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Date:	Tue, 07 Oct 2014 02:14:06 +0200
From:	"Rafael J. Wysocki" <rjw@...ysocki.net>
To:	Linux Kernel Mailing List <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>
Cc:	Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@...uxfoundation.org>,
	Mika Westerberg <mika.westerberg@...ux.intel.com>,
	ACPI Devel Maling List <linux-acpi@...r.kernel.org>,
	Aaron Lu <aaron.lu@...el.com>, devicetree@...r.kernel.org,
	Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@...aro.org>,
	Alexandre Courbot <gnurou@...il.com>,
	Dmitry Torokhov <dmitry.torokhov@...il.com>,
	Bryan Wu <cooloney@...il.com>,
	Grant Likely <grant.likely@...aro.org>,
	Arnd Bergmann <arnd@...db.de>,
	Darren Hart <dvhart@...ux.intel.com>,
	Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@....com>
Subject: [PATCH 04/13] ACPI: Document ACPI device specific properties

From: Mika Westerberg <mika.westerberg@...ux.intel.com>

This document describes the data format and interfaces of ACPI device
specific properties.

Signed-off-by: Mika Westerberg <mika.westerberg@...ux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Darren Hart <dvhart@...ux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@...el.com>
---
 Documentation/acpi/properties.txt |  376 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 376 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/acpi/properties.txt

