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Date:	Mon, 06 Oct 2014 18:02:20 -0700
From:	"Kevin D. Kissell" <kevink@...alogos.com>
To:	David Daney <ddaney.cavm@...il.com>, libc-alpha@...rceware.org
CC:	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-mips@...ux-mips.org,
	David Daney <david.daney@...ium.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH resend] MIPS: Allow FPU emulator to use non-stack area.

On 10/06/2014 01:23 PM, David Daney wrote:
> From: David Daney <david.daney@...ium.com>
>
> In order for MIPS to be able to support a non-executable stack, we
> need to supply a method to specify a userspace area that can be used
> for executing emulated branch delay slot instructions.
>
> We add a new system call, sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area so that userspace
> threads that are using the FPU can specify the location of the FPU
> emulation out of line execution area.
>
> Background:
>
> MIPS floating point support requires that any instruction that cannot
> be directly executed by the FPU, be emulated by the kernel.  Part of
> this emulation involves executing non-FPU instructions that fall in
> the delay slots of FP branch instructions.  Since the beginning of
> MIPS/Linux time, this has been done by placing the instructions on the
> userspace thread stack, and executing them there, as the instructions
> must be executed in the MM context of the thread receiving the
> emulation.
Well, actually it doesn't go back to the beginning of MIPS/Linux time - 
I was the b*astard who took the user-mode functional emulator from 
Algorithmics and got it to work in the MIPS Linux kernel context, some 
time in the early 2000s.  It was all pretty straightforward, except for 
the delay-slot-of-an-emulated-FP-conditional-branch problem. As you 
note, it may be a load or store (though not a branch), so it needs to be 
done in the user's MM context, and the user stack has nice properties of 
being intrinsically per-thread and re-entrancy tolerant.
> Because of this, the de facto MIPS Linux userspace ABI requires that
> the userspace thread have an executable stack.  It is de facto,
> because it is not written anywhere that this must be the case, but it
> is never the less a requirement.
IIRC, when I first did the code, we already needed this for signal 
trampolines.  I just extended it.  Is it no longer required for signal 
support?  If not, how are signal trampolines now done, and could this 
not be re-extended to the FP branch delay slot emulation problem?
> Problem:
>
> How do we get MIPS Linux to use a non-executable stack in the face of
> the FPU emulation problem?
>
> Since userspace desires to change the ABI, put some of the onus on the
> userspace code.  Any userspace thread desiring a non-executable stack,
> must allocate a 4-byte aligned area at least 8 bytes long with that
> has read/write/execute permissions and pass the address of that area
> to the kernel with the new sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area system call.
>
> This is similar to how we require userspace to notify the kernel of
> the value of the thread local pointer.
It's easy for me to criticise, since I'm no longer responsible for 
maintenance, but I hope you'll excuse me for commenting that, while this 
seems like a small enough and neat enough patch per se,  I find it 
disagreeable to break legacy binaries and to see a mechanism whose name 
and implementation is so strictly tied to the one purpose.  Even if it's 
only used for the FP delay slot emulation today, shouldn't it be 
designed/coded/documented as a sort of generic trampoline scratchpad?  
And shouldn't we try to design things so that legacy code with FP but no 
new magic system call "just works"?  e.g. auto-allocate and initialize 
the space for a thread the first time it actually needs to emulate an FP 
branch?

/K.
>
> Signed-off-by: David Daney <david.daney@...ium.com>
> ---
>
> First attempt to libc-alpha@ failed due to anti-spam technology,
> reattempting to a reduced list of recipients.
>
> This patch has only been compile tested, and lacks the userspace
> component.  It is presented as an alternate approch to the recently
> proposed MIPS non-executable stack patches posted here:
>
> http://www.linux-mips.org/archives/linux-mips/2014-10/msg00024.html
>
>   arch/mips/include/asm/thread_info.h |  2 ++
>   arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h | 15 +++++++++------
>   arch/mips/kernel/process.c          |  1 +
>   arch/mips/kernel/scall32-o32.S      |  1 +
>   arch/mips/kernel/scall64-64.S       |  1 +
>   arch/mips/kernel/scall64-n32.S      |  1 +
>   arch/mips/kernel/scall64-o32.S      |  1 +
>   arch/mips/kernel/syscall.c          |  8 ++++++++
>   arch/mips/math-emu/dsemul.c         | 11 +++++++----
>   9 files changed, 31 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/mips/include/asm/thread_info.h b/arch/mips/include/asm/thread_info.h
> index 7de8658..20d47f6 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/include/asm/thread_info.h
> +++ b/arch/mips/include/asm/thread_info.h
> @@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ struct thread_info {
>   	struct exec_domain	*exec_domain;	/* execution domain */
>   	unsigned long		flags;		/* low level flags */
>   	unsigned long		tp_value;	/* thread pointer */
> +	unsigned long		fpu_emul_xol;	/* FPU emul eXecute Out of Line VA */
>   	__u32			cpu;		/* current CPU */
>   	int			preempt_count;	/* 0 => preemptable, <0 => BUG */
>   
> @@ -46,6 +47,7 @@ struct thread_info {
>   	.task		= &tsk,			\
>   	.exec_domain	= &default_exec_domain, \
>   	.flags		= _TIF_FIXADE,		\
> +	.fpu_emul_xol	= ~0ul,			\
>   	.cpu		= 0,			\
>   	.preempt_count	= INIT_PREEMPT_COUNT,	\
>   	.addr_limit	= KERNEL_DS,		\
> diff --git a/arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h b/arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h
> index fdb4923..f1270ee 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h
> +++ b/arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h
> @@ -375,16 +375,17 @@
>   #define __NR_seccomp			(__NR_Linux + 352)
>   #define __NR_getrandom			(__NR_Linux + 353)
>   #define __NR_memfd_create		(__NR_Linux + 354)
> +#define __NR_set_fpuemul_xol_area	(__NR_Linux + 355)
>   
>   /*
>    * Offset of the last Linux o32 flavoured syscall
>    */
> -#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		354
> +#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		355
>   
>   #endif /* _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_ABI32 */
>   
>   #define __NR_O32_Linux			4000
> -#define __NR_O32_Linux_syscalls		354
> +#define __NR_O32_Linux_syscalls		355
>   
>   #if _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_ABI64
>   
> @@ -707,16 +708,17 @@
>   #define __NR_seccomp			(__NR_Linux + 312)
>   #define __NR_getrandom			(__NR_Linux + 313)
>   #define __NR_memfd_create		(__NR_Linux + 314)
> +#define __NR_set_fpuemul_xol_area	(__NR_Linux + 315)
>   
>   /*
>    * Offset of the last Linux 64-bit flavoured syscall
>    */
> -#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		314
> +#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		315
>   
>   #endif /* _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_ABI64 */
>   
>   #define __NR_64_Linux			5000
> -#define __NR_64_Linux_syscalls		314
> +#define __NR_64_Linux_syscalls		315
>   
>   #if _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_NABI32
>   
> @@ -1043,15 +1045,16 @@
>   #define __NR_seccomp			(__NR_Linux + 316)
>   #define __NR_getrandom			(__NR_Linux + 317)
>   #define __NR_memfd_create		(__NR_Linux + 318)
> +#define __NR_set_fpuemul_xol_area	(__NR_Linux + 319)
>   
>   /*
>    * Offset of the last N32 flavoured syscall
>    */
> -#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		318
> +#define __NR_Linux_syscalls		319
>   
>   #endif /* _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_NABI32 */
>   
>   #define __NR_N32_Linux			6000
> -#define __NR_N32_Linux_syscalls		318
> +#define __NR_N32_Linux_syscalls		319
>   
>   #endif /* _UAPI_ASM_UNISTD_H */
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/process.c b/arch/mips/kernel/process.c
> index 636b074..6dde6bb 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/process.c
