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Date:	Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:26:08 -0700
From:	Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
Cc:	Greg Kroah-Hartman <>,, Eric Paris <>,
	Kees Cook <>,
	Andrew Vagin <>,
	"Andrew G. Morgan" <>,
	"Serge E. Hallyn" <>,
	Steve Grubb <>, Dan Walsh <>,
	James Morris <>
Subject: [PATCH 3.10 10/71] CAPABILITIES: remove undefined caps from all processes

3.10-stable review patch.  If anyone has any objections, please let me know.


From: Eric Paris <>

commit 7d8b6c63751cfbbe5eef81a48c22978b3407a3ad upstream.

This is effectively a revert of 7b9a7ec565505699f503b4fcf61500dceb36e744
plus fixing it a different way...

We found, when trying to run an application from an application which
had dropped privs that the kernel does security checks on undefined
capability bits.  This was ESPECIALLY difficult to debug as those
undefined bits are hidden from /proc/$PID/status.

Consider a root application which drops all capabilities from ALL 4
capability sets.  We assume, since the application is going to set
eff/perm/inh from an array that it will clear not only the defined caps
less than CAP_LAST_CAP, but also the higher 28ish bits which are
undefined future capabilities.

The BSET gets cleared differently.  Instead it is cleared one bit at a
time.  The problem here is that in security/commoncap.c::cap_task_prctl()
we actually check the validity of a capability being read.  So any task
which attempts to 'read all things set in bset' followed by 'unset all
things set in bset' will not even attempt to unset the undefined bits
higher than CAP_LAST_CAP.

So the 'parent' will look something like:
CapInh:	0000000000000000
CapPrm:	0000000000000000
CapEff:	0000000000000000
CapBnd:	ffffffc000000000

All of this 'should' be fine.  Given that these are undefined bits that
aren't supposed to have anything to do with permissions.  But they do...

So lets now consider a task which cleared the eff/perm/inh completely
and cleared all of the valid caps in the bset (but not the invalid caps
it couldn't read out of the kernel).  We know that this is exactly what
the libcap-ng library does and what the go capabilities library does.
They both leave you in that above situation if you try to clear all of
you capapabilities from all 4 sets.  If that root task calls execve()
the child task will pick up all caps not blocked by the bset.  The bset
however does not block bits higher than CAP_LAST_CAP.  So now the child
task has bits in eff which are not in the parent.  These are
'meaningless' undefined bits, but still bits which the parent doesn't

The problem is now in cred_cap_issubset() (or any operation which does a
subset test) as the child, while a subset for valid cap bits, is not a
subset for invalid cap bits!  So now we set durring commit creds that
the child is not dumpable.  Given it is 'more priv' than its parent.  It
also means the parent cannot ptrace the child and other stupidity.

The solution here:
1) stop hiding capability bits in status
	This makes debugging easier!

2) stop giving any task undefined capability bits.  it's simple, it you
don't put those invalid bits in CAP_FULL_SET you won't get them in init
and you won't get them in any other task either.
	This fixes the cap_issubset() tests and resulting fallout (which
	made the init task in a docker container untraceable among other

3) mask out undefined bits when sys_capset() is called as it might use
~0, ~0 to denote 'all capabilities' for backward/forward compatibility.
	This lets 'capsh --caps="all=eip" -- -c /bin/bash' run.

4) mask out undefined bit when we read a file capability off of disk as
again likely all bits are set in the xattr for forward/backward
	This lets 'setcap all+pe /bin/bash; /bin/bash' run

Signed-off-by: Eric Paris <>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <>
Cc: Andrew Vagin <>
Cc: Andrew G. Morgan <>
Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <>
Cc: Kees Cook <>
Cc: Steve Grubb <>
Cc: Dan Walsh <>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>

 fs/proc/array.c            |   11 +----------
 include/linux/capability.h |    5 ++++-
 kernel/audit.c             |    2 +-
 kernel/capability.c        |    4 ++++
 security/commoncap.c       |    3 +++
 5 files changed, 13 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)

--- a/fs/proc/array.c
+++ b/fs/proc/array.c
@@ -304,15 +304,11 @@ static void render_cap_t(struct seq_file
 	seq_puts(m, header);
 	CAP_FOR_EACH_U32(__capi) {
 		seq_printf(m, "%08x",
-			   a->cap[(_KERNEL_CAPABILITY_U32S-1) - __capi]);
+			   a->cap[CAP_LAST_U32 - __capi]);
 	seq_putc(m, '\n');
-/* Remove non-existent capabilities */
-#define NORM_CAPS(v) (v.cap[CAP_TO_INDEX(CAP_LAST_CAP)] &= \
-				CAP_TO_MASK(CAP_LAST_CAP + 1) - 1)
 static inline void task_cap(struct seq_file *m, struct task_struct *p)
 	const struct cred *cred;
@@ -326,11 +322,6 @@ static inline void task_cap(struct seq_f
 	cap_bset	= cred->cap_bset;
-	NORM_CAPS(cap_inheritable);
-	NORM_CAPS(cap_permitted);
-	NORM_CAPS(cap_effective);
-	NORM_CAPS(cap_bset);
 	render_cap_t(m, "CapInh:\t", &cap_inheritable);
 	render_cap_t(m, "CapPrm:\t", &cap_permitted);
 	render_cap_t(m, "CapEff:\t", &cap_effective);
--- a/include/linux/capability.h
+++ b/include/linux/capability.h
@@ -78,8 +78,11 @@ extern const kernel_cap_t __cap_init_eff
 # error Fix up hand-coded capability macro initializers
 #else /* HAND-CODED capability initializers */
+#define CAP_LAST_U32			((_KERNEL_CAPABILITY_U32S) - 1)
 # define CAP_EMPTY_SET    ((kernel_cap_t){{ 0, 0 }})
-# define CAP_FULL_SET     ((kernel_cap_t){{ ~0, ~0 }})
+# define CAP_FULL_SET     ((kernel_cap_t){{ ~0, CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK }})
 # define CAP_FS_SET       ((kernel_cap_t){{ CAP_FS_MASK_B0 \
 				    CAP_FS_MASK_B1 } })
--- a/kernel/audit.c
+++ b/kernel/audit.c
@@ -1412,7 +1412,7 @@ void audit_log_cap(struct audit_buffer *
 	audit_log_format(ab, " %s=", prefix);
 	CAP_FOR_EACH_U32(i) {
 		audit_log_format(ab, "%08x",
-				 cap->cap[(_KERNEL_CAPABILITY_U32S-1) - i]);
+				 cap->cap[CAP_LAST_U32 - i]);
--- a/kernel/capability.c
+++ b/kernel/capability.c
@@ -268,6 +268,10 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE2(capset, cap_user_header_
+	effective.cap[CAP_LAST_U32] &= CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK;
+	permitted.cap[CAP_LAST_U32] &= CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK;
+	inheritable.cap[CAP_LAST_U32] &= CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK;
 	new = prepare_creds();
 	if (!new)
 		return -ENOMEM;
--- a/security/commoncap.c
+++ b/security/commoncap.c
@@ -421,6 +421,9 @@ int get_vfs_caps_from_disk(const struct
 		cpu_caps->inheritable.cap[i] = le32_to_cpu([i].inheritable);
+	cpu_caps->permitted.cap[CAP_LAST_U32] &= CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK;
+	cpu_caps->inheritable.cap[CAP_LAST_U32] &= CAP_LAST_U32_VALID_MASK;
 	return 0;

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