Index: linux-pm/Documentation/acpi/properties.txt
===================================================================
--- /dev/null
+++ linux-pm/Documentation/acpi/properties.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,376 @@
+ACPI device properties
+======================
+This document describes the format and interfaces of ACPI device
+properties as specified in "Device Properties UUID For _DSD" available
+here:
+
+http://www.uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/_DSD-device-properties-UUID.pdf
+
+1. Introduction
+---------------
+In systems that use ACPI and want to take advantage of device specific
+properties, there needs to be a standard way to return and extract
+name-value pairs for a given ACPI device.
+
+An ACPI device that wants to export its properties must implement a
+static name called _DSD that takes no arguments and returns a package of
+packages:
+
+	Name (_DSD, Package () {
+		ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+		Package () {
+			Package () {"name1", <VALUE1>},
+			Package () {"name2", <VALUE2>}
+		}
+	})
+
+The UUID identifies contents of the following package. In case of ACPI
+device properties it is daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301.
+
+In each returned package, the first item is the name and must be a string.
+The corresponding value can be a string, integer, reference, or package. If
+a package it may only contain strings, integers, and references.
+
+An example device where we might need properties is a device that uses
+GPIOs. In addition to the GpioIo/GpioInt resources the driver needs to
+know which GPIO is used for which purpose.
+
+To solve this we add the following ACPI device properties to the device:
+
+	Device (DEV0)
+	{
+		Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate () {
+			GpioIo (Exclusive, PullUp, 0, 0, IoRestrictionInputOnly,
+				"\\_SB.PCI0.LPC", 0, ResourceConsumer) {0}
+			GpioIo (Exclusive, PullUp, 0, 0, IoRestrictionInputOnly,
+				"\\_SB.PCI0.LPC", 0, ResourceConsumer) {1}
+			...
+		})
+
+		Name (_DSD, Package () {
+			ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+			Package () {
+				Package () {"reset-gpio", {^DEV0, 0, 0, 0}},
+				Package () {"shutdown-gpio", {^DEV0, 1, 0, 0}},
+			}
+		})
+	}
+
+Now the device driver can reference the GPIOs using names instead of
+using indexes.
+
+If there is an existing Device Tree binding for a device, it is expected
+that the same bindings are used with ACPI properties, so that the driver
+dealing with the device needs only minor modifications if any.
+
+2. Formal definition of properties
+----------------------------------
+The following chapters define the currently supported properties. For
+these there exists a helper function that can be used to extract the
+property value.
+
+2.1 Integer types
+-----------------
+ACPI integers are always 64-bit. However, for drivers the full range is
+typically not needed so we provide a set of functions which convert the
+64-bit integer to a smaller Linux integer type.
+
+An integer property looks like this:
+
+	Package () {"i2c-sda-hold-time-ns", 300},
+	Package () {"clock-frequency", 400000},
+
+To read a property value, use a unified property accessor as shown
+below:
+
+	u32 val;
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = device_property_read_u32(dev, "clock-frequency", &val);
+	if (ret)
+		/* Handle error */
+
+The function returns 0 if the property is copied to 'val' or negative
+errno if something went wrong (or the property does not exist).
+
+2.2 Integer arrays
+------------------
+An integer array is a package holding only integers. Arrays can be used to
+represent different things like Linux input key codes to GPIO mappings, pin
+control settings, dma request lines, etc.
+
+An integer array looks like this:
+
+	Package () {
+		"max8952,dvs-mode-microvolt",
+		Package () {
+			1250000,
+			1200000,
+			1050000,
+			950000,
+		}
+	}
+
+The above array property can be accessed like:
+
+	u32 voltages[4];
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = device_property_read_u32_array(dev, "max8952,dvs-mode-microvolt",
+					     voltages, ARRAY_SIZE(voltages));
+	if (ret)
+		/* Handle error */
+
+
+All functions copy the resulting values cast to a requested type to the
+caller supplied array. If you pass NULL in the value pointer ('voltages' in
+this case), the function returns number of items in the array. This can be
+useful if caller does not know size of the array beforehand.
+
+2.3 Strings
+-----------
+String properties can be used to describe many things like labels for GPIO
+buttons, compability ids, etc.
+
+A string property looks like this:
+
+	Package () {"name", "value"},
+	Package () {"label", "Status-LED"},
+
+You can use device_property_read_string() to extract strings:
+
+	const char *val;
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = device_property_read_string(dev, "label", &val);
+	if (ret)
+		/* Handle error */
+
+Note that the function does not copy the returned string but instead the
+value is modified to point to the string property itself.
+
+The memory is owned by the associated ACPI device object and released
+when it is removed. The user need not free the associated memory.
+
+2.4 String arrays
+-----------------
+String arrays can be useful in describing a list of labels, names for
+DMA channels, etc.
+
+A string array property looks like this:
+
+	Package () {"dma-names", Package () {"tx", "rx", "rx-tx"}},
+	Package () {"clock-output-names", Package () {"pll", "pll-switched"}},
+
+And these can be read in similar way that the integer arrrays:
+
+	const char *dma_names[3];
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = device_property_read_string_array(dev, "dma-names", dma_names,
+						ARRAY_SIZE(dma_names));
+	if (ret)
+		/* Handle error */
+
+The memory management rules follow what is specified for single strings.
+Specifically the returned pointers should be treated as constant and not to
+be freed. That is done automatically when the correspondig ACPI device
+object is released.
+
+2.5 Object references
+---------------------
+An ACPI object reference is used to refer to some object in the
