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Date:	Sun, 3 Nov 2013 11:12:34 +0100
From:	Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
To:	Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@...com>
Cc:	Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
	Hugh Dickins <hughd@...gle.com>,
	Michel Lespinasse <walken@...gle.com>,
	Mel Gorman <mgorman@...e.de>, Rik van Riel <riel@...hat.com>,
	Guan Xuetao <gxt@...c.pku.edu.cn>, aswin@...com,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-mm@...ck.org,
	Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH] mm: cache largest vma


* Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@...com> wrote:

> While caching the last used vma already does a nice job avoiding
> having to iterate the rbtree in find_vma, we can improve. After
> studying the hit rate on a load of workloads and environments,
> it was seen that it was around 45-50% - constant for a standard
> desktop system (gnome3 + evolution + firefox + a few xterms),
> and multiple java related workloads (including Hadoop/terasort),
> and aim7, which indicates it's better than the 35% value documented
> in the code.
> 
> By also caching the largest vma, that is, the one that contains
> most addresses, there is a steady 10-15% hit rate gain, putting
> it above the 60% region. This improvement comes at a very low
> overhead for a miss. Furthermore, systems with !CONFIG_MMU keep
> the current logic.
> 
> This patch introduces a second mmap_cache pointer, which is just
> as racy as the first, but as we already know, doesn't matter in
> this context. For documentation purposes, I have also added the
> ACCESS_ONCE() around mm->mmap_cache updates, keeping it consistent
> with the reads.
> 
> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@...gle.com>
> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@...gle.com>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@...e.de>
> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@...hat.com>
> Cc: Guan Xuetao <gxt@...c.pku.edu.cn>
> Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@...com>
> ---
> Please note that nommu and unicore32 arch are *untested*.
> 
> I also have a patch on top of this one that caches the most 
> used vma, which adds another 8-10% hit rate gain, However,
> since it does add a counter to the vma structure and we have
> to do more logic in find_vma to keep track, I was hesitant about
> the overhead. If folks are interested I can send that out as well.

Would be interesting to see.

Btw., roughly how many cycles/instructions do we save by increasing the 
hit rate, in the typical case (for example during a kernel build)?

That would be important to measure, so that we can get a ballpark figure 
for the cost/benefit equation.

>  Documentation/vm/locking                 |  4 +-
>  arch/unicore32/include/asm/mmu_context.h |  2 +-
>  include/linux/mm.h                       | 13 ++++++
>  include/linux/mm_types.h                 | 15 ++++++-
>  kernel/debug/debug_core.c                | 17 +++++++-
>  kernel/fork.c                            |  2 +-
>  mm/mmap.c                                | 68 ++++++++++++++++++++------------
>  7 files changed, 87 insertions(+), 34 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/vm/locking b/Documentation/vm/locking
> index f61228b..b4e8154 100644
> --- a/Documentation/vm/locking
> +++ b/Documentation/vm/locking
> @@ -42,8 +42,8 @@ The rules are:
>     for mm B.
>  
>  The caveats are:
> -1. find_vma() makes use of, and updates, the mmap_cache pointer hint.
> -The update of mmap_cache is racy (page stealer can race with other code
> +1. find_vma() makes use of, and updates, the mmap_cache pointers hint.
> +The updates of mmap_cache is racy (page stealer can race with other code
>  that invokes find_vma with mmap_sem held), but that is okay, since it 
>  is a hint. This can be fixed, if desired, by having find_vma grab the
>  page_table_lock.
> diff --git a/arch/unicore32/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/unicore32/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> index fb5e4c6..38cc7fc 100644
> --- a/arch/unicore32/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> +++ b/arch/unicore32/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> @@ -73,7 +73,7 @@ do { \
>  		else \
>  			mm->mmap = NULL; \
>  		rb_erase(&high_vma->vm_rb, &mm->mm_rb); \
> -		mm->mmap_cache = NULL; \
> +		vma_clear_caches(mm);			\
>  		mm->map_count--; \
>  		remove_vma(high_vma); \
>  	} \
> diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
> index 8b6e55e..2c0f8ed 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mm.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mm.h
> @@ -1534,8 +1534,21 @@ static inline void mm_populate(unsigned long addr, unsigned long len)
>  	/* Ignore errors */
>  	(void) __mm_populate(addr, len, 1);
>  }
> +
> +static inline void vma_clear_caches(struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +	int i;
> +
> +	for (i = 0; i < NR_VMA_CACHES; i++)
> +		mm->mmap_cache[i] = NULL;

Just curious: does GCC manage to open-code this as two stores of NULL?

