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Date:	Mon, 29 Dec 2014 02:11:31 +0100
From:	Ben Hutchings <>
	"H. Peter Anvin" <>,
	"Paolo Bonzini" <>,
	"Thomas Gleixner" <>,
	"Ingo Molnar" <>,
	"Chris Webb" <>, "Borislav Petkov" <>
Subject: [PATCH 3.2 27/27] x86: kvm: use alternatives for VMCALL vs.
 VMMCALL if kernel text is read-only

3.2.66-rc1 review patch.  If anyone has any objections, please let me know.


From: Paolo Bonzini <>

commit c1118b3602c2329671ad5ec8bdf8e374323d6343 upstream.

On x86_64, kernel text mappings are mapped read-only with CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA.
In that case, KVM will fail to patch VMCALL instructions to VMMCALL
as required on AMD processors.

The failure mode is currently a divide-by-zero exception, which obviously
is a KVM bug that has to be fixed.  However, picking the right instruction
between VMCALL and VMMCALL will be faster and will help if you cannot upgrade
the hypervisor.

Reported-by: Chris Webb <>
Tested-by: Chris Webb <>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <>
Acked-by: Borislav Petkov <>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Bonzini <>
[bwh: Backported to 3.2: adjust context]
Signed-off-by: Ben Hutchings <>
 arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h |  1 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_para.h   | 10 ++++++++--
 arch/x86/kernel/cpu/amd.c         |  7 +++++++
 3 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h
@@ -193,6 +193,7 @@
 #define X86_FEATURE_DECODEASSISTS (8*32+12) /* AMD Decode Assists support */
 #define X86_FEATURE_PAUSEFILTER (8*32+13) /* AMD filtered pause intercept */
 #define X86_FEATURE_PFTHRESHOLD (8*32+14) /* AMD pause filter threshold */
+#define X86_FEATURE_VMMCALL     ( 8*32+15) /* Prefer vmmcall to vmcall */
 /* Intel-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x00000007:0 (ebx), word 9 */
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_para.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_para.h
@@ -91,15 +91,21 @@ struct kvm_vcpu_pv_apf_data {
 #ifdef __KERNEL__
 #include <asm/processor.h>
+#include <asm/alternative.h>
 extern void kvmclock_init(void);
 extern int kvm_register_clock(char *txt);
-/* This instruction is vmcall.  On non-VT architectures, it will generate a
- * trap that we will then rewrite to the appropriate instruction.
+#define KVM_HYPERCALL \
+        ALTERNATIVE(".byte 0x0f,0x01,0xc1", ".byte 0x0f,0x01,0xd9", X86_FEATURE_VMMCALL)
+/* On AMD processors, vmcall will generate a trap that we will
+ * then rewrite to the appropriate instruction.
 #define KVM_HYPERCALL ".byte 0x0f,0x01,0xc1"
 /* For KVM hypercalls, a three-byte sequence of either the vmrun or the vmmrun
  * instruction.  The hypervisor may replace it with something else but only the
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/amd.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/amd.c
@@ -469,6 +469,13 @@ static void __cpuinit early_init_amd(str
 			set_cpu_cap(c, X86_FEATURE_EXTD_APICID);
+	/*
+	 * This is only needed to tell the kernel whether to use VMCALL
+	 * and VMMCALL.  VMMCALL is never executed except under virt, so
+	 * we can set it unconditionally.
+	 */
+	set_cpu_cap(c, X86_FEATURE_VMMCALL);
 static void __cpuinit init_amd(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)

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