+namespace. For example, if a device has dependencies with some other
+object, an object reference can be used.
+
+An object reference looks like this:
+
+	Package () {"dev0", \_SB.DEV0},
+
+At the time of writing this, there is no unified device_property_* accessor
+for references so one needs to use the following ACPI helper function:
+
+	int acpi_dev_get_property_reference(struct acpi_device *adev,
+					    const char *name,
+					    const char *size_prop, int index,
+					    struct acpi_reference_args *args);
+
+The referenced ACPI device is returned in args->adev if found.
+
+In addition to simple object references it is also possible to have object
+references with arguments. These are represented in ASL as follows:
+
+	Device (\_SB.PCI0.PWM)
+	{
+		Name (_DSD, Package () {
+			ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+			Package () {
+				Package () {"#pwm-cells", 2}
+			}
+		})
+	}
+
+	Device (\_SB.PCI0.BL)
+	{
+		Name (_DSD, Package () {
+			ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+			Package () {
+				Package () {
+					"pwms",
+					Package () {
+						\_SB.PCI0.PWM, 0, 5000000,
+						\_SB.PCI0.PWM, 1, 4500000,
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		})
+	}
+
+In the above example, the referenced device declares a property that
+returns the number of expected arguments (here it is "#pwm-cells"). If
+no such property is given we assume that all the integers following the
+reference are arguments.
+
+In the above example PWM device expects 2 additional arguments. This
+will be validated by the ACPI property core.
+
+The additional arguments must be integers. Nothing else is supported.
+
+It is possible, as in the above example, to have multiple references
+with varying number of integer arguments. It is up to the referenced
+device to declare how many arguments it expects. The 'index' parameter
+selects which reference is returned.
+
+One can use acpi_dev_get_property_reference() as well to extract the
+information in additional parameters:
+
+	struct acpi_reference_args args;
+	struct acpi_device *adev = /* this will point to the BL device */
+	int ret;
+
+	/* extract the first reference */
+	acpi_dev_get_property_reference(adev, "pwms", "#pwm-cells", 0, &args);
+
+	BUG_ON(args.nargs != 2);
+	BUG_ON(args.args[0] != 0);
+	BUG_ON(args.args[1] != 5000000);
+
+	/* extract the second reference */
+	acpi_dev_get_property_reference(adev, "pwms", "#pwm-cells", 1, &args);
+
+	BUG_ON(args.nargs != 2);
+	BUG_ON(args.args[0] != 1);
+	BUG_ON(args.args[1] != 4500000);
+
+In addition to arguments, args.adev now points to the ACPI device that
+corresponds to \_SB.PCI0.PWM.
+
+It is intended that this function is not used directly but instead
+subsystems like pwm implement their ACPI support on top of this function
+in such way that it is hidden from the client drivers, such as via
+pwm_get().
+
+3. Device property hierarchies
+------------------------------
+Devices are organized in a tree within the Linux kernel. It follows that
+the configuration data would also be hierarchical. In order to reach
+equivalence with Device Tree, the ACPI mechanism must also provide some
+sort of tree-like representation. Fortunately, the ACPI namespace is
+already such a structure.
+
+For example, we could have the following device in ACPI namespace. The
+KEYS device is much like gpio_keys_polled.c in that it includes "pseudo"
+devices for each GPIO:
+
+	Device (KEYS)
+	{
+		Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate () {
+			GpioIo (Exclusive, PullUp, 0, 0, IoRestrictionInputOnly,
+				"\\_SB.PCI0.LPC", 0, ResourceConsumer) {0}
+			GpioIo (Exclusive, PullUp, 0, 0, IoRestrictionInputOnly,
+				"\\_SB.PCI0.LPC", 0, ResourceConsumer) {1}
+			...
+		})
+
+		// "pseudo" devices declared under the parent device
+		Device (BTN0) {
+			Name (_DSD, Package () {
+				ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+				Package () {
+					Package () {"label", "minnow_btn0"}
+					Package () {"gpios", Package () {^KEYS, 0, 0, 1}}
+				}
+			})
+		}
+
+		Device (BTN1) {
+			Name (_DSD, Package () {
+				ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+				Package () {
+					Package () {"label", "minnow_btn1"}
+					Package () {"gpios", Package () {^KEYS, 1, 0, 1}}
+				}
+			})
+		}
+	}
+
+We can extract the above in gpio_keys_polled.c like:
+
+	static void gpio_keys_polled_probe(struct device *dev)
+	{
+		void *child;
+
+		/* Properties for the KEYS device itself */
+		device_property_read(dev, ...);
+
+		/*
+		 * Iterate over button devices and extract their
+		 * firmware configuration.
+		 */
+		device_for_each_child_node(dev, child) {
+			const char *label = NULL;
+
+			/*
+			 * We need to use device_child_ variant here to access
+			 * properties of the child.
+			 */
+			device_child_property_read_string(dev, child, "label", &label);
+			/* and so on */
+		}
+	}
+
+Note that you still need proper error handling which is omitted in the
+above example.
+
+4. Existing Device Tree enabled drivers
+---------------------------------------
+At the time of writing this, there are ~250 existing DT enabled drivers.
+Allocating _HID/_CID for each would not be feasible. To make sure that
+those drivers can still be used on ACPI systems, we provide an
+alternative way to get these matched.
+
+There is a special _HID "PRP0001" which means that use the DT bindings
+for matching this device to a driver. The driver needs to have
+.of_match_table filled in even when !CONFIG_OF.
+
+An example device would be leds that can be controlled via GPIOs. This
+is represented as "leds-gpio" device and looks like this in the ACPI
+namespace:
+
+	Device (LEDS)
+	{
+		Name (_DSD, Package () {
+			ToUUID("daffd814-6eba-4d8c-8a91-bc9bbf4aa301"),
+			Package () {
+				Package () {"compatible", Package () {"gpio-leds"}},
+			}
+		})
+		...
+	}
+
+Once ACPI core sees "PRP0001" and that the device has "compatible"
+property it will do the match using .of_match_table instead if the
+driver does not have .acpi_match_table.
+
+It is preferred that new devices get a proper _HID allocated for them
+instead of inventing new DT "compatible" devices.

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