> +}
>  #else
>  static inline void mm_populate(unsigned long addr, unsigned long len) {}
> +
> +static inline void vma_clear_caches(struct mm_struct *mm)
1> +{
> +	mm->mmap_cache = NULL;
> +}
>  #endif
>  
>  /* These take the mm semaphore themselves */
> diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
> index d9851ee..7f92835 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
> @@ -322,12 +322,23 @@ struct mm_rss_stat {
>  	atomic_long_t count[NR_MM_COUNTERS];
>  };
>  
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> +enum {
> +	VMA_LAST_USED, /* last find_vma result */
> +	VMA_LARGEST,   /* vma that contains most address */
> +	NR_VMA_CACHES
> +};
> +#endif
> +
>  struct kioctx_table;
>  struct mm_struct {
>  	struct vm_area_struct * mmap;		/* list of VMAs */
>  	struct rb_root mm_rb;
> -	struct vm_area_struct * mmap_cache;	/* last find_vma result */
> -#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> +#ifndef CONFIG_MMU
> +	struct vm_area_struct *mmap_cache;      /* last find_vma result */
> +#else
> +	struct vm_area_struct *mmap_cache[NR_VMA_CACHES];

I think the CONFIG_MMU assymetry in the data structure is rather ugly.

Why not make it a single-entry enum in the !CONFIG_MMU case? To the 
compiler a single-entry array should be the same as a pointer field.

That would eliminate most of the related #ifdefs AFAICS.

>  	unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area) (struct file *filp,
>  				unsigned long addr, unsigned long len,
>  				unsigned long pgoff, unsigned long flags);
> diff --git a/kernel/debug/debug_core.c b/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
> index 0506d44..d9d72e4 100644
> --- a/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
> +++ b/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
> @@ -221,13 +221,26 @@ int __weak kgdb_skipexception(int exception, struct pt_regs *regs)
>   */
>  static void kgdb_flush_swbreak_addr(unsigned long addr)
>  {
> +	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
>  	if (!CACHE_FLUSH_IS_SAFE)
>  		return;
>  
> -	if (current->mm && current->mm->mmap_cache) {
> -		flush_cache_range(current->mm->mmap_cache,
> +#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> +	if (mm) {
> +		int i;
> +
> +		for (i = 0; i < NR_VMA_CACHES; i++)
> +			if (mm->mmap_cache[i])
> +				flush_cache_range(mm->mmap_cache[i],
> +						  addr,
> +						  addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);

(Nit: please use curly braces for for such multi-line statements.)

> +	}
> +#else
> +	if (mm && mm->mmap_cache) {
> +		flush_cache_range(mm->mmap_cache,
>  				  addr, addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);
>  	}
> +#endif

Btw., this #ifdef would be unified with my suggested data structure 
variant as well.

>  	/* Force flush instruction cache if it was outside the mm */
>  	flush_icache_range(addr, addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);
>  }
> diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
> index 086fe73..7b92666 100644
> --- a/kernel/fork.c
> +++ b/kernel/fork.c
> @@ -363,8 +363,8 @@ static int dup_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
>  
>  	mm->locked_vm = 0;
>  	mm->mmap = NULL;
> -	mm->mmap_cache = NULL;
>  	mm->map_count = 0;
> +	vma_clear_caches(mm);
>  	cpumask_clear(mm_cpumask(mm));
>  	mm->mm_rb = RB_ROOT;
>  	rb_link = &mm->mm_rb.rb_node;
> diff --git a/mm/mmap.c b/mm/mmap.c
> index 9d54851..29c3fc0 100644
> --- a/mm/mmap.c
> +++ b/mm/mmap.c
> @@ -676,14 +676,17 @@ static inline void
>  __vma_unlink(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
>  		struct vm_area_struct *prev)
>  {
> +	int i;
>  	struct vm_area_struct *next;
>  
>  	vma_rb_erase(vma, &mm->mm_rb);
>  	prev->vm_next = next = vma->vm_next;
>  	if (next)
>  		next->vm_prev = prev;
> -	if (mm->mmap_cache == vma)
> -		mm->mmap_cache = prev;
> +
> +	for (i = 0; i < NR_VMA_CACHES; i++)
> +		if (mm->mmap_cache[i] == vma)
> +			mm->mmap_cache[i] = prev;

(Nit: missing curly braces.)

