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Date:	Mon, 21 Jul 2014 12:01:35 +0900
From:	Namhyung Kim <namhyung@...nel.org>
To:	Hemant Kumar <hemant@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc:	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, srikar@...ux.vnet.ibm.com,
	peterz@...radead.org, oleg@...hat.com,
	hegdevasant@...ux.vnet.ibm.com, mingo@...hat.com,
	systemtap@...rceware.org, masami.hiramatsu.pt@...achi.com,
	aravinda@...ux.vnet.ibm.com, penberg@....fi
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 1/3] perf/sdt : Listing of SDT markers by perf

Hi Hemant,

On Thu, 17 Jul 2014 11:25:12 +0530, Hemant Kumar wrote:
> This patch enables perf to list the SDT markers present in a system. It looks
> in dsos given by ldconfig --print-cache and for other binaries, it looks into
> the PATH environment variable. After preparing a list of the binaries, then
> it starts searching for SDT markers in them.
> To find the SDT markers, first an elf section named .note.stapsdt is searched
> for. And then the SDT notes are retreived one by one from that section.
> To counter the effect of prelinking, the section ".stapsdt.base" is searched.
> If its found, then the location of the SDT marker is adjusted.
>
> All these markers' info is written into a cache file
> "/var/cache/perf/perf-sdt.cache".
> Since, the presence of SDT markers is quite common these days, hence, its better
> to make them visible to a user easily. Also, creating a cache file will help a user
> to probe (to be implemented) these markers without much hussle. This cache file will
> hold most of the SDT markers.
>
> The format of each SDT cache entry is -
>
> %provider:marker:file_path:build_id:location:semaphore_loc
>
> % - marks the beginning of each entry.
> provider - The provider name of the SDT marker.
> marker - The marker name of the SDT marker.
> file_path - Full/absolute path of the file in which this marker is present.
> location : Adjusted location of the SDT marker inside the program.
> semaphore_loc : The semaphore address if present otherwise 0x0.
>
> This format should help when probing will be implemented. The adjusted address
> from the required entry can be directly used in probing if the build_id matches.
>
> To scan the system for SDT markers invoke :
> # perf list sdt --scan
>
> "--scan" should be used for the first time and whenever there is any change in
> the files containing the SDT markers. It looks into the common binaries available
> in a system.
>
> And then use :
> # perf list sdt
>
> This displays the list of SDT markers recorded in the SDT cache.
> This shows the SDT markers present in the common binaries stored in the system,
> present in PATH variable and the /lib/ and /lib64/ directories.
>
> Or use:
> # perf list
>
> It should display all events including the SDT events.
>
> Signed-off-by : hemant@...ux.vnet.ibm.com

Missing your real name in the sob line.  (other patchse too)


> ---
>  tools/perf/Makefile.perf       |    1 
>  tools/perf/builtin-list.c      |    6 
>  tools/perf/util/parse-events.h |    3 
>  tools/perf/util/sdt.c          |  503 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  tools/perf/util/symbol-elf.c   |  229 ++++++++++++++++++
>  tools/perf/util/symbol.h       |   19 ++
>  6 files changed, 760 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>  create mode 100644 tools/perf/util/sdt.c
>
> diff --git a/tools/perf/Makefile.perf b/tools/perf/Makefile.perf
> index 9670a16..e098dcd 100644
> --- a/tools/perf/Makefile.perf
> +++ b/tools/perf/Makefile.perf
> @@ -373,6 +373,7 @@ LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)util/stat.o
>  LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)util/record.o
>  LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)util/srcline.o
>  LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)util/data.o
> +LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)util/sdt.o
>  
>  LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)ui/setup.o
>  LIB_OBJS += $(OUTPUT)ui/helpline.o
> diff --git a/tools/perf/builtin-list.c b/tools/perf/builtin-list.c
> index 011195e..e1e654b 100644
> --- a/tools/perf/builtin-list.c
> +++ b/tools/perf/builtin-list.c
> @@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ int cmd_list(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix __maybe_unused)
>  		OPT_END()
>  	};
>  	const char * const list_usage[] = {
> -		"perf list [hw|sw|cache|tracepoint|pmu|event_glob]",
> +		"perf list [hw|sw|cache|tracepoint|pmu|event_glob|sdt]",

Hmm.. I think it'd be better like below

		"perf list [hw|sw|cache|tracepoint|pmu|sdt|<event_glob>]",


>  		NULL
>  	};
>  
> @@ -34,6 +34,8 @@ int cmd_list(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix __maybe_unused)
>  
>  	if (argc == 0) {
>  		print_events(NULL, false);
> +		printf("\n\nSDT events :\n");
> +		sdt_cache__display();

What about make print_events() to print SDT events also?


