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Date:	Mon, 20 Oct 2014 15:08:09 -0600
From:	mathieu.poirier@...aro.org
To:	gregkh@...uxfoundation.org
Cc:	linux@....linux.org.uk, pratikp@...eaurora.org, varshney@...com,
	Al.Grant@....com, jonas.svennebring@...gotech.com,
	james.king@...aro.org, kaixu.xia@...aro.org,
	marcin.jabrzyk@...il.com, r.sengupta@...sung.com,
	robbelibobban@...il.com, patches@...aro.org,
	linux-arm-kernel@...ts.infradead.org, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org,
	mathieu.poirier@...aro.org
Subject: [PATCH v8 08/11] coresight: documentation for coresight framework and drivers

From: Mathieu Poirier <mathieu.poirier@...aro.org>

Documentation containing an explanation on what the framework
provides and the drivers working with it.  A minimal example
on how to use the functionality is also provided.

Signed-off-by: Mathieu Poirier <mathieu.poirier@...aro.org>
---
 Documentation/trace/coresight.txt | 299 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 299 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/coresight.txt

diff --git a/Documentation/trace/coresight.txt b/Documentation/trace/coresight.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bba7dbf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/trace/coresight.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,299 @@
+		Coresight - HW Assisted Tracing on ARM
+		======================================
+
+   Author:   Mathieu Poirier <mathieu.poirier@...aro.org>
+   Date:     September 11th, 2014
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+Coresight is an umbrella of technologies allowing for the debugging of ARM
+based SoC.  It includes solutions for JTAG and HW assisted tracing.  This
+document is concerned with the latter.
+
+HW assisted tracing is becoming increasingly useful when dealing with systems
+that have many SoCs and other components like GPU and DMA engines.  ARM has
+developed a HW assisted tracing solution by means of different components, each
+being added to a design at systhesis time to cater to specific tracing needs.
+Compoments are generally categorised as source, link and sinks and are
+(usually) discovered using the AMBA bus.
+
+"Sources" generate a compressed stream representing the processor instruction
+path based on tracing scenarios as configured by users.  From there the stream
+flows through the coresight system (via ATB bus) using links that are connecting
+the emanating source to a sink(s).  Sinks serve as endpoints to the coresight
+implementation, either storing the compressed stream in a memory buffer or
+creating an interface to the outside world where data can be transferred to a
+host without fear of filling up the onboard coresight memory buffer.
+
+At typical coresight system would look like this:
+
+  *****************************************************************
+ **************************** AMBA AXI  ****************************===||
+  *****************************************************************    ||
+        ^                    ^                            |            ||
+        |                    |                            *            **
+     0000000    :::::     0000000    :::::    :::::    @@@@@@@    ||||||||||||
+     0 CPU 0<-->: C :     0 CPU 0<-->: C :    : C :    @ STM @    || System ||
+  |->0000000    : T :  |->0000000    : T :    : T :<--->@@@@@     || Memory ||
+  |  #######<-->: I :  |  #######<-->: I :    : I :      @@@<-|   ||||||||||||
+  |  # ETM #    :::::  |  # PTM #    :::::    :::::       @   |
+  |   #####      ^ ^   |   #####      ^ !      ^ !        .   |   |||||||||
+  | |->###       | !   | |->###       | !      | !        .   |   || DAP ||
+  | |   #        | !   | |   #        | !      | !        .   |   |||||||||
+  | |   .        | !   | |   .        | !      | !        .   |      |  |
+  | |   .        | !   | |   .        | !      | !        .   |      |  *
+  | |   .        | !   | |   .        | !      | !        .   |      | SWD/
+  | |   .        | !   | |   .        | !      | !        .   |      | JTAG
+  *****************************************************************<-|
+ *************************** AMBA Debug ABP ************************
+  *****************************************************************
+   |    .          !         .          !        !        .    |
+   |    .          *         .          *        *        .    |
+  *****************************************************************
+ ******************** Cross Trigger Matrix (CTM) *******************
+  *****************************************************************
+   |    .     ^              .                            .    |
+   |    *     !              *                            *    |
+  *****************************************************************
+ ****************** AMBA Advanced Trace Bus (ATB) ******************
+  *****************************************************************
+   |          !                        ===============         |
+   |          *                         ===== F =====<---------|
+   |   :::::::::                         ==== U ====
+   |-->:: CTI ::<!!                       === N ===
+   |   :::::::::  !                        == N ==
+   |    ^         *                        == E ==
+   |    !  &&&&&&&&&       IIIIIII         == L ==
+   |------>&& ETB &&<......II     I        =======
+   |    !  &&&&&&&&&       II     I           .
+   |    !                    I     I          .
+   |    !                    I REP I<..........
+   |    !                    I     I
+   |    !!>&&&&&&&&&       II     I           *Source: ARM ltd.
+   |------>& TPIU  &<......II    I            DAP = Debug Access Port
+           &&&&&&&&&       IIIIIII            ETM = Embedded Trace Macrocell
+               ;                              PTM = Program Trace Macrocell
+               ;                              CTI = Cross Trigger Interface
+               *                              ETB = Embedded Trace Buffer
+          To trace port                       TPIU= Trace Port Interface Unit
+                                              SWD = Serial Wire Debug
+
+While on target configuration of the components is done via the ABP bus,
+all trace data are carried out-of-band on the ATB bus.  The CTM provides
+a way to aggregate and distribute signals between CoreSight components.
+
+The coresight framework provides a central point to represent, configure and
+manage coresight devices on a platform.  This first implementation centers on
+the basic tracing functionality, enabling components such ETM/PTM, funnel,
+replicator, TMC, TPIU and ETB.  Future work will enable more
+intricate IP blocks such as STM and CTI.
+
+
+Acronyms and Classification
+---------------------------
+
+Acronyms:
+
+PTM:     Program Trace Macrocell
+ETM:     Embedded Trace Macrocell
+STM:     System trace Macrocell
+ETB:     Embedded Trace Buffer
+ITM:     Instrumentation Trace Macrocell
+TPIU:    Trace Port Interface Unit
+TMC-ETR: Trace Memory Controller, configured as Embedded Trace Router
+TMC-ETF: Trace Memory Controller, configured as Embedded Trace FIFO
+CTI:     Cross Trigger Interface
+
+Classification:
+
+Source:
+   ETMv3.x ETMv4, PTMv1.0, PTMv1.1, STM, STM500, ITM
+Link:
+   Funnel, replicator (intelligent or not), TMC-ETR
+Sinks:
+   ETBv1.0, ETB1.1, TPIU, TMC-ETF
+Misc:
+   CTI
+
+
+Device Tree Bindings
+----------------------
+
+See Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/coresight.txt for details.
+
+As of this writing drivers for ITM, STMs and CTIs are not provided but are
+expected to be added as the solution matures.
+
+
+Framework and implementation
+----------------------------
+
+The coresight framework provides a central point to represent, configure and
+manage coresight devices on a platform.  Any coresight compliant device can
+register with the framework for as long as they use the right APIs:
+
+struct coresight_device *coresight_register(struct coresight_desc *desc);
+void coresight_unregister(struct coresight_device *csdev);
+
+The registering function is taking a "struct coresight_device *csdev" and
+register the device with the core framework.  The unregister function takes
+a reference to a "strut coresight_device", obtained at registration time.
+
+If everything goes well during the registration process the new devices will
+show up under /sys/bus/coresight/devices, as showns here for a TC2 platform:
+
+root:~# ls /sys/bus/coresight/devices/
+replicator  20030000.tpiu    2201c000.ptm  2203c000.etm  2203e000.etm
+20010000.etb         20040000.funnel  2201d000.ptm  2203d000.etm
+root:~#
+
+The functions take a "struct coresight_device", which looks like this:
+
+struct coresight_desc {
+        enum coresight_dev_type type;
+        struct coresight_dev_subtype subtype;
+        const struct coresight_ops *ops;
+        struct coresight_platform_data *pdata;
+        struct device *dev;
+        const struct attribute_group **groups;
+};
+
+
+The "coresight_dev_type" identifies what the device is, i.e, source link or
+sink while the "coresight_dev_subtype" will characterise that type further.
+
+The "struct coresight_ops" is mandatory and will tell the framework how to
+perform base operations related to the components, each component having
+a different set of requirement.  For that "struct coresight_ops_sink",
+"struct coresight_ops_link" and "struct coresight_ops_source" have been
+provided.
+
+The next field, "struct coresight_platform_data *pdata" is acquired by calling
+"of_get_coresight_platform_data()", as part of the driver's _probe routine and
+"struct device *dev" gets the device reference embedded in the "amba_device":
+
+static int etm_probe(struct amba_device *adev, const struct amba_id *id)
+{
+ ...
+ ...
+ drvdata->dev = &adev->dev;
+ ...
+}
+
+Specific class of device (source, link, or sink) have generic operations
+that can be performed on them (see "struct coresight_ops").  The
+"**groups" is a list of sysfs entries pertaining to operations
+specific to that component only.  "Implementation defined" customisations are
