strncpy() can
> -still be used, but destinations should be marked with the `__nonstring
> +If a caller is using non-NUL-terminated strings, strtomem() should be
> +be used, and the destinations should be marked with the `__nonstring

s/be //

>   <https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Common-Variable-Attributes.html>`_
> -attribute to avoid future compiler warnings.
> +attribute to avoid future compiler warnings. For cases still needing
> +NUL-padding, strtomem_pad() can be used.
>   
>   strlcpy()
>   ---------
> diff --git a/include/linux/fortify-string.h b/include/linux/fortify-string.h
> index 3b401fa0f374..eed2119b23c5 100644
> --- a/include/linux/fortify-string.h
> +++ b/include/linux/fortify-string.h
> @@ -77,6 +77,36 @@ extern char *__underlying_strncpy(char *p, const char *q, __kernel_size_t size)
>   #define POS	__pass_object_size(1)
>   #define POS0	__pass_object_size(0)
>   
> +/** strncpy - Copy a string to memory with non-guaranteed NUL padding

Does that need a newline before strncpy() ?

> + *
> + * @p: pointer to destination of copy
> + * @q: pointer to NUL-terminated source string to copy
> + * @size: bytes to write at @p
> + *
> + * If strlen(@q) >= @size, the copy of @q will stop after @size bytes,
> + * and @p will NOT be NUL-terminated
> + *
> + * If strlen(@q) < @size, following the copy of @q, trailing NUL bytes
> + * will be written to @p until @size total bytes have been written.
> + *
> + * Do not use this function. While FORTIFY_SOURCE tries to avoid
> + * over-reads of @q, it cannot defend against writing unterminated
> + * results to @p. Using strncpy() remains ambiguous and fragile.
> + * Instead, please choose an alternative, so that the expectation
> + * of @p's contents is unambiguous:
> + *
> + * @p needs to be:     | padded to @size | not padded
> + * --------------------+-----------------+------------+
> + *      NUL-terminated | strscpy_pad()   | strscpy()  |
> + * --------------------+-----------------+------------+
> + *  not NUL-terminated | strtomem_pad()  | strtomem() |
> + * --------------------+-----------------+------------+
> + *
> + * Note strscpy*()'s differing return values for detecting truncation,
> + * and strtomem*()'s expectation that the destination is marked with
> + * __nonstring when it is a character array.
> + *
> + */
>   __FORTIFY_INLINE __diagnose_as(__builtin_strncpy, 1, 2, 3)
>   char *strncpy(char * const POS p, const char *q, __kernel_size_t size)
>   {
> diff --git a/include/linux/string.h b/include/linux/string.h
> index 61ec7e4f6311..cf7607b32102 100644
> --- a/include/linux/string.h
> +++ b/include/linux/string.h
> @@ -260,6 +260,49 @@ static inline const char *kbasename(const char *path)
>   void memcpy_and_pad(void *dest, size_t dest_len, const void *src, size_t count,
>   		    int pad);
>   
> +/**
> + * strtomem_pad - Copy NUL-terminated string to non-NUL-terminated buffer
> + *
> + * @dest: Pointer of destination character array (marked as __nonstring)
> + * @src: Pointer to NUL-terminated string
> + * @pad: Padding character to fill any remaining bytes of @dest after copy
> + *
> + * This is a replacement for strncpy() uses where the destination is not
> + * a NUL-terminated string, but with bounds checking on the source size, and
> + * an explicit padding character. If padding is not required, use strtomem().
> + *
> + * Note that the size of @dest is not an argument, as the length of @dest
> + * must be discoverable by the compiler.
> + */
> +#define strtomem_pad(dest, src, pad)	do {				\
> +	const size_t _dest_len = __builtin_object_size(dest, 1);	\
> +									\
> +	BUILD_BUG_ON(!__builtin_constant_p(_dest_len) ||		\
> +		     _dest_len == (size_t)-1);				\
> +	memcpy_and_pad(dest, _dest_len, src, strnlen(src, _dest_len), pad); \
> +} while (0)
> +
> +/**
> + * strtomem - Copy NUL-terminated string to non-NUL-terminated buffer