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/process.c
> @@ -151,6 +151,7 @@ int copy_thread(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long usp,
>   
>   	if (clone_flags & CLONE_SETTLS)
>   		ti->tp_value = regs->regs[7];
> +	ti->fpu_emul_xol = ~0ul;
>   
>   	return 0;
>   }
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/scall32-o32.S b/arch/mips/kernel/scall32-o32.S
> index 744cd10..8c19a39 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/scall32-o32.S
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/scall32-o32.S
> @@ -579,3 +579,4 @@ EXPORT(sys_call_table)
>   	PTR	sys_seccomp
>   	PTR	sys_getrandom
>   	PTR	sys_memfd_create
> +	PTR	sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area	/* 4355 */
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-64.S b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-64.S
> index 002b1bc..0b9f72e 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-64.S
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-64.S
> @@ -434,4 +434,5 @@ EXPORT(sys_call_table)
>   	PTR	sys_seccomp
>   	PTR	sys_getrandom
>   	PTR	sys_memfd_create
> +	PTR	sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area	/* 5315 */
>   	.size	sys_call_table,.-sys_call_table
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-n32.S b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-n32.S
> index ca6cbbe..48f1760 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-n32.S
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-n32.S
> @@ -427,4 +427,5 @@ EXPORT(sysn32_call_table)
>   	PTR	sys_seccomp
>   	PTR	sys_getrandom
>   	PTR	sys_memfd_create
> +	PTR	sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area
>   	.size	sysn32_call_table,.-sysn32_call_table
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-o32.S b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-o32.S
> index 9e10d11..60def68 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-o32.S
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/scall64-o32.S
> @@ -564,4 +564,5 @@ EXPORT(sys32_call_table)
>   	PTR	sys_seccomp
>   	PTR	sys_getrandom
>   	PTR	sys_memfd_create
> +	PTR	sys_set_fpuemul_xol_area	/* 4355 */
>   	.size	sys32_call_table,.-sys32_call_table
> diff --git a/arch/mips/kernel/syscall.c b/arch/mips/kernel/syscall.c
> index 4a4f9dd..5f9d9e8 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/kernel/syscall.c
> +++ b/arch/mips/kernel/syscall.c
> @@ -96,6 +96,14 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE1(set_thread_area, unsigned long, addr)
>   	return 0;
>   }
>   
> +SYSCALL_DEFINE1(set_fpuemul_xol_area, unsigned long, addr)
> +{
> +	struct thread_info *ti = task_thread_info(current);
> +
> +	ti->fpu_emul_xol = addr;
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
>   static inline int mips_atomic_set(unsigned long addr, unsigned long new)
>   {
>   	unsigned long old, tmp;
> diff --git a/arch/mips/math-emu/dsemul.c b/arch/mips/math-emu/dsemul.c
> index 4f514f3..bf4ff61 100644
> --- a/arch/mips/math-emu/dsemul.c
> +++ b/arch/mips/math-emu/dsemul.c
> @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ struct emuframe {
>   int mips_dsemul(struct pt_regs *regs, mips_instruction ir, unsigned long cpc)
>   {
>   	extern asmlinkage void handle_dsemulret(void);
> +	struct thread_info *ti = task_thread_info(current);
>   	struct emuframe __user *fr;
>   	int err;
>   
> @@ -64,10 +65,12 @@ int mips_dsemul(struct pt_regs *regs, mips_instruction ir, unsigned long cpc)
>   	 * branches, but gives us a cleaner interface to the exception
>   	 * handler (single entry point).
>   	 */
> -
> -	/* Ensure that the two instructions are in the same cache line */
> -	fr = (struct emuframe __user *)
> -		((regs->regs[29] - sizeof(struct emuframe)) & ~0x7);
> +	if (ti->fpu_emul_xol != ~0ul)
> +		fr = (struct emuframe *)ti->fpu_emul_xol;
> +	else
> +		/* Ensure that the two instructions are in the same cache line */
> +		fr = (struct emuframe __user *)
> +			((regs->regs[29] - sizeof(struct emuframe)) & ~0x7);
>   
>   	/* Verify that the stack pointer is not competely insane */
>   	if (unlikely(!access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, fr, sizeof(struct emuframe))))

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