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Date:   Tue, 4 Apr 2017 13:06:29 +0800
From:   Wu Hao <hao.wu@...el.com>
To:     Moritz Fischer <mdf@...nel.org>
Cc:     Alan Tull <atull@...nel.org>, matthew.gerlach@...ux.intel.com,
        Moritz Fischer <moritz.fischer@...us.com>,
        linux-fpga@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-kernel <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        luwei.kang@...el.com, yi.z.zhang@...el.com,
        Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@...el.com>,
        Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@...ux.intel.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 01/16] docs: fpga: add a document for Intel FPGA driver
 overview

On Sun, Apr 02, 2017 at 07:41:46AM -0700, Moritz Fischer wrote:
> On Sat, Apr 01, 2017 at 07:16:19PM +0800, Wu Hao wrote:
> > On Fri, Mar 31, 2017 at 01:38:06PM -0500, Alan Tull wrote:
> > > On Fri, Mar 31, 2017 at 1:24 PM,  <matthew.gerlach@...ux.intel.com> wrote:
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > On Thu, 30 Mar 2017, Wu Hao wrote:
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > Hi Wu Hao,
> > > >
> > > > Great documentation. I'm looking forward to diving into the rest of the
> > > > patches. Please see my comments inline.
> > > >
> > > > Matthew Gerlach
> > > >
> > > >
> > > >> Add a document for Intel FPGA driver overview.
> > > >>
> > > >> Signed-off-by: Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@...el.com>
> > > >> Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@...ux.intel.com>
> > > >> Signed-off-by: Wu Hao <hao.wu@...el.com>
> > > >> ---
> > > >> Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt | 259
> > > >> ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > > >> 1 file changed, 259 insertions(+)
> > > >> create mode 100644 Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > > >>
> > > >> diff --git a/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > > >> b/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > > >> new file mode 100644
> > > >> index 0000000..9396cea
> > > >> --- /dev/null
> > > >> +++ b/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > > >> @@ -0,0 +1,259 @@
> > > >>
> > > >> +===============================================================================
> > > >> +                    Intel FPGA driver Overview
> > > >>
> > > >> +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >> +                Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@...el.com>
> > > >> +                Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@...ux.intel.com>
> > > >> +                Wu Hao <hao.wu@...el.com>
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The Intel FPGA driver provides interfaces for userspace applications to
> > > >> +configure, enumerate, open, and access FPGA accelerators on platforms
> > > >> equipped
> > > >> +with Intel(R) FPGA solutions and enables system level management
> > > >> functions such
> > > >> +as FPGA reconfiguration, power management, and virtualization.
> > > >> +
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > From a Linux kernel perspective, I'm not sure this is the best name for
> > > > this code.  The name gives me the impression that it is a driver for all
> > > > Intel FPGAs, but not all Intel FPGAs are connected to the processor over a
> > > > PCIe bus.  The processor could be directely connected like the Arria10
> > > > SOCFPGA.  Such a processor could certainly benefit from this accelerator
> > > > usage model.  In an extreme case, couldn't a processor in the FPGA,
> > > > running Linux, also benefit from this accelerator model?  Is this code a
> > > > "FPGA Accelerator Framework"?
> > > >
> > > >> +HW Architecture
> > > >> +===============
> > > >> +From the OS's point of view, the FPGA hardware appears as a regular PCIe
> > > >> device.
> > > >> +The FPGA device memory is organized using a predefined data structure
> > > >> (Device
> > > >> +Feature List). Features supported by the particular FPGA device are
> > > >> exposed
> > > >> +through these data structures, as illustrated below:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +  +-------------------------------+  +-------------+
> > > >> +  |              PF               |  |     VF      |
> > > >> +  +-------------------------------+  +-------------+
> > > >> +      ^            ^         ^              ^
> > > >> +      |            |         |              |
> > > >> ++-----|------------|---------|--------------|-------+
> > > >> +|     |            |         |              |       |
> > > >> +|  +-----+     +-------+ +-------+      +-------+   |
> > > >> +|  | FME |     | Port0 | | Port1 |      | Port2 |   |
> > > >> +|  +-----+     +-------+ +-------+      +-------+   |
> > > >> +|                  ^         ^              ^       |
> > > >> +|                  |         |              |       |
> > > >> +|              +-------+ +------+       +-------+   |
> > > >> +|              |  AFU  | |  AFU |       |  AFU  |   |
> > > >> +|              +-------+ +------+       +-------+   |
> > > >> +|                                                   |
> > > >> +|                 FPGA PCIe Device                  |
> > > >> ++---------------------------------------------------+
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The driver supports PCIe SR-IOV to create virtual functions (VFs) which
> > > >> can be
> > > >> +used to assign individual accelerators to virtual machines .
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > Does this HW Architecture require an Intel FPGA?  Couldn't any vendors FPGA
> > > > be used as long as it presented itself the PCIe bus the same and contained
> > > > an appropriate Device Feature List?
> 
> I think this is a good (and important) point. Especially when sysfs
> entries & ioctls constituting ABI depend on it.

Thanks for your feedback and comments.

I'm not sure if any vendors FPGA will resue the same. But if the same FME
or Port/AFU module implemented in their hardwares, then they should be
able to use our FME/AFU drivers.

AFU driver creates interfaces for FPGA accelerators. And FME driver creates
interfaces for FPGA partial reconfiguration and other management functions.
As mentioned in 'Open discussions' below, we may need to switch to the ABI
(sysfs) of fpga-region for PR.

> 
> > > >
> > > >> +
> > > >> +FME (FPGA Management Engine)
> > > >> +============================
> > > >> +The FPGA Management Enging performs power and thermal management, error
> Enging->Engine
> > > >> +reporting, reconfiguration, performance reporting, and other
> > > >> infrastructure
> > > >> +functions. Each FPGA has one FME, which is always accessed through the
> > > >> physical
> > > >> +function (PF).
> > > >> +
> > > >> +User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to the FME using
> > > >> open(),
> > > >> +and release it using close().
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
> > > >> +       Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
> > > >> +       Assign port to PF (FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN)
> > > >> +       Release port from PF (FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE)
> > > >> +       Program bitstream (FPGA_FME_PORT_PR)
> > > >> +
> > > >> +More functions are exposed through sysfs
> > > >> +(/sys/class/fpga/fpga.n/intel-fpga-fme.n/):
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       Read bitstream ID (bitstream_id)
> > > >> +       Read bitstream metadata (bitstream_metadata)
> > > >> +       Read number of ports (ports_num)
> > > >> +       Read socket ID (socket_id)
> > > >> +       Read performance counters (perf/)
> > > >> +       Power management (power_mgmt/)
> > > >> +       Thermal management (thermal_mgmt/)
> > > >> +       Error reporting (errors/)
> > > >> +
> > > >> +PORT
> > > >> +====
> > > >> +A port represents the interface between the static FPGA fabric (the "blue
> > > >> +bitstream") and a partially reconfigurable region containing an AFU (the
> > > >> "green
> > > 
> > > Is this an fpga bridge but with added features?
> > 
> > Yes, I think so. As you see the fme_pr function in patch 11, related port needs
> > to be disabled firstly before fpga_mgr_buf_load for given accelerator.
> 
> Can we just extend the bridge to have the additional features, please?

As described in this document, in Intel FPGA device, there are two types
of modudles, FME which provides management function including PR and AFU
which provides the access to the FPGA accelerators, and other advanced
features (e.g error reporting, debug, reset and etc) required by user
space applications.

I think FME needs to create fpga-bridge as well as fpga-manager and
regions. Then enable/disable bridge action could be covered automatically
by fpga-region function. (e.g fpga_region_program_fpga).

Thanks
Hao

> 
> > > >> +bitstream"). It controls the communication from SW to the accelerator and
> > > >> +exposes features such as reset and debug.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +A PCIe device may have several ports and each port can be released from
> > > >> PF by
> > > >> +FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE ioctl on FME, and exposed through a VF via PCIe
> > > >> sriov
> > > >> +sysfs interface.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +AFU
> > > >> +===
> > > >> +An AFU is attached to a port and exposes a 256k MMIO region to be used
> > > >> for
> > > >> +accelerator-specific control registers.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to an AFU attached
> > > >> to a
> > > >> +port by using open() on the port device node, and release it using
> > > >> close().
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
> > > >> +       Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
> > > >> +       Get port info (FPGA_PORT_GET_INFO)
> > > >> +       Get MMIO region info (FPGA_PORT_GET_REGION_INFO)
> > > >> +       Map DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_MAP)
> > > >> +       Unmap DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_UNMAP)
> > > >> +       Reset AFU (FPGA_PORT_RESET)
> > > >> +       Enable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_ENABLE)
> > > >> +       Disable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_DISABLE)
> > > >> +       Set UMsg mode (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_MODE)
> > > >> +       Set UMsg base address (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_BASE_ADDR)
> > > >> +
> > > >> +User-space applications can also mmap() accelerator MMIO regions.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +More functions are exposed through sysfs:
> > > >> +(/sys/class/fpga/fpga.n/intel-fpga-port.m/):
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       Read Accelerator GUID (afu_id)
> > > >> +       Error reporting (errors/)
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Partial Reconfiguration
> > > >> +=======================
> > > >> +As mentioned above, accelerators can be reconfigured through partial
> > > >> +reconfiguration of a green bitstream file (GBS). The green bitstream must
> > > >> have
> > > >> +been generated for the exact blue bitstream and targeted reconfigurable
> > > >> region
> > > >> +(port) of the FPGA; otherwise, the reconfiguration operation will fail
> > > >> and
> > > >> +possibly cause system instability. This compatibility can be checked by
> > > >> +comparing the interface ID noted in the GBS header against the interface
> > > >> ID
> > > >> +exposed by the FME through sysfs (see above). This check is usually done
> > > >> by
> > > >> +user-space before calling the reconfiguration IOCTL.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +FPGA virtualization
> > > >> +===================
> > > >> +To enable accessing an accelerator from applications running in a VM, the
> > > >> +respective AFU's port needs to be assigned to a VF using the following
> > > >> steps:
> > > >> +
> > > >> + a) The PF owns all AFU ports by default. Any port that needs to be
> > > >> reassigned
> > > >> + to a VF must be released from PF firstly through the
> > > >> FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE
> > > >> + ioctl on the FME device.
> > > >> +
> > > >> + b) Once N ports are released from PF, then user can use below command to
> > > >> + enable SRIOV and VFs. Each VF owns only one Port with AFU.
> > > >> +
> > > >> + echo N > $PCI_DEVICE_PATH/sriov_numvfs
> > > >> +
> > > >> + c) Pass through the VFs to VMs
> > > >> +
> > > >> + d) The AFU under VF is accessiable from applications in VM (using the
> > > >> same
> > > >> + driver inside the VF).
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Note the an FME can't be assigned to a VF, thus PR and other management
> > > >> +functions are only available via the PF.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Driver organization
> > > >> +===================
> > > >> +
> > > >> +  +------------------+  +---------+   |             +---------+
> > > >> +  | +-------+        |  |         |   |             |         |
> > > >> +  | | FPGA  |  FME   |  |   AFU   |   |             |   AFU   |
> > > >> +  | |Manager| Module |  |  Module |   |             |  Module |
> > > >> +  | +-------+        |  |         |   |             |         |
> > > >> +  +------------------+  +---------+   |             +---------+
> > > >> +        +-----------------------+     |      +-----------------------+
> > > >> +        | FPGA Container Device |     |      | FPGA Container Device |
> > > >> +        +-----------------------+     |      +-----------------------+
> > > >> +          +------------------+        |         +------------------+
> > > >> +          | FPGA PCIE Module |        | Virtual | FPGA PCIE Module |
> > > >> +          +------------------+   Host | Machine +------------------+
> > > >> + ------------------------------------ | ------------------------------
> > > >> +           +---------------+          |          +---------------+
> > > >> +           | PCI PF Device |          |          | PCI VF Device |
> > > >> +           +---------------+          |          +---------------+
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The FPGA devices appear as regular PCIe devices; thus, the FPGA PCIe
> > > >> device
> > > >> +driver is always loaded first once a FPGA PCIE PF or VF device is
> > > >> detected. This
> > > >> +driver plays an infrastructural role in the driver architecuture.  It:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       a) creates FPGA container device as parent of the feature devices.
> > > >> +       b) walks through the Device Feature List, which is implemented in
> > > >> PCIE
> > > >> +          device BAR memory, to discover feature devices and their sub
> > > >> features
> > > >> +          and create platform device for them under the container device.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > I really like the idea of creating platform devices for the sub features. It
> > > > is in line with other FPGA use cases.  Platform devices are at the heart of
> > > > device trees used by processors directly connected FPGAs and processors
> > > > inside FPGAs.
> > > >
> > > >> +       c) supports SRIOV.
> > > >> +       d) introduces the feature device infrastructure, which abstracts
> > > >> +          operations for sub features and exposes common functions to
> > > >> feature
> > > >> +          device drivers.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The FPGA Management Engine (FME) driver is a platform driver which is
> > > >> loaded
> > > >> +automatically after FME platform device creation from the PCIE driver. It
> > > >> +provides the key features for FPGA management, including:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       a) Power and thermal management, error reporting, performance
> > > >> reporting
> > > >> +          and other infrastructure functions. Users can access these
> > > >> functions
> > > >> +          via sysfs interfaces exposed by FME driver.
> > > >> +       b) Paritial Reconfiguration. The FME driver registers a FPGA
> > > >> Manager
> > > >> +          during PR sub feature initialization; once it receives an
> > > >> +          FPGA_FME_PORT_PR ioctl from user, it invokes the common
> > > >> interface
> > > >> +          function from FPGA Manager to complete the partial
> > > >> reconfiguration of
> > > >> +          the bitstream to the given port.
> > > >> +       c) Port management for virtualization. The FME driver introduces
> > > >> two
> > > >> +          ioctls, FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE (releases given port from PF) and
> > > >> +          FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN (assigns the port back to PF). Once the
> > > >> port is
> > > >> +          released from the PF, it can be assigned to the VF through the
> > > >> SRIOV
> > > >> +          interfaces provided by PCIE driver. (Refer to "FPGA
> > > >> virtualization"
> > > >> +          for more details).
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Similar to the the FME driver, the FPGA Accelerated Function Unit (AFU)
> > > >> driver
> > > >> +is probed once the AFU platform device is created. The main function of
> > > >> this
> > > >> +module is to provide an interface for userspace applications to access
> > > >> the
> > > >> +individual accelerators, including basic reset control on port, AFU MMIO
> > > >> region
> > > >> +export, dma buffer mapping service, UMsg notification, and remote debug
> > > >> +functions (see above).
> > > >> +
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Device enumeration
> > > >> +==================
> > > >> +This section introduces how applications enumerate the fpga device from
> > > >> +the sysfs hierarchy under /sys/class/fpga.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +In the example below, two Intel(R) FPGA devices are installed in the
> > > >> host. Each
> > > >> +fpga device has one FME and two ports (AFUs).
> > > >> +
> > > >> +For each FPGA device, a device director is created under
> > > >> /sys/class/fpga/:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The Intel(R) FPGA device driver exposes "intel-fpga-dev" as the FPGA's
> > > >> name.
> > > >> +Application can retrieve name information via the sysfs interface:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/name
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Each node has one FME and two ports (AFUs) as child devices:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-fme.0
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-port.0
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-port.1
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-fme.1
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-port.2
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-port.3
> > > >> +
> > > >> +In general, the FME/AFU sysfs interfaces are named as follows:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-fme.n>/
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-port.m>/
> > > >> +
> > > >> +with 'n' consecutively numbering all FMEs and 'm' consecutively numbering
> > > >> all
> > > >> +ports.
> > > >> +
> > > >> +The device nodes used for ioctl() or mmap() can be referenced through:
> > > >> +
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-port.n>/dev
> > > >> +       /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-fme.n>/dev
> > > >> +
> > > >> +
> > > >> +Open discussions
> > > >> +================
> > > >> +The current FME driver does not provide user space access to the FME MMIO
> > > >> +region, but exposes access through sysfs and ioctls. It also provides an
> > > >> FPGA
> > > >> +manger interface for partial reconfiguration (PR), but does not make use
> > > >> of
> > > >> +fpga-regions. User PR requests via the FPGA_FME_PORT_PR ioctl are handled
> > > >> inside
> > > >> +the FME, and fpga-region depends on device tree which is not used at all.
> > > >> There
> > > >> +are patches from Alan Tull to separate the device tree specific code and
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > I am currently trying to use those patches in a different driver.  They've
> > > > compiled cleanly in my out of tree pcie module driver against the 3.10
> > > > kernel.
> > > > I need to actually write the code to create and register the region, but
> > > > Alan's platform driver code should be a good guide for me.  Just need to
> > > > find the time.
> > > >
> > > >> +introduce a sysfs interface for PR. We plan to add fpga-regions support
> > > >> in the
> > > >> +driver once the related patches get merged. Then the FME driver should
> > > >> create
> > > >> +one fpga-region for each Port/AFU.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > Does the FME driver create the fpga-region, or is each region described as
> > > > an entry in the Device Feature List and therefore created by the code that
> > > > enumerates the Device Feature List?
> > > >
> > > >> --
> > > >> 2.7.4
> > > >>
> > > >> --
> > > >> To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-fpga" in
> > > >> the body of a message to majordomo@...r.kernel.org
> > > >> More majordomo info at  http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
> > > >>
> > > >
> 
> Cheers,
> Moritz

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