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Date:	Thu, 3 Apr 2014 10:21:58 -0700
From:	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
To:	Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com>
Cc:	fweisbec@...il.com, peterz@...radead.org,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: Promela/spin model for NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE code

On Thu, Apr 03, 2014 at 02:57:55AM +0000, Mathieu Desnoyers wrote:
> ----- Original Message -----
> > From: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
> > To: "Mathieu Desnoyers" <mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com>
> > Cc: fweisbec@...il.com, peterz@...radead.org, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
> > Sent: Tuesday, April 1, 2014 10:50:44 PM
> > Subject: Re: Promela/spin model for NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE code
> > 
> [...]
> > > Here is the experiment I did on this latest version: I just enabled the
> > > safety checking (not progress). I commented these lines out (again):
> > > 
> > >                 /* If needed, wake up the timekeeper. */
> > >                 if
> > >                 //:: oldstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
> > >                 //      wakeup_timekeeper = 1;
> > >                 :: else -> skip;
> > >                 fi;
> > > 
> > > compile and run with:
> > > 
> > > spin -a sysidle.spin
> > > gcc -o pan pan.c
> > > ./pan -m1280000 -w22
> > > 
> > > My expectation would be to trigger some kind of assertion that the
> > > timekeeper is not active while the worker is running. Unfortunately,
> > > nothing triggers.
> > 
> > That is expected behavior.  Failure to wake up the timekeeper is set
> > up as a progress criterion.
> > 
> > > I see 3 possible solutions: we could either add assertions into
> > > other branches of the timekeeper, or add assertions into the worker
> > > thread. Another way to do it would be to express the assertions as
> > > negation of a LTL formula based on state variables.
> > 
> > I did try both a hand-coded "never" clause and LTL formulas without
> > success. You have more experience with them, so perhaps you could make
> > something work.  The need is that if all worker threads go non-idle
> > indefinitely starting from the RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED state, the
> > wakeup_timekeeper must eventually be set to 1, and then the timekeeper
> > must start running, for example, the wakeup_timekeeper value must revert
> > to zero.
> > 
> > The problem I had is that the "never" claims seem set up to catch some
> > finite behavior after a possibly-infinite prefix.  In this case, we
> > instead need to catch some infinite behavior after a possibly-infinite
> > prefix.
> > 
> > > Thoughts ?
> > 
> > Me, I eventually switched over to using progress detection.  Which might
> > be a bit unconventional, but it did have the virtue of making the
> > model complain when it should complain.  ;-)
> 
> Here is my attempt at simplifying the model. I use LTL formulas as checks
> for the two things I think really matter here: having timekeeping eventually
> active when threads are running, and having timekeeping eventually inactive
> when threads are idle. Hopefully my Promela is not too rusty:

Well, this was the first time I had ever tried using LTL or never claims,
so you are ahead of me either way.  ;-)

> 1) When, at any point in the trail, a worker is setup, then we want to
>    be sure that at some point in the future the timer is necessarily
>    running:
> 
> timer_active.ltl:
> [] (am_setup_0 -> (<> timekeeper_is_running))

OK, am_setup_0 implies that the timekeeper will eventually be running.
For two threads, this presumably becomes:

[] ((am_setup_0 || am_setup_1) -> (<> timekeeper_is_running))

> 2) When, at any point in the trail, a worker is not setup, then we
>    want to be sure that at some point in the future, either this
>    thread is setup again, or the timekeeper reaches a not running
>    state:
> 
> timer_inactive.ltl:
> [] (!am_setup_0 -> (<> (!timekeeper_is_running || am_setup_0)))

And here the two-thread version should be something like this:

[] (!(am_setup_0 || am_setup_1) -> (<> (!timekeeper_is_running || am_setup_0 || am_setup_1)))

It would be nice if never claims allowed local variables, as that would
allow looping over the am_setup array.  Or maybe I just haven't figured
out how to tell spin that a given variable should not be considered to
be part of the global state.

> sysidle.sh:
> #!/bin/sh
> 
> spin -f "!(`cat timer_active.ltl`)" > pan.ltl
> #spin -f "!(`cat timer_inactive.ltl`)" > pan.ltl
> spin -a -X -N  pan.ltl sysidle.spin
> #spin -DINJECT_MISSING_WAKEUP -a -X -N  pan.ltl sysidle.spin

I definitely didn't use "-X".  The "spin --help" says "-[XYZ] reserved
for use by xspin interface", so maybe it doesn't matter.  ;-)

> gcc -o pan pan.c
> ./pan -f -a -m1280000 -w22
> 
> #view trail with:
> # spin -v -t -N pan.ltl sysidle.spin

Interesting.  I have put this into a separate branch.  May I use your
Signed-off-by?

I need to play around a bit more with LTL and progress labels!