Also, I don't think setting the cache value back to 'prev' is valid in the 
VMA_LARGEST case. The likelihood that it's the second largest VMA is 
remote.

The right action here would be to set it to NULL.

For VMA_LAST_USED setting it to 'prev' seems justified.

>  }
>  
>  /*
> @@ -1972,34 +1975,47 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_unmapped_area);
>  /* Look up the first VMA which satisfies  addr < vm_end,  NULL if none. */
>  struct vm_area_struct *find_vma(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr)
>  {
> +	unsigned long currlen = 0;

(Nit: I don't think 'currlen' really explains the role of the variable. 
'max_len' would be better?)

> +	struct rb_node *rb_node;
>  	struct vm_area_struct *vma = NULL;
>  
> -	/* Check the cache first. */
> -	/* (Cache hit rate is typically around 35%.) */
> -	vma = ACCESS_ONCE(mm->mmap_cache);
> -	if (!(vma && vma->vm_end > addr && vma->vm_start <= addr)) {
> -		struct rb_node *rb_node;
> +	/* Check the cache first */
> +	vma = ACCESS_ONCE(mm->mmap_cache[VMA_LAST_USED]);
> +	if (vma && vma->vm_end > addr && vma->vm_start <= addr)
> +		goto ret;
>  
> -		rb_node = mm->mm_rb.rb_node;
> -		vma = NULL;
> +	vma = ACCESS_ONCE(mm->mmap_cache[VMA_LARGEST]);
> +	if (vma) {
> +		if (vma->vm_end > addr && vma->vm_start <= addr)
> +			goto ret;
> +		currlen = vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start;
> +	}
>  
> -		while (rb_node) {
> -			struct vm_area_struct *vma_tmp;
> -
> -			vma_tmp = rb_entry(rb_node,
> -					   struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
> -
> -			if (vma_tmp->vm_end > addr) {
> -				vma = vma_tmp;
> -				if (vma_tmp->vm_start <= addr)
> -					break;
> -				rb_node = rb_node->rb_left;
> -			} else
> -				rb_node = rb_node->rb_right;
> -		}
> -		if (vma)
> -			mm->mmap_cache = vma;
> +	/* Bad cache! iterate rbtree */

(Nit: the cache is not 'bad', we just didn't hit it.)

> +	rb_node = mm->mm_rb.rb_node;
> +	vma = NULL;
> +
> +	while (rb_node) {
> +		struct vm_area_struct *vma_tmp;
> +
> +		vma_tmp = rb_entry(rb_node,
> +				   struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);

(Nit: in such cases a single, slightly-longer-than-80col line is IMHO a 
better solution than such an artificial line-break.)

> +
> +		if (vma_tmp->vm_end > addr) {
> +			vma = vma_tmp;
> +			if (vma_tmp->vm_start <= addr)
> +				break;
> +			rb_node = rb_node->rb_left;
> +		} else
> +			rb_node = rb_node->rb_right;

(Nit: unbalanced curly braces.)

> +	}
> +
> +	if (vma) {
> +		ACCESS_ONCE(mm->mmap_cache[VMA_LAST_USED]) = vma;
> +		if (vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start > currlen)
> +			ACCESS_ONCE(mm->mmap_cache[VMA_LARGEST]) = vma;

Would it make sense to not update VMA_LAST_USED if VMA_LARGEST is set?

This would have the advantage of increasing the cache size to two, for the 
common case where there's two vmas used most of the time.

To maximize the hit rate in the general case what we basically want to 
have is an LRU cache, weighted by vma size.

Maybe by expressing it all in that fashion and looking at the hit rate at 
1, 2, 3 and 4 entries would give us equivalent (or better!) behavior than 
your open-coded variant, with a better idea about how to size it 
precisely.

Note that that approach would get rid of the VMA_LAST_USED/VMA_LARGEST 
distinction in a natural fashion.

Obviously, if the LRU logic gets too complex then it probably won't bring 
us any benefits compared to a primitive front-entry cache, so all this is 
a delicate balance ... hence my previous question about 
cycles/instructions saved by hitting the cache.

>  	}
> +ret:
>  	return vma;
>  }
>  
> @@ -2371,7 +2387,7 @@ detach_vmas_to_be_unmapped(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
>  	} else
>  		mm->highest_vm_end = prev ? prev->vm_end : 0;
>  	tail_vma->vm_next = NULL;
> -	mm->mmap_cache = NULL;		/* Kill the cache. */
> +	vma_clear_caches(mm);

Thanks,

	Ingo
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