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Date:   Thu, 9 Nov 2017 09:35:50 +0900
From:   Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@...nel.org>
To:     Jessica Yu <jeyu@...nel.org>
Cc:     Steven Rostedt <rostedt@...dmis.org>,
        Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@...nel.org>,
        Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>,
        Anil S Keshavamurthy <anil.s.keshavamurthy@...el.com>,
        "David S . Miller" <davem@...emloft.net>,
        Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>, Petr Mladek <pmladek@...e.com>,
        Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@...hat.com>,
        Joe Lawrence <joe.lawrence@...hat.com>,
        Jiri Kosina <jikos@...nel.org>,
        Miroslav Benes <mbenes@...e.cz>, live-patching@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: kprobes: propagate error from arm_kprobe_ftrace()

On Tue, 7 Nov 2017 18:14:56 +0100
Jessica Yu <jeyu@...nel.org> wrote:

> +++ Steven Rostedt [03/11/17 10:03 -0400]:
> >On Thu,  2 Nov 2017 17:33:33 +0100
> >Jessica Yu <jeyu@...nel.org> wrote:
> >
> >> Improve error handling when arming ftrace-based kprobes. Specifically, if
> >> we fail to arm a ftrace-based kprobe, register_kprobe()/enable_kprobe()
> >> should report an error instead of success. Previously, this has lead to
> >> confusing situations where register_kprobe() would return 0 indicating
> >> success, but the kprobe would not be functional if ftrace registration
> >> during the kprobe arming process had failed. We should therefore take any
> >> errors returned by ftrace into account and propagate this error so that we
> >> do not register/enable kprobes that cannot be armed. This can happen if,
> >> for example, register_ftrace_function() finds an IPMODIFY conflict (since
> >> kprobe_ftrace_ops has this flag set) and returns an error. Such a conflict
> >> is possible since livepatches also set the IPMODIFY flag for their ftrace_ops.
> >>
> >> arm_all_kprobes() keeps its current behavior and attempts to arm all
> >> kprobes. It returns the last encountered error and gives a warning if
> >> not all kprobes could be armed.
> >>
> >> This patch is based on Petr Mladek's original patchset (patches 2 and 3)
> >> back in 2015, which improved kprobes error handling, found here:
> >>
> >>    https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/2/26/452
> >>
> >> However, further work on this had been paused since then and the patches
> >> were not upstreamed.
> >>
> >> Based-on-patches-by: Petr Mladek <pmladek@...e.com>
> >> Signed-off-by: Jessica Yu <jeyu@...nel.org>
> >> ---
> >>  kernel/kprobes.c | 88 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
> >>  1 file changed, 63 insertions(+), 25 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> diff --git a/kernel/kprobes.c b/kernel/kprobes.c
> >> index da2ccf142358..f4a094007cb5 100644
> >> --- a/kernel/kprobes.c
> >> +++ b/kernel/kprobes.c
> >> @@ -978,18 +978,27 @@ static int prepare_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
> >>  }
> >>
> >>  /* Caller must lock kprobe_mutex */
> >> -static void arm_kprobe_ftrace(struct kprobe *p)
> >> +static int arm_kprobe_ftrace(struct kprobe *p)
> >>  {
> >> -	int ret;
> >> +	int ret = 0;
> >>
> >>  	ret = ftrace_set_filter_ip(&kprobe_ftrace_ops,
> >>  				   (unsigned long)p->addr, 0, 0);
> >> -	WARN(ret < 0, "Failed to arm kprobe-ftrace at %p (%d)\n", p->addr, ret);
> >> -	kprobe_ftrace_enabled++;
> >> -	if (kprobe_ftrace_enabled == 1) {
> >> +	if (WARN(ret < 0, "Failed to arm kprobe-ftrace at %p (%d)\n", p->addr, ret))
> >> +		return ret;
> >> +
> >> +	if (kprobe_ftrace_enabled == 0) {
> >>  		ret = register_ftrace_function(&kprobe_ftrace_ops);
> >> -		WARN(ret < 0, "Failed to init kprobe-ftrace (%d)\n", ret);
> >> +		if (WARN(ret < 0, "Failed to init kprobe-ftrace (%d)\n", ret))
> >> +			goto err_ftrace;
> >>  	}
> >> +
> >> +	kprobe_ftrace_enabled++;
> >> +	return ret;
> >> +
> >> +err_ftrace:
> >> +	ftrace_set_filter_ip(&kprobe_ftrace_ops, (unsigned long)p->addr, 1, 0);
> >
> >Hmm, this could have a very nasty side effect. If you remove a function
> >from the ops, and it was the last function, an empty ops means to trace
> >*all* functions.
> 
> Good point, and yes, normally this would be the (undesirable) outcome.
> 
> However in this case, kprobes_ftrace_ops has the IPMODIFY flag set, so
> ftrace_set_filter_ip() will not allow the removal of a function if it
> is the very last function, and it will return an error in
> __ftrace_hash_update_ipmodify(). The comment there explains, if
> IPMODIFY is set, