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Date:	Wed, 17 Jun 2015 11:55:20 +0100
From:	One Thousand Gnomes <>
To:	"Theodore Ts'o" <>
Cc:	Josh Boyer <>,
	Eric Biederman <>,
	David Howells <>,
	kexec <>,
	"Linux-Kernel@...r. Kernel. Org" <>
Subject: Re: kexec_load(2) bypasses signature verification

> [1] Yes, it doesn't buy all that much, since if the system is rooted
> the adversary can just replace the kernel in /boot and force a normal,
> slower reboot, but the same could be said for signed modules --- the
> adversary could just replace all of /boot/vmlinux-<kver> and
> /lib/modules/<kver>.  But both measures make it a tad more bit
> difficult, especially for the adversary to do this replacement without
> being noticed (for example linode will send me e-mail if the system
> reboots normally, but not with a kexec-mediated reboot), and for cloud
> systems where we don't have secure boot anyway, it's about the best we
> can do.

It's about the same as the protection offered by the "secure" boot
patches I've seen because they don't block all kernel boot parameters
except a whitelist and because there are a pile of other fairly
fundamental problems that probably require you also sign the root file
system, which is itself a world of pain.

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