lists.openwall.net   lists  /  announce  owl-users  owl-dev  john-users  john-dev  passwdqc-users  yescrypt  popa3d-users  /  oss-security  kernel-hardening  musl  sabotage  tlsify  passwords  /  crypt-dev  xvendor  /  Bugtraq  Full-Disclosure  linux-kernel  linux-netdev  linux-ext4  linux-hardening  PHC 
Open Source and information security mailing list archives
 
Hash Suite: Windows password security audit tool. GUI, reports in PDF.
[<prev] [next>] [<thread-prev] [thread-next>] [day] [month] [year] [list]
Date:	Mon, 7 Apr 2014 11:11:55 -0700
From:	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
To:	Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@...il.com>
Cc:	mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com, peterz@...radead.org,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: Promela/spin model for NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE code

On Fri, Apr 04, 2014 at 01:43:16AM +0200, Frederic Weisbecker wrote:
> On Sun, Mar 30, 2014 at 04:08:56PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > For whatever it is worth, the following model claims safety and progress
> > for the sysidle state machine.
> > 
> > Thoughts?
> 
> I'm going to get fun of myself by risking a review of this. Warning,
> I don't speak promelian, so I may well write non-sense :)

Actually, you did find one real mismatch and one arguable one.  ;-)

> > 							Thanx, Paul
> > 
> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > sysidle.sh
> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > spin -a sysidle.spin
> > cc -DNP -o pan pan.c
> > # Fair scheduling to focus progress checks in timekeeper.
> > ./pan -f -l -m1280000 -w22
> > 
> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > sysidle.spin
> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > /*
> >  * Promela model for CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE=y in the Linux kernel.
> >  * This model assumes that the dyntick-idle bit manipulation works based
> >  * on long usage, and substitutes a per-thread boolean "am_busy[]" array
> >  * for the Linux kernel's dyntick-idle masks.  The focus of this model
> >  * is therefore on the state machine itself.  Checks for both safety and
> >  * forward progress.
> >  *
> >  * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> >  * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
> >  * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
> >  * (at your option) any later version.
> >  *
> >  * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> >  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> >  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
> >  * GNU General Public License for more details.
> >  *
> >  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> >  * along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
> >  * http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
> >  *
> >  * Copyright IBM Corporation, 2014
> >  *
> >  * Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
> >  */
> > 
> > #define NUM_WORKERS 3
> > 
> > byte wakeup_timekeeper = 0; /* Models rcu_kick_nohz_cpu(). */
> > 
> > #define RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT		0	/* Some CPU is not idle. */
> > #define RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT	1	/* All CPUs idle for brief period. */
> > #define RCU_SYSIDLE_LONG	2	/* All CPUs idle for long enough. */
> > #define RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL	3	/* All CPUs idle, ready for sysidle. */
> > #define RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED	4	/* Actually entered sysidle state. */
> > 
> > byte full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
> > 
> > byte am_busy[NUM_WORKERS];  /* Busy is similar to "not dyntick-idle". */
> > byte am_setup[NUM_WORKERS]; /* Setup means timekeeper knows I am not idle. */
> > 
> > /*
> >  * Non-timekeeping CPU going into and out of dyntick-idle state.
> >  */
> > proctype worker(byte me)
> > {
> > 	byte oldstate;
> > 
> > 	do
> > 	:: 1 ->
> > 		/* Go idle. */
> > 		am_setup[me] = 0;
> > 		am_busy[me] = 0;
> > 
> > 		/* Dyntick-idle in the following loop. */
> > 		do
> > 		:: 1 -> skip;
> > 		:: 1 -> break;
> > 		od;
> > 
> > 		/* Exit idle loop, model getting out of dyntick idle state. */
> > 		am_busy[me] = 1;
> > 
> > 		/* Get state out of full-system idle states. */
> > 		atomic {
> > 			oldstate = full_sysidle_state;
> 
> On the upstream code, the first read of full_sysidle_state after exiting idle is not
> performed by an atomic operation. So I wonder if this is right to put this
> in the atomic section.
> 
> I don't know the language enough to tell if it has no effect but I'm just
> worried that it gets badly intepreted. Like the above read plus the below
> conditional write in the same atomic section gets packed in a kind of cmpxchg_if_above() ?
> 
> Which is what we want to avoid if the value is not above RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT after
> a non atomic read.

Given that cmpxchg() is being used to emulate exactly that atomic
operation, I feel good about this Promela translation.  If the value is
different at the time of the cmpxchg(), the cmpxchg() fails.  I suppose
I could write it as follows instead:

		/* Get state out of full-system idle states. */
		oldstate = full_sysidle_state;
		do
		:: 1 ->
			atomic {
				if
				:: oldstate > RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT &&
				   oldstate == full_sysidle_state ->
					full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
					break;
				:: else ->
					oldstate = full_sysidle_state;
				fi;
			}
		od;

Here the "if" emulates the cmpxchg() instruction and the rest emulates
the loop.  Both representations get the same result when