+expected to be accessed and controlled using those entries.
+
+Last but not least, "struct module *owner" is expected to be set to reflect
+the information carried in "THIS_MODULE".
+
+How to use
+----------
+
+Before trace collection can start, a coresight sink needs to be identify.
+There is no limit on the amount of sinks (nor sources) that can be enabled at
+any given moment.  As a generic operation, all device pertaining to the sink
+class will have an "active" entry in sysfs:
+
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# ls
+replicator  20030000.tpiu    2201c000.ptm  2203c000.etm  2203e000.etm
+20010000.etb         20040000.funnel  2201d000.ptm  2203d000.etm
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# ls 20010000.etb
+enable_sink  status  trigger_cntr
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# echo 1 > 20010000.etb/enable_sink
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# cat 20010000.etb/enable_sink
+1
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices#
+
+At boot time the current etm3x driver will configure the first address
+comparator with "_stext" and "_etext", essentially tracing any instruction
+that falls within that range.  As such "enabling" a source will immediately
+trigger a trace capture:
+
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# echo 1 > 2201c000.ptm/enable_source
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# cat 2201c000.ptm/enable_source
+1
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# cat 20010000.etb/status
+Depth:          0x2000
+Status:         0x1
+RAM read ptr:   0x0
+RAM wrt ptr:    0x19d3   <----- The write pointer is moving
+Trigger cnt:    0x0
+Control:        0x1
+Flush status:   0x0
+Flush ctrl:     0x2001
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices#
+
+Trace collection is stopped the same way:
+
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# echo 0 > 2201c000.ptm/enable_source
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices#
+
+The content of the ETB buffer can be harvested directly from /dev:
+
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices# dd if=/dev/20010000.etb \
+of=~/cstrace.bin
+
+64+0 records in
+64+0 records out
+32768 bytes (33 kB) copied, 0.00125258 s, 26.2 MB/s
+root:/sys/bus/coresight/devices#
+
+The file cstrace.bin can be decompressed using "ptm2human", DS-5 or Trace32.
+
+Following is a DS-5 output of an experimental loop that increments a variable up
+to a certain value.  The example is simple and yet provides a glimpse of the
+wealth of possibilities that coresight provides.
+
+Info                                    Tracing enabled
+Instruction     106378866       0x8026B53C      E52DE004        false   PUSH     {lr}
+Instruction     0       0x8026B540      E24DD00C        false   SUB      sp,sp,#0xc
+Instruction     0       0x8026B544      E3A03000        false   MOV      r3,#0
+Instruction     0       0x8026B548      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Timestamp                                       Timestamp: 17106715833
+Instruction     319     0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Instruction     9       0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Instruction     7       0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Instruction     7       0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Instruction     10      0x8026B54C      E59D3004        false   LDR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B550      E3530004        false   CMP      r3,#4
+Instruction     0       0x8026B554      E2833001        false   ADD      r3,r3,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B558      E58D3004        false   STR      r3,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B55C      DAFFFFFA        true    BLE      {pc}-0x10 ; 0x8026b54c
+Instruction     6       0x8026B560      EE1D3F30        false   MRC      p15,#0x0,r3,c13,c0,#1
+Instruction     0       0x8026B564      E1A0100D        false   MOV      r1,sp
+Instruction     0       0x8026B568      E3C12D7F        false   BIC      r2,r1,#0x1fc0
+Instruction     0       0x8026B56C      E3C2203F        false   BIC      r2,r2,#0x3f
+Instruction     0       0x8026B570      E59D1004        false   LDR      r1,[sp,#4]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B574      E59F0010        false   LDR      r0,[pc,#16] ; [0x8026B58C] = 0x80550368
+Instruction     0       0x8026B578      E592200C        false   LDR      r2,[r2,#0xc]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B57C      E59221D0        false   LDR      r2,[r2,#0x1d0]
+Instruction     0       0x8026B580      EB07A4CF        true    BL       {pc}+0x1e9344 ; 0x804548c4
+Info                                    Tracing enabled
+Instruction     13570831        0x8026B584      E28DD00C        false   ADD      sp,sp,#0xc
+Instruction     0       0x8026B588      E8BD8000        true    LDM      sp!,{pc}
+Timestamp                                       Timestamp: 17107041535
-- 
1.9.1

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