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Date:   Fri, 21 Jul 2017 09:15:29 +0800
From:   Bob Liu <liubo95@...wei.com>
To:     Jerome Glisse <jglisse@...hat.com>
CC:     <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, <linux-mm@...ck.org>,
        John Hubbard <jhubbard@...dia.com>,
        David Nellans <dnellans@...dia.com>,
        Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@...el.com>,
        Balbir Singh <bsingharora@...il.com>,
        "Michal Hocko" <mhocko@...nel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 0/6] Cache coherent device memory (CDM) with HMM v5

On 2017/7/20 23:03, Jerome Glisse wrote:
> On Wed, Jul 19, 2017 at 05:09:04PM +0800, Bob Liu wrote:
>> On 2017/7/19 10:25, Jerome Glisse wrote:
>>> On Wed, Jul 19, 2017 at 09:46:10AM +0800, Bob Liu wrote:
>>>> On 2017/7/18 23:38, Jerome Glisse wrote:
>>>>> On Tue, Jul 18, 2017 at 11:26:51AM +0800, Bob Liu wrote:
>>>>>> On 2017/7/14 5:15, Jérôme Glisse wrote:
>>>>>>> Sorry i made horrible mistake on names in v4, i completly miss-
>>>>>>> understood the suggestion. So here i repost with proper naming.
>>>>>>> This is the only change since v3. Again sorry about the noise
>>>>>>> with v4.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Changes since v4:
>>>>>>>   - s/DEVICE_HOST/DEVICE_PUBLIC
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Git tree:
>>>>>>> https://cgit.freedesktop.org/~glisse/linux/log/?h=hmm-cdm-v5
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Cache coherent device memory apply to architecture with system bus
>>>>>>> like CAPI or CCIX. Device connected to such system bus can expose
>>>>>>> their memory to the system and allow cache coherent access to it
>>>>>>> from the CPU.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Even if for all intent and purposes device memory behave like regular
>>>>>>> memory, we still want to manage it in isolation from regular memory.
>>>>>>> Several reasons for that, first and foremost this memory is less
>>>>>>> reliable than regular memory if the device hangs because of invalid
>>>>>>> commands we can loose access to device memory. Second CPU access to
>>>>>>> this memory is expected to be slower than to regular memory. Third
>>>>>>> having random memory into device means that some of the bus bandwith
>>>>>>> wouldn't be available to the device but would be use by CPU access.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> This is why we want to manage such memory in isolation from regular
>>>>>>> memory. Kernel should not try to use this memory even as last resort
>>>>>>> when running out of memory, at least for now.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>> I think set a very large node distance for "Cache Coherent Device Memory"
>>>>>> may be a easier way to address these concerns.
>>>>>
>>>>> Such approach was discuss at length in the past see links below. Outcome
>>>>> of discussion:
>>>>>   - CPU less node are bad
>>>>>   - device memory can be unreliable (device hang) no way for application
>>>>>     to understand that
>>>>
>>>> Device memory can also be more reliable if using high quality and expensive memory.
>>>
>>> Even ECC memory does not compensate for device hang. When your GPU lockups
>>> you might need to re-init GPU from scratch after which the content of the
>>> device memory is unreliable. During init the device memory might not get
>>> proper clock or proper refresh cycle and thus is susceptible to corruption.
>>>
>>>>
>>>>>   - application and driver NUMA madvise/mbind/mempolicy ... can conflict
>>>>>     with each other and no way the kernel can figure out which should
>>>>>     apply
>>>>>   - NUMA as it is now would not work as we need further isolation that
>>>>>     what a large node distance would provide
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Agree, that's where we need spend time on.
>>>>
>>>> One drawback of HMM-CDM I'm worry about is one more extra copy.
>>>> In the cache coherent case, CPU can write data to device memory
>>>> directly then start fpga/GPU/other accelerators.
>>>
>>> There is not necessarily an extra copy. Device driver can pre-allocate
>>> virtual address range of a process with device memory. Device page fault
>>
>> Okay, I get your point. But the typical use case is CPU allocate a memory
>> and prepare/write data then launch GPU "cuda kernel".
> 
> I don't think we should make to many assumption on what is typical case.
> GPU compute is fast evolving and they are new domains where it is apply
> for instance some folks use it to process network stream and the network
> adapter directly write into GPU memory so there is never a CPU copy of
> it. So i rather not make any restrictive assumption on how it will be use.
> 
>> How to control the allocation go to device memory e.g HBM or system
>> DDR at the beginning without user explicit advise? If goes to DDR by
>> default, there is an extra copy. If goes to HBM by default, the HBM
>> may be waste.
> 
> Yes it is a hard problem to solve. We are working with NVidia and IBM
> on this and there are several path. But as first solution we will rely
> on hint/directive given by userspace program through existing GPGPU API
> like CUDA or OpenCL. They are plan to have hardware monitor bus traffic
> to gather statistics and do automatic memory placement from thos.
> 
> 
>>> can directly allocate device memory. Once allocated CPU access will use
>>> the device memory.
>>>
>>
>> Then it's more like replace the numa node solution(CDM) with ZONE_DEVICE
>> (type MEMORY_DEVICE_PUBLIC). But the problem is the same, e.g how to make
>> sure the device memory say HBM won't be occupied by normal CPU allocation.
>> Things will be more complex if there are multi GPU connected by nvlink
>> (also cache coherent) in a system, each GPU has their own HBM.
>>
>> How to decide allocate physical memory from local HBM/DDR or remote HBM/
>> DDR? 
>>
>> If using numa(CDM) approach there are NUMA mempolicy and autonuma mechanism
>> at least.
> 
> NUMA is not as easy as you think. First like i said we want the device
> memory to be isolated from most existing mm mechanism. Because memory
> is unreliable and also because device might need to be able to evict
> memory to make contiguous physical memory allocation for graphics.
> 

Right, but we need isolation any way.
For hmm-cdm, the isolation is not adding device memory to lru list, and many
if (is_device_public_page(page)) ...

But how to evict device memory?

> Second device driver are not integrated that closely within mm and the
> scheduler kernel code to allow to efficiently plug in device access
> notification to page (ie to update struct page so that numa worker
> thread can migrate memory base on accurate informations).
> 
> Third it can be hard to decide who win between CPU and device access
> when it comes to updating thing like last CPU id.
> 
> Fourth there is no such thing like device id ie equivalent of CPU id.
> If we were to add something the CPU id field in flags of struct page
> would not be big enough so this can have repercusion on struct page
> size. This is not an easy sell.
> 
> They are other issues i can't think of right now. I think for now it

My opinion is most of the issues are the same no matter use CDM or HMM-CDM.
I just care about a more complete solution no matter CDM,HMM-CDM or other ways.
HMM or HMM-CDM depends on device driver, but haven't see a public/full driver to 
demonstrate the whole solution works fine.

Cheers,
Bob

> is easier and better to take the HMM-CDM approach and latter down the
> road once we have more existing user to start thinking about numa or
> numa like solution.
> 
> Bottom line is we spend time thinking about this and yes numa make
> sense from conceptual point of view but they are many things we do
> not know to feel confident that we can make something good with numa
> as it is.


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