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Date:	Wed, 15 Oct 2014 11:02:55 +0200
From:	Nicolas Dichtel <>
To:	"Eric W. Biederman" <>
CC:,,,,,,,,,,,, Linus Torvalds <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH linux v3 1/1] fs/proc: use a rb tree for the directory

Le 14/10/2014 21:56, Eric W. Biederman a écrit :
> Nicolas Dichtel <> writes:
>> Le 07/10/2014 11:02, Nicolas Dichtel a écrit :
>>> The current implementation for the directories in /proc is using a single
>>> linked list. This is slow when handling directories with large numbers of
>>> entries (eg netdevice-related entries when lots of tunnels are opened).
>>> This patch replaces this linked list by a red-black tree.
>>> Here are some numbers:
>>> dummy30000.batch contains 30 000 times 'link add type dummy'.
>>> Before the patch:
>>> $ time ip -b dummy30000.batch
>>> real	2m31.950s
>>> user	0m0.440s
>>> sys	2m21.440s
>>> $ time rmmod dummy
>>> real	1m35.764s
>>> user	0m0.000s
>>> sys	1m24.088s
>>> After the patch:
>>> $ time ip -b dummy30000.batch
>>> real	2m0.874s
>>> user	0m0.448s
>>> sys	1m49.720s
>>> $ time rmmod dummy
>>> real	1m13.988s
>>> user	0m0.000s
>>> sys	1m1.008s
>>> The idea of improving this part was suggested by
>>> Thierry Herbelot <>.
>>> Signed-off-by: Nicolas Dichtel <>
>>> Acked-by: David S. Miller <>
> Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <>
>>> ---
>> I'm not sure who is in charge of taking this patch. Should I resend it to
>> someone else or is it already included in a tree?
> There are a couple of things going on here.
> This patch came out at the beginning of the merge window which is a time
> when everything that was ready and well tested ahead of time gets
> merged.
> Your numbers don't look too bad, so I expect this code is ready to go
> (although I am a smidge disappointed in the small size of the
> performance improvement), my quick read through earlier did not show
> anything scary.   Do you have any idea why going from O(N^2) algorithm
> to a O(NlogN) algorithm showed such a small performance improvement with
> 30,000 entries?
perf top shows that a lot of time was wasted in vsscanf().
With my previous test file (dummy30000.batch), kernel needs to calculate
the interface name (iproute2 command was : 'link add type dummy'). Here is
another bench:

Files dummywithnameX.batch are created like this:
for i in `seq 1 X`; do echo "link add dummy$i type dummy" >> 
dummywithnameX.batch; done

Before the patch:
$ time ip -b dummywithname10000.batch
real	0m22.496s
user	0m0.196s
sys	0m5.924s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname15000.batch
real	0m37.903s
user	0m0.348s
sys	0m13.160s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname20000.batch
real	0m52.941s
user	0m0.396s
sys	0m20.164s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname30000.batch
real	1m32.447s
user	0m0.660s
sys	0m43.436s

After the patch:
$ time ip -b dummywithname10000.batch
real	0m19.648s
user	0m0.180s
sys	0m2.260s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname15000.batch
real	0m29.149s
user	0m0.256s
sys	0m3.616s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname20000.batch
real	0m39.133s
user	0m0.440s
sys	0m4.756s
$ rmmod dummy
$ time ip -b dummywithname30000.batch
real    0m59.837s
user    0m0.520s
sys     0m7.780s

Thus an improvement of ~35% for 30k ifaces, but more importantly, after the
patch, it scales linearly.

perf top output after the patch:
      4.30%  [kernel]          [k] arch_local_irq_restore
      2.92%  [kernel]          [k] format_decode
      2.10%  [kernel]          [k] vsnprintf
      2.08%  [kernel]          [k] arch_local_irq_enable
      1.82%  [kernel]          [k] number.isra.1
      1.81%  [kernel]          [k] arch_local_irq_enable
      1.41%  [kernel]          [k] kmem_cache_alloc
      1.33%  [kernel]          [k] unmap_single_vma
      1.10%  [kernel]          [k] do_raw_spin_lock
      1.09%  [kernel]          [k] clear_page
      1.00%  [kernel]          [k] arch_local_irq_enable

> Normally proc is looked at by a group of folks me, Alexey Dobriyan, and
> Al Viro all sort of tag team taking care of the proc infrastructure with
> (except for Al) Andrew Morton typically taking the patches and merging
> them.
> I am currently in the middle of a move so I don't have the time to carry
> this change or do much of anything until I am settled again.
> What I would recommend is verifying your patch works against v3.18-rc1
> at the begginning of next week and sending the code to Andrew Morton.
Ok, thank you. I will do this.

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