>  		return 0;
>  	}
>  
> @@ -55,6 +57,8 @@ int cmd_list(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix __maybe_unused)
>  			print_pmu_events(NULL, false);
>  		else if (strcmp(argv[i], "--raw-dump") == 0)
>  			print_events(NULL, true);
> +		else if (strcmp(argv[i], "sdt") == 0)
> +			print_sdt_events(argv[++i]);

Please move this above the --raw-dump block, it's a special marker to
help shell completion for event names so I'd like to keep it last.


>  		else {
>  			char *sep = strchr(argv[i], ':'), *s;
>  			int sep_idx;


[SNIP]
> +/*
> + * Finds out the libraries present in a system as shown by the command
> + * "ldconfig --print-cache". Uses "=>" and '/' to find out the start of a
> + * dso path.
> + */

If we received the list of libraries from user directly, it can go
away IMHO.


> +static char *parse_lib_name(char *str)
> +{
> +	char *ptr, *q, *r;
> +
> +	while (str != NULL) {
> +		/* look for "=>" and then '/' */
> +		ptr = strstr(str, "=>");
> +		if (ptr) {
> +			ptr++;
> +			q = strchr(ptr, '/');
> +			if (!q)
> +				return NULL;
> +			r = strchr(ptr, '\n');
> +			*r = '\0';
> +			return q;
> +		} else if (ptr == NULL) {
> +			return NULL;
> +		} else {
> +			str = ptr + 1;
> +			continue;
> +		}
> +	}
> +
> +	return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Checks if a path is already present in the list.
> + * Returns 'true' if present and 'false' otherwise.
> + */
> +static bool is_present_in_list(struct list_head *path_list, char *path)
> +{
> +	struct path_list *tmp;
> +
> +	list_for_each_entry(tmp, path_list, list) {
> +		if (!strcmp(path, tmp->path))
> +			return true;
> +	}

As Andi pointed out, you can use a hashtable for this.


> +
> +	return false;
> +}
> +
> +static inline void append_path(char *path, struct list_head *list)
> +{
> +	char *res_path = NULL;
> +	struct path_list *tmp = NULL;
> +
> +	res_path = (char *)malloc(sizeof(char) * PATH_MAX);
> +
> +	if (!res_path)
> +		return;
> +
> +	memset(res_path, '\0', PATH_MAX);
> +
> +	if (realpath(path, res_path) && !is_present_in_list(list, res_path)) {
> +		tmp = (struct path_list *) malloc(sizeof(struct path_list));

Hmm... why not reusing res_path and make struct path_list to just have a
pointer?  Also you can use readpath(path, NULL) rather than allocating
a PATH_MAX buffer and zero'ing it (can use calloc for it anyway).


> +		if (!tmp) {
> +			free(res_path);
> +			return;
> +		}
> +		strcpy(tmp->path, res_path);
> +		list_add(&(tmp->list), list);
> +		if (res_path)
> +			free(res_path);
> +	}
> +}


[SNIP]
> +/*
> + * Go through all the files inside "path".
> + * But don't go into sub-directories.
> + */
> +static void walk_through_dir(char *path)
> +{
> +	struct dirent *entry;
> +	DIR *dir;
> +	struct stat sb;
> +	int ret = 0;
> +	char *swd;
> +
> +	dir = opendir(path);
> +	if (!dir)
> +		return;
> +
> +	/* save the current working directory */
> +	swd = getcwd(NULL, 0);
> +	if (!swd) {
> +		pr_err("getcwd : error");
> +		return;
> +	}
> +
> +	ret = chdir(path);
> +	if (ret) {
> +		pr_err("chdir : error in %s", path);
> +		return;
> +	}

Is this really needed?  I guess opendir() already covers possible
failure cases, if not, we might use stat() anyway.


> +	while ((entry = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
> +
> +		ret = stat(entry->d_name, &sb);
> +		if (ret == -1) {
> +			pr_debug("%s : error in stat!\n", entry->d_name);
> +			continue;
> +		}
> +
> +		/* Not pursuing sub-directories */
> +		if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFMT) != S_IFDIR)
> +			if (sb.st_mode & S_IXUSR)
> +				append_path(entry->d_name, &execs.list);
> +	}
> +
> +	closedir(dir);
> +
> +	/* return to the saved working directory */
> +	ret = chdir(swd);
> +	if (ret) {
> +		pr_err("chdir : error");
> +		return;
> +	}
> +}


[SNIP]
> --- a/tools/perf/util/symbol-elf.c
> +++ b/tools/perf/util/symbol-elf.c
> @@ -1619,6 +1619,235 @@ void kcore_extract__delete(struct kcore_extract *kce)
>  	unlink(kce->extract_filename);
>  }
>  

Like I said earlier in a different thread, the below code can be a
sepatate change.