> + *
> + * @dest: Pointer of destination character array (marked as __nonstring)
> + * @src: Pointer to NUL-terminated string
> + *
> + * This is a replacement for strncpy() uses where the destination is not
> + * a NUL-terminated string, but with bounds checking on the source size, and
> + * without trailing padding. If padding is required, use strtomem_pad().
> + *
> + * Note that the size of @dest is not an argument, as the length of @dest
> + * must be discoverable by the compiler.
> + */
> +#define strtomem(dest, src)	do {					\
> +	const size_t _dest_len = __builtin_object_size(dest, 1);	\
> +									\
> +	BUILD_BUG_ON(!__builtin_constant_p(_dest_len) ||		\
> +		     _dest_len == (size_t)-1);				\
> +	memcpy(dest, src, min(_dest_len, strnlen(src, _dest_len)));	\
> +} while (0)
> +
>   /**
>    * memset_after - Set a value after a struct member to the end of a struct
>    *
> diff --git a/lib/memcpy_kunit.c b/lib/memcpy_kunit.c
> index 62f8ffcbbaa3..598f5f7dadf4 100644
> --- a/lib/memcpy_kunit.c
> +++ b/lib/memcpy_kunit.c
> @@ -272,10 +272,63 @@ static void memset_test(struct kunit *test)
>   #undef TEST_OP
>   }
>   
> +static void strtomem_test(struct kunit *test)
> +{
> +	static const char input[] = "hi";
> +	static const char truncate[] = "this is too long";
> +	struct {
> +		unsigned long canary1;
> +		unsigned char output[sizeof(unsigned long)] __nonstring;
> +		unsigned long canary2;
> +	} wrap;
> +
> +	memset(&wrap, 0xFF, sizeof(wrap));
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ_MSG(test, wrap.canary1, ULONG_MAX,
> +			    "bad initial canary value");
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ_MSG(test, wrap.canary2, ULONG_MAX,
> +			    "bad initial canary value");
> +
> +	/* Check unpadded copy leaves surroundings untouched. */
> +	strtomem(wrap.output, input);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary1, ULONG_MAX);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[0], input[0]);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[1], input[1]);
> +	for (int i = 2; i < sizeof(wrap.output); i++)
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[i], 0xFF);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary2, ULONG_MAX);
> +
> +	/* Check truncated copy leaves surroundings untouched. */
> +	memset(&wrap, 0xFF, sizeof(wrap));
> +	strtomem(wrap.output, truncate);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary1, ULONG_MAX);
> +	for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(wrap.output); i++)
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[i], truncate[i]);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary2, ULONG_MAX);
> +
> +	/* Check padded copy leaves only string padded. */
> +	memset(&wrap, 0xFF, sizeof(wrap));
> +	strtomem_pad(wrap.output, input, 0xAA);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary1, ULONG_MAX);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[0], input[0]);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[1], input[1]);
> +	for (int i = 2; i < sizeof(wrap.output); i++)
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[i], 0xAA);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary2, ULONG_MAX);
> +
> +	/* Check truncated padded copy has no padding. */
> +	memset(&wrap, 0xFF, sizeof(wrap));
> +	strtomem(wrap.output, truncate);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary1, ULONG_MAX);
> +	for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(wrap.output); i++)
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.output[i], truncate[i]);
> +	KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, wrap.canary2, ULONG_MAX);
> +}
> +
>   static struct kunit_case memcpy_test_cases[] = {
>   	KUNIT_CASE(memset_test),
>   	KUNIT_CASE(memcpy_test),
>   	KUNIT_CASE(memmove_test),
> +	KUNIT_CASE(strtomem_test),
>   	{}
>   };
>   

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