lists.openwall.net   lists  /  announce  owl-users  owl-dev  john-users  john-dev  passwdqc-users  yescrypt  popa3d-users  /  oss-security  kernel-hardening  musl  sabotage  tlsify  passwords  /  crypt-dev  xvendor  /  Bugtraq  Full-Disclosure  linux-kernel  linux-netdev  linux-ext4  linux-hardening  PHC 
Open Source and information security mailing list archives
 
Hash Suite: Windows password security audit tool. GUI, reports in PDF.
[<prev] [next>] [<thread-prev] [thread-next>] [day] [month] [year] [list]
Date:	Tue, 11 Mar 2014 02:04:14 +0530
From:	"Srivatsa S. Bhat" <srivatsa.bhat@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
To:	paulus@...ba.org, oleg@...hat.com, mingo@...nel.org,
	rjw@...ysocki.net, rusty@...tcorp.com.au, peterz@...radead.org,
	tglx@...utronix.de, akpm@...ux-foundation.org
Cc:	paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com, tj@...nel.org, walken@...gle.com,
	ego@...ux.vnet.ibm.com, linux@....linux.org.uk,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-arch@...r.kernel.org,
	linux-pm@...r.kernel.org, linuxppc-dev@...abs.org,
	srivatsa.bhat@...ux.vnet.ibm.com,
	Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>,
	"Rafael J. Wysocki" <rjw@...ysocki.net>,
	Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>,
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>,
	Oleg Nesterov <oleg@...hat.com>,
	Toshi Kani <toshi.kani@...com>,
	"Srivatsa S. Bhat" <srivatsa.bhat@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
Subject: [PATCH v3 02/52] CPU hotplug: Provide lockless versions of callback
 registration functions

The following method of CPU hotplug callback registration is not safe
due to the possibility of an ABBA deadlock involving the cpu_add_remove_lock
and the cpu_hotplug.lock.

	get_online_cpus();

	for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
		init_cpu(cpu);

	register_cpu_notifier(&foobar_cpu_notifier);

	put_online_cpus();

The deadlock is shown below:

          CPU 0                                         CPU 1
          -----                                         -----

   Acquire cpu_hotplug.lock
   [via get_online_cpus()]

                                              CPU online/offline operation
                                              takes cpu_add_remove_lock
                                              [via cpu_maps_update_begin()]


   Try to acquire
   cpu_add_remove_lock
   [via register_cpu_notifier()]


                                              CPU online/offline operation
                                              tries to acquire cpu_hotplug.lock
                                              [via cpu_hotplug_begin()]


                            *** DEADLOCK! ***

The problem here is that callback registration takes the locks in one order
whereas the CPU hotplug operations take the same locks in the opposite order.
To avoid this issue and to provide a race-free method to register CPU hotplug
callbacks (along with initialization of already online CPUs), introduce new
variants of the callback registration APIs that simply register the callbacks
without holding the cpu_add_remove_lock during the registration. That way,
we can avoid the ABBA scenario. However, we will need to hold the
cpu_add_remove_lock throughout the entire critical section, to protect updates
to the callback/notifier chain.

This can be achieved by writing the callback registration code as follows:

	cpu_maps_update_begin(); [ or cpu_notifier_register_begin(); see below ]

	for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
		init_cpu(cpu);

	/* This doesn't take the cpu_add_remove_lock */
	__register_cpu_notifier(&foobar_cpu_notifier);

	cpu_maps_update_done();  [ or cpu_notifier_register_done(); see below ]

Note that we can't use get_online_cpus() here instead of cpu_maps_update_begin()
because the cpu_hotplug.lock is dropped during the invocation of CPU_POST_DEAD
notifiers, and hence get_online_cpus() cannot provide the necessary
synchronization to protect the callback/notifier chains against concurrent
reads and writes. On the other hand, since the cpu_add_remove_lock protects
the entire hotplug operation (including CPU_POST_DEAD), we can use
cpu_maps_update_begin/done() to guarantee proper synchronization.

Also, since cpu_maps_update_begin/done() is like a super-set of
get/put_online_cpus(), the former naturally protects the critical sections
from concurrent hotplug operations.

Since the names cpu_maps_update_begin/done() don't make much sense in CPU
hotplug callback registration scenarios, we'll introduce new APIs named
cpu_notifier_register_begin/done() and map them to cpu_maps_update_begin/done().

In summary, introduce the lockless variants of un/register_cpu_notifier() and
also export the cpu_notifier_register_begin/done() APIs for use by modules.
This way, we provide a race-free way to register hotplug callbacks as well as
perform initialization for the CPUs that are already online.

Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>
Cc: "Rafael J. Wysocki" <rjw@...ysocki.net>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
Acked-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@...hat.com>
Acked-by: Toshi Kani <toshi.kani@...com>
Reviewed-by: Gautham R. Shenoy <ego@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Srivatsa S. Bhat <srivatsa.bhat@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
---

 include/linux/cpu.h |   47 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 kernel/cpu.c        |   21 +++++++++++++++++++--
 2 files changed, 66 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/cpu.h b/include/linux/cpu.h
index 03e235ad..488d6eb 100644
--- a/include/linux/cpu.h
+++ b/include/linux/cpu.h
@@ -122,26 +122,46 @@ enum {
 		{ .notifier_call = fn, .priority = pri };	\
 	register_cpu_notifier(&fn##_nb);			\
 }
+
+#define __cpu_notifier(fn, pri) {				\
+	static struct notifier_block fn##_nb =			\
+		{ .notifier_call = fn, .priority = pri };	\
+	__register_cpu_notifier(&fn##_nb);			\
+}
 #else /* #if defined(CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU) || !defined(MODULE) */
 #define cpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
+#define __cpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
 #endif /* #else #if defined(CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU) || !defined(MODULE) */
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
 extern int register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
+extern int __register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
 extern void unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
+extern void __unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
 #else
 
 #ifndef MODULE
 extern int register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
+extern int __register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb);
 #else
 static inline int register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 {
 	return 0;
 }
+
+static inline int __register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
 #endif
 
 static inline void unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 {
 }
+
+static inline void __unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+}
 #endif
 
 int cpu_up(unsigned int cpu);
@@ -149,19 +169,32 @@ void notify_cpu_starting(unsigned int cpu);
 extern void cpu_maps_update_begin(void);
 extern void cpu_maps_update_done(void);
 
+#define cpu_notifier_register_begin	cpu_maps_update_begin
+#define cpu_notifier_register_done	cpu_maps_update_done
+
 #else	/* CONFIG_SMP */
 
 #define cpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
+#define __cpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
 
 static inline int register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 {
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static inline int __register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static inline void unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 {
 }
 
+static inline void __unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+}
+
 static inline void cpu_maps_update_begin(void)
 {
 }
@@ -170,6 +203,14 @@ static inline void cpu_maps_update_done(void)
 {
 }
 
+static inline void cpu_notifier_register_begin(void)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void cpu_notifier_register_done(void)
+{
+}
+
 #endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
 extern struct bus_type cpu_subsys;
 
@@ -183,8 +224,11 @@ extern void put_online_cpus(void);
 extern void cpu_hotplug_disable(void);
 extern void cpu_hotplug_enable(void);
 #define hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri)	cpu_notifier(fn, pri)
+#define __hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri)	__cpu_notifier(fn, pri)
 #define register_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	register_cpu_notifier(nb)
+#define __register_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	__register_cpu_notifier(nb)
 #define unregister_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	unregister_cpu_notifier(nb)
+#define __unregister_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	__unregister_cpu_notifier(nb)
 void clear_tasks_mm_cpumask(int cpu);
 int cpu_down(unsigned int cpu);
 
@@ -197,9 +241,12 @@ static inline void cpu_hotplug_done(void) {}
 #define cpu_hotplug_disable()	do { } while (0)
 #define cpu_hotplug_enable()	do { } while (0)
 #define hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
+#define __hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri)	do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
 /* These aren't inline functions due to a GCC bug. */
 #define register_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	({ (void)(nb); 0; })
+#define __register_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	({ (void)(nb); 0; })
 #define unregister_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	({ (void)(nb); })
+#define __unregister_hotcpu_notifier(nb)	({ (void)(nb); })
 #endif		/* CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU */
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_PM_SLEEP_SMP
diff --git a/kernel/cpu.c b/kernel/cpu.c
index 33caf5e..a9e710e 100644
--- a/kernel/cpu.c
+++ b/kernel/cpu.c
@@ -28,18 +28,23 @@
 static DEFINE_MUTEX(cpu_add_remove_lock);
 
 /*
- * The following two API's must be used when attempting
- * to serialize the updates to cpu_online_mask, cpu_present_mask.
+ * The following two APIs (cpu_maps_update_begin/done) must be used when
+ * attempting to serialize the updates to cpu_online_mask & cpu_present_mask.
+ * The APIs cpu_notifier_register_begin/done() must be used to protect CPU
+ * hotplug callback (un)registration performed using __register_cpu_notifier()
+ * or __unregister_cpu_notifier().
  */
 void cpu_maps_update_begin(void)
 {
 	mutex_lock(&cpu_add_remove_lock);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(cpu_notifier_register_begin);
 
 void cpu_maps_update_done(void)
 {
 	mutex_unlock(&cpu_add_remove_lock);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(cpu_notifier_register_done);
 
 static RAW_NOTIFIER_HEAD(cpu_chain);
 
@@ -183,6 +188,11 @@ int __ref register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 	return ret;
 }
 
+int __ref __register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+	return raw_notifier_chain_register(&cpu_chain, nb);
+}
+
 static int __cpu_notify(unsigned long val, void *v, int nr_to_call,
 			int *nr_calls)
 {
@@ -206,6 +216,7 @@ static void cpu_notify_nofail(unsigned long val, void *v)
 	BUG_ON(cpu_notify(val, v));
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_cpu_notifier);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__register_cpu_notifier);
 
 void __ref unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 {
@@ -215,6 +226,12 @@ void __ref unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_cpu_notifier);
 
+void __ref __unregister_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
+{
+	raw_notifier_chain_unregister(&cpu_chain, nb);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__unregister_cpu_notifier);
+
 /**
  * clear_tasks_mm_cpumask - Safely clear tasks' mm_cpumask for a CPU
  * @cpu: a CPU id

--
To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" in
the body of a message to majordomo@...r.kernel.org
More majordomo info at  http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
Please read the FAQ at  http://www.tux.org/lkml/

Powered by blists - more mailing lists