Thanks,
Namhyung


> +static int populate_sdt_note(Elf **elf, const char *data, size_t len, int type,
> +			     struct sdt_note **note)
> +{
> +	const char *provider, *name;
> +	struct sdt_note *tmp = NULL;
> +	GElf_Ehdr ehdr;
> +	GElf_Addr base_off = 0;
> +	GElf_Shdr shdr;
> +	int ret = -1;
> +	int i;
> +
> +	union {
> +		Elf64_Addr a64[3];
> +		Elf32_Addr a32[3];
> +	} buf;
> +
> +	Elf_Data dst = {
> +		.d_buf = &buf, .d_type = ELF_T_ADDR, .d_version = EV_CURRENT,
> +		.d_size = gelf_fsize((*elf), ELF_T_ADDR, 3, EV_CURRENT),
> +		.d_off = 0, .d_align = 0
> +	};
> +	Elf_Data src = {
> +		.d_buf = (void *) data, .d_type = ELF_T_ADDR,
> +		.d_version = EV_CURRENT, .d_size = dst.d_size, .d_off = 0,
> +		.d_align = 0
> +	};
> +
> +	/* Check the type of each of the notes */
> +	if (type != SDT_NOTE_TYPE)
> +		goto out_err;
> +
> +	tmp = (struct sdt_note *)calloc(1, sizeof(struct sdt_note));
> +	if (!tmp) {
> +		ret = -ENOMEM;
> +		goto out_err;
> +	}
> +
> +	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&tmp->note_list);
> +
> +	if (len < dst.d_size + 3)
> +		goto out_free_note;
> +
> +	/* Translation from file representation to memory representation */
> +	if (gelf_xlatetom(*elf, &dst, &src,
> +			  elf_getident(*elf, NULL)[EI_DATA]) == NULL)
> +		printf("gelf_xlatetom : %s\n", elf_errmsg(-1));
> +
> +	/* Populate the fields of sdt_note */
> +	provider = data + dst.d_size;
> +
> +	name = (const char *)memchr(provider, '\0', data + len - provider);
> +	if (name++ == NULL)
> +		goto out_free_note;
> +
> +	tmp->provider = strdup(provider);
> +	if (!tmp->provider) {
> +		ret = -ENOMEM;
> +		goto out_free_note;
> +	}
> +	tmp->name = strdup(name);
> +	if (!tmp->name) {
> +		ret = -ENOMEM;
> +		goto out_free_prov;
> +	}
> +
> +	/* Obtain the addresses */
> +	if (gelf_getclass(*elf) == ELFCLASS32) {
> +		for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
> +			tmp->addr.a32[i] = buf.a32[i];
> +		tmp->bit32 = true;
> +	} else {
> +		for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
> +			tmp->addr.a64[i] = buf.a64[i];
> +		tmp->bit32 = false;
> +	}
> +
> +	/* Now Adjust the prelink effect */
> +	if (!gelf_getehdr(*elf, &ehdr)) {
> +		pr_debug("%s : cannot get elf header.\n", __func__);
> +		ret = -EBADF;
> +		goto out_free_name;
> +	}
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * Find out the .stapsdt.base section.
> +	 * This scn will help us to handle prelinking (if present).
> +	 * Compare the retrieved file offset of the base section with the
> +	 * base address in the description of the SDT note. If its different,
> +	 * then accordingly, adjust the note location.
> +	 */
> +	if (elf_section_by_name(*elf, &ehdr, &shdr, SDT_BASE_SCN, NULL)) {
> +		base_off = shdr.sh_offset;
> +		if (base_off) {
> +			if (tmp->bit32)
> +				tmp->addr.a32[0] = tmp->addr.a32[0] + base_off -
> +					tmp->addr.a32[1];
> +			else
> +				tmp->addr.a64[0] = tmp->addr.a64[0] + base_off -
> +					tmp->addr.a64[1];
> +		}
> +	}
> +
> +	*note = tmp;
> +	return 0;
> +
> +out_free_name:
> +	free(tmp->name);
> +out_free_prov:
> +	free(tmp->provider);
> +out_free_note:
> +	free(tmp);
> +out_err:
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static int construct_sdt_notes_list(Elf *elf, struct list_head *sdt_notes)
> +{
> +	GElf_Ehdr ehdr;
> +	Elf_Scn *scn = NULL;
> +	Elf_Data *data;
> +	GElf_Shdr shdr;
> +	size_t shstrndx, next;
> +	GElf_Nhdr nhdr;
> +	size_t name_off, desc_off, offset;
> +	struct sdt_note *tmp = NULL;
> +	int ret = 0, val = 0;
> +
> +	if (gelf_getehdr(elf, &ehdr) == NULL) {
> +		ret = -EBADF;
> +		goto out_ret;
> +	}
> +	if (elf_getshdrstrndx(elf, &shstrndx) != 0) {
> +		ret = -EBADF;
> +		goto out_ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	/* Look for the required section */
> +	scn = elf_section_by_name(elf, &ehdr, &shdr, SDT_NOTE_SCN, NULL);
> +	if (!scn) {
> +		ret = -ENOENT;
> +		goto out_ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	if (!(shdr.sh_type == SHT_NOTE) || (shdr.sh_flags & SHF_ALLOC)) {
> +		ret = -ENOENT;
> +		goto out_ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	data = elf_getdata(scn, NULL);
> +
> +	/* Get the SDT notes */
> +	for (offset = 0; (next = gelf_getnote(data, offset, &nhdr, &name_off,
> +					      &desc_off)) > 0; offset = next) {
> +		if (nhdr.n_namesz == sizeof(SDT_NOTE_NAME) &&
> +		    !memcmp(data->d_buf + name_off, SDT_NOTE_NAME,
> +			    sizeof(SDT_NOTE_NAME))) {
> +			val = populate_sdt_note(&elf, ((data->d_buf) + desc_off),
> +						nhdr.n_descsz, nhdr.n_type,
> +						&tmp);
> +			if (!val)
> +				list_add_tail(&tmp->note_list, sdt_notes);
> +			if (val == -ENOMEM) {
> +				ret = val;
> +				goto out_ret;
> +			}
> +		}
> +	}
> +	if (list_empty(sdt_notes))
> +		ret = -ENOENT;
> +
> +out_ret:
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
> +int get_sdt_note_list(struct list_head *head, const char *target)
> +{
> +	Elf *elf;
> +	int fd, ret;
> +
> +	fd = open(target, O_RDONLY);
> +	if (fd < 0)
> +		return -errno;
> +
> +	symbol__elf_init();
> +	elf = elf_begin(fd, ELF_C_READ, NULL);
> +	if (!elf) {
> +		ret = -EBADF;
> +		goto out_close;
> +	}
> +	ret = construct_sdt_notes_list(elf, head);
> +	elf_end(elf);
> +
> +out_close:
> +	close(fd);
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Returns 'true' if the file is an elf and 'false' otherwise
> + */
> +bool is_an_elf(char *file)
> +{
> +	int fd;
> +	Elf *elf;
> +	bool ret = true;
> +
> +	fd = open(file, O_RDONLY);
> +	if (fd < 0) {
> +		ret = false;
> +		goto out_ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	symbol__elf_init();
> +	elf = elf_begin(fd, ELF_C_READ, NULL);
> +	if (!elf) {
> +		ret = false;
> +		goto out_close;
> +	}
> +	if (elf_kind(elf) != ELF_K_ELF)
> +		ret = false;
> +
> +	elf_end(elf);
> +
> +out_close:
> +	close(fd);
> +out_ret:
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
>  void symbol__elf_init(void)
>  {
>  	elf_version(EV_CURRENT);
> diff --git a/tools/perf/util/symbol.h b/tools/perf/util/symbol.h
> index 615c752..83be31a 100644
> --- a/tools/perf/util/symbol.h
> +++ b/tools/perf/util/symbol.h
> @@ -294,4 +294,23 @@ int compare_proc_modules(const char *from, const char *to);
>  int setup_list(struct strlist **list, const char *list_str,
>  	       const char *list_name);
>  
> +struct sdt_note {
> +	char *name;
> +	char *provider;
> +	bool bit32;
> +	union {
> +		Elf64_Addr a64[3];
> +		Elf32_Addr a32[3];
> +	} addr;
> +	struct list_head note_list;
> +};
> +
> +int get_sdt_note_list(struct list_head *head, const char *target);
> +bool is_an_elf(char *file);
> +
> +#define SDT_BASE_SCN ".stapsdt.base"
> +#define SDT_NOTE_SCN  ".note.stapsdt"
> +#define SDT_NOTE_TYPE 3
> +#define SDT_NOTE_NAME "stapsdt"
> +
>  #endif /* __PERF_SYMBOL */
--
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