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Date:	Fri, 8 Aug 2014 07:28:10 -0700
From:	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
To:	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@...dmis.org>
Cc:	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>,
	Oleg Nesterov <oleg@...hat.com>, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org,
	mingo@...nel.org, laijs@...fujitsu.com, dipankar@...ibm.com,
	akpm@...ux-foundation.org, mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com,
	josh@...htriplett.org, tglx@...utronix.de, dhowells@...hat.com,
	edumazet@...gle.com, dvhart@...ux.intel.com, fweisbec@...il.com,
	bobby.prani@...il.com, masami.hiramatsu.pt@...achi.com
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 tip/core/rcu 3/9] rcu: Add synchronous grace-period
 waiting for RCU-tasks

On Fri, Aug 08, 2014 at 10:12:21AM -0400, Steven Rostedt wrote:
> On Fri, 8 Aug 2014 08:40:20 +0200
> Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org> wrote:
> 
> > On Thu, Aug 07, 2014 at 05:18:23PM -0400, Steven Rostedt wrote:
> > > On Thu, 7 Aug 2014 22:08:13 +0200
> > > Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org> wrote:
> > > 
> > > > OK, you've got to start over and start at the beginning, because I'm
> > > > really not understanding this..
> > > > 
> > > > What is a 'trampoline' and what are you going to use them for.
> > > 
> > > Great question! :-)
> > > 
> > > The trampoline is some code that is used to jump to and then jump
> > > someplace else. Currently, we use this for kprobes and ftrace. For
> > > ftrace we have the ftrace_caller trampoline, which is static. When
> > > booting, most functions in the kernel call the mcount code which
> > > simply returns without doing anything. This too is a "trampoline". At
> > > boot, we convert these calls to nops (as you already know). When we
> > > enable callbacks from functions, we convert those calls to call
> > > "ftrace_caller" which is a small assembly trampoline that will call
> > > some function that registered with ftrace.
> > > 
> > > Now why do we need the call_rcu_task() routine?
> > > 
> > > Right now, if you register multiple callbacks to ftrace, even if they
> > > are not tracing the same routine, ftrace has to change ftrace_caller to
> > > call another trampoline (in C), that does a loop of all ops registered
> > > with ftrace, and compares the function to the ops hash tables to see if
> > > the ops function should be called for that function.
> > > 
> > > What we want to do is to create a dynamic trampoline that is a copy of
> > > the ftrace_caller code, but instead of calling this list trampoline, it
> > > calls the ops function directly. This way, each ops registered with
> > > ftrace can have its own custom trampoline that when called will only
> > > call the ops function and not have to iterate over a list. This only
> > > happens if the function being traced only has this one ops registered.
> > > For functions with multiple ops attached to it, we need to call the
> > > list anyway. But for the majority of the cases, this is not the case.
> > > 
> > > The one caveat for this is, how do we free this custom trampoline when
> > > the ops is done with it? Especially for users of ftrace that
> > > dynamically create their own ops (like perf, and ftrace instances).
> > > 
> > > We need to find a way to free it, but unfortunately, there's no way to
> > > know when it is safe to free it. There's no way to disable preemption
> > > or have some other notifier to let us know if a task has jumped to this
> > > trampoline and has been preempted (sleeping). The only safe way to know
> > > that no task is on the trampoline is to remove the calls to it,
> > > synchronize the CPUS (so the trampolines are not even in the caches),
> > > and then wait for all tasks to go through some quiescent state. This
> > > state happens to be either not running, in userspace, or when it
> > > voluntarily calls schedule. Because nothing that uses this trampoline
> > > should do that, and if the task voluntarily calls schedule, we know
> > > it's not on the trampoline.
> > > 
> > > Make sense?
> > 
> > Ok, so they're purely used in the function prologue/epilogue callchain.
> 
> No, they are also used by optimized kprobes. This is why optimized
> kprobes depend on !CONFIG_PREEMPT. [ added Masami to the discussion ].
> 
> Which reminds me. On !CONFIG_PREEMPT, call_rcu_task() should be
> equivalent to call_rcu_sched().

Almost.  One difference is that call_rcu_sched() won't wait for
idle-task execution.  So presumably you are currently prohibited from
putting kprobes in idle tasks.

Oleg slipped this one past me, and for more than a full hour,
(https://lkml.org/lkml/2014/8/2/18), but this time I remembered.  ;-)

							Thanx, Paul

> > And you don't want to use synchronize_tasks() because registering a trace
> > functions is atomic ?
> 
> No. Has nothing to do with registering the trace function. The issue is
> that we have no idea when a task happens to be on a trampoline after it
> is registered. For example:
> 
> ops adds a callback to sys_read:
> 
> sys_read() {
>  call trampoline ->
>     set up regs for function call.
>     <interrupt>
>       preempt_schedule();
> 
>       [ new task runs for long time ]
> 
> 
> While this new task is running, we remove the trampoline and want to
> free it. Say this new task keeps the other task from running for
> minutes! We call synchronize_sched() or any other rcu call, and all
> grace periods finish and we free the trampoline. The sys_read() no
> longer calls our trampoline. Doesn't matter, because that task is still
> on it. Now we schedule that task back. It's on a trampoline that has
> just been freed! BOOM. It's executing code that no longer exits.
> 
> > 
> > But why would you use dynamic memory allocation for these trampolines at
> > all? Why not use the one default trampoline for this?
> 
> That's what ftrace does today.
> 
> > 
> > Suppose that thing looks like:
> > 
> > ftrace_mcount_handler()
> > {
> > 	for_each_hlist_rcu(entry,..)
> > 		entry->func();
> > }
> > 
> > so why not make it look like:
> > 
> > ftrace_mcount_handler()
> > {
> > 	asm_volatile_goto("jmp %l[label]" ::: &do_list);
> > 	return;
> > 
> > do_list:
> > 	for_each_hlist_rcu(entry,...)
> > 		entry->func();
> > }
> > 
> > Then, for:
> > 	no entries -> NOP, 
> > 	one entry -> "CALL $func", 
> > 	more entries -> "JMP &do_list.
> 
> Except that we don't use jump labels for this, but just update the
> trampoline directly (we've been doing this before jump labels ever
> existed, and the trampoline is all in assembly anyway).
> 
> > 
> > No need for extra allocations and fancy means of getting rid of them,
> > and only a few bytes extra wrt the existing function.
> 
> This doesn't address the issue we want to solve.
> 
> Say we have 1000 functions we want to trace with 1000 different
> callbacks. Each of theses functions has one call back. How do you solve
> that with your solution? Today, we do the list for every function. That
> is, for each of these 1000 functions, we run through 1000 ops looking
> for the ops that registered for this function. Not very efficient is it?
> 
> 
> What we want to do today, is to create a dynamic trampoline for each of
> theses 1000 functions. Each function will call a separate trampoline
> that will only call the function that was registered to it. That way,
> we can have 1000 different ops registered to 1000 different functions
> and still have the same performance.
> 
> -- Steve
> 

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