> > 			if
> > 			:: oldstate > RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT ->
> > 				full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
> > 			:: else -> skip;
> > 			fi;
> > 		}
> > 
> > 		/* If needed, wake up the timekeeper. */
> > 		if
> > 		:: oldstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
> > 			wakeup_timekeeper = 1;
> > 		:: else -> skip;
> > 		fi;
> > 
> > 		/* Mark ourselves fully awake and operational. */
> > 		am_setup[me] = 1;
> > 
> > 		/* We are fully awake, so timekeeper must not be asleep. */
> > 		assert(full_sysidle_state < RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL);
> > 
> > 		/* Running in kernel in the following loop. */
> > 		do
> > 		:: 1 -> skip;
> > 		:: 1 -> break;
> > 		od;
> > 	od
> > }
> > 
> > /*
> >  * Are all the workers in dyntick-idle state?
> >  */
> > #define check_idle() \
> > 	i = 0; \
> > 	idle = 1; \
> > 	do \
> > 	:: i < NUM_WORKERS -> \
> > 		if \
> > 		:: am_busy[i] == 1 -> idle = 0; \
> > 		:: else -> skip; \
> > 		fi; \
> > 		i++; \
> > 	:: i >= NUM_WORKERS -> break; \
> > 	od
> > 
> > /*
> >  * Timekeeping CPU.
> >  */
> > proctype timekeeper()
> > {
> > 	byte i;
> > 	byte idle;
> > 	byte curstate;
> > 	byte newstate;
> > 
> > 	do
> > 	:: 1 ->
> > 		/* Capture current state. */
> > 		check_idle();
> > 		curstate = full_sysidle_state;
> > 		newstate = curstate;
> > 
> > 		/* Check for acceptance state. */
> > 		if
> > 		:: idle == 0 ->
> > progress_idle:
> 
> Is this some kind of label? I can't find the target anywhere.

It is a marker.  If you specify -DNP and if there is any cycle of
states that does not pass through a label beginning with "progress",
the verification will fail.  So it is useful for finding livelocks.

Mathieu posted another way of getting this same effect.

> > 			skip;
> > 		:: curstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT ->
> > progress_idle_reset:
> > 			skip;
> > 		:: else -> skip;
> > 		fi;
> > 
> > 		/* Manage state... */
> > 		if
> > 		:: idle == 1 && curstate < RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED ->
> > 			/* Idle, advance to next state. */
> > 			atomic {
> > 				if
> > 				:: full_sysidle_state == curstate ->
> > 					newstate = curstate + 1;
> > 					full_sysidle_state = newstate;
> > 				:: else -> skip;
> > 				fi;
> > 			}
> 
> It looks good but just one thing about the transition from FULL -> FULL_NOTED.
> At least in the case of CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE_SMALL (which is usually the
> scenario I refer to, but I'll check further the grace-period driven way as well),
> we switch from FULL to FULL_NOTED without checking a new round of the dynticks counters.
> 
> But this timekeeper() proc doesn't seem to care and does a check_idle() no matter
> the current state.
> 
> There should probably be a special case to handle that otherwise we add a new
> round of dynticks counters read between FULL and FULL_NOTED transition and this is an
> entirely different scenario than what we run.

Good catch!  I changed the above RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED to RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL
and added an atomic block to move to RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED.  Still verifies
(whew!).

> > 		:: idle == 0 && full_sysidle_state >= RCU_SYSIDLE_LONG ->
> > 			/* Non-idle and state advanced, revert to base state. */
> > 			full_sysidle_state = RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT;
> 
> Looking at the upstream code, I think we reset also when state == RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT
> once we detect a non-idle state. If it's not a mistyping, I'm probably missing something.

I don't see this.  The resetting happens in rcu_sysidle_force_exit(),
which contains the following:

	while (oldstate > RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT) {
		newoldstate = cmpxchg(&full_sysidle_state,
				      oldstate, RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT);
		if (oldstate == newoldstate &&
		    oldstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED) {
			rcu_kick_nohz_cpu(tick_do_timer_cpu);
			return; /* We cleared it, done! */
		}
		oldstate = newoldstate;
	}

If the state is RCU_SYSIDLE_SHORT, we skip the body of the "if" thus
declining to reset back to RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT.  Or am I confused?

							Thanx, Paul

> Thanks.
> 
> > 		:: else -> skip;
> > 		fi;
> > 
> > 		/* If in RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED, wait to be awakened. */
> > 		do
> > 		:: newstate != RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED &&
> > 		   wakeup_timekeeper == 1 ->
> > 			assert(0); /* Should never get here. */
> > 		:: newstate != RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED &&
> > 		   wakeup_timekeeper == 0 ->
> > 			break;
> > 		:: newstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED &&
> > 		   wakeup_timekeeper == 1 ->
> > progress_full_system_idle_1:
> > 			assert(full_sysidle_state == RCU_SYSIDLE_NOT);
> > 		   	wakeup_timekeeper = 0;
> > 			break;
> > 		:: newstate == RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED &&
> > 		   wakeup_timekeeper == 0 ->
> > progress_full_system_idle_2:
> > 
> > 			/* We are asleep, so all workers better be idle. */
> > 			atomic {
> > 				i = 0;
> > 				idle = 1;
> > 				do
> > 				:: i < NUM_WORKERS ->
> > 					if
> > 					:: am_setup[i] -> idle = 0;
> > 					:: else -> skip;
> > 					fi;
> > 					i++;
> > 				:: i >= NUM_WORKERS -> break;
> > 				od;
> > 				assert(idle == 1 ||
> > 				       full_sysidle_state < RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL);
> > 			}
> > 		od;
> > 		assert(full_sysidle_state <= RCU_SYSIDLE_FULL_NOTED);
> > 	od;
> > }
> > 
> > init {
> > 	byte i = 0;
> > 
> > 	do
> > 	:: i < NUM_WORKERS ->
> > 		am_busy[i] = 1;
> > 		am_setup[i] = 1;
> > 		run worker(i);
> > 		i++;
> > 	:: i >= NUM_WORKERS -> break;
> > 	od;
> > 	run timekeeper();
> > }
> > 
> 

--
To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" in
the body of a message to majordomo@...r.kernel.org
More majordomo info at  http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
Please read the FAQ at  http://www.tux.org/lkml/

Powered by blists - more mailing lists