							Thanx, Paul

> sysidle.spin:
> 
> /*
>  * Promela model for CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE=y in the Linux kernel.
>  * This model assumes that the dyntick-idle bit manipulation works based
>  * on long usage, and substitutes a per-thread boolean "am_busy[]" array
>  * for the Linux kernel's dyntick-idle masks.  The focus of this model
>  * is therefore on the state machine itself.  Models timekeeper "running"
>  * state with respect to worker thread idle state.
>  *
>  * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
>  * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
>  * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
>  * (at your option) any later version.
>  *
>  * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
>  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
>  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
>  * GNU General Public License for more details.
>  *
>  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
>  * along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
>  * http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
>  *
>  * Copyright IBM Corporation, 2014
>  * Copyright EfficiOS, 2014
>  *
>  * Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
>  *         Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com>
>  */
> 
> // adapt LTL formulas before changing NUM_WORKERS
> //#define NUM_WORKERS 2
> #define NUM_WORKERS 1
> /* Defines used because LTL formula interprets [] */
> #define am_setup_0      am_setup[0]
> #define am_setup_1      am_setup[1]
> 
> byte wakeup_timekeeper = 0; /* Models rcu_kick_nohz_cpu(). */
> 
> #define RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT         0       /* Some CPU is not idle. */
> #define RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT       1       /* All CPUs idle for brief period. */
> #define RCU_SYSIDLE_LONG        2       /* All CPUs idle for long enough. */
> #define RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL        3       /* All CPUs idle, ready for sysidle. */
> #define RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED  4       /* Actually entered sysidle state. */
> 
> byte full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
> 
> byte am_busy[NUM_WORKERS];  /* Busy is similar to "not dyntick-idle". */
> byte am_setup[NUM_WORKERS]; /* Setup means timekeeper knows I am not idle. */
> 
> byte timekeeper_is_running = 1; /* Timekeeper initially running */
> 
> /*
>  * Non-timekeeping CPU going into and out of dyntick-idle state.
>  */
> proctype worker(byte me)
> {
>         byte oldstate;
> 
>         do
>         :: 1 ->
>                 /* Go idle. */
>                 am_setup[me] = 0;
>                 am_busy[me] = 0;
> 
>                 /* Dyntick-idle in the following loop. */
>                 do
>                 :: 1 -> skip;
>                 :: 1 -> break;
>                 od;
> 
>                 /* Exit idle loop, model getting out of dyntick idle state. */
>                 am_busy[me] = 1;
> 
>                 /* Get state out of full-system idle states. */
>                 atomic {
>                         oldstate = full_sysidle_state;
>                         if
>                         :: oldstate > RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT ->
>                                 full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
>                         :: else -> skip;
>                         fi;
>                 }
> 
>                 /* If needed, wake up the timekeeper. */
>                 if
>                 :: oldstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
> #ifndef INJECT_MISSING_WAKEUP
>                         wakeup_timekeeper = 1;
> #else
>                         skip;
> #endif
>                 :: else -> skip;
>                 fi;
> 
>                 /* Mark ourselves fully awake and operational. */
>                 am_setup[me] = 1;
> 
>                 /* We are fully awake, so timekeeper must not be asleep. */
>                 assert(full_sysidle_state < RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL);
> 
>                 /* Running in kernel in the following loop. */
>                 do
>                 :: 1 -> skip;
>                 :: 1 -> break;
>                 od;
>         od
> }
> 
> /*
>  * Are all the workers in dyntick-idle state?
>  */
> #define check_idle() \
>         i = 0; \
>         idle = 1; \
>         do \
>         :: i < NUM_WORKERS -> \
>                 if \
>                 :: am_busy[i] == 1 -> idle = 0; \
>                 :: else -> skip; \
>                 fi; \
>                 i++; \
>         :: i >= NUM_WORKERS -> break; \
>         od
> 
> /*
>  * Timekeeping CPU.
>  */
> proctype timekeeper()
> {
>         byte i;
>         byte idle;
>         byte curstate;
>         byte newstate;
> 
>         do
>         :: 1 ->
>                 /* Capture current state. */
>                 check_idle();
>                 curstate = full_sysidle_state;
>                 newstate = curstate;
> 
>                 /* Manage state... */
>                 if
>                 :: idle == 1 && curstate < RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
>                         /* Idle, advance to next state. */
>                         atomic {
>                                 if
>                                 :: full_sysidle_state == curstate ->
>                                         newstate = curstate + 1;
>                                         full_sysidle_state = newstate;
>                                 :: else -> skip;
>                                 fi;
>                         }
>                 :: idle == 0 && full_sysidle_state >= RCU_SYSIDLE_LONG ->
>                         /* Non-idle and state advanced, revert to base state. */
>                         full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
>                 :: else -> skip;
>                 fi;
> 
>                 /* If in RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED, wait to be awakened. */
>                 if
>                 :: newstate != RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
>                         skip;
>                 :: newstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
>                         timekeeper_is_running = 0;
>                         do
>                         :: wakeup_timekeeper == 0 ->
>                                 skip; /* Awaiting wake up */
>                         :: else ->
>                                 timekeeper_is_running = 1;
>                                 wakeup_timekeeper = 0;
>                                 break; /* awakened */
>                         od;
>                 fi;
>                 assert(full_sysidle_state <= RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED);
>         od;
> }
> 
> init {
>         byte i = 0;
> 
>         do
>         :: i < NUM_WORKERS ->
>                 am_busy[i] = 1;
>                 am_setup[i] = 1;
>                 run worker(i);
>                 i++;
>         :: i >= NUM_WORKERS -> break;
>         od;
>         run timekeeper();
> }
> 
> -- 
> Mathieu Desnoyers
> EfficiOS Inc.
> http://www.efficios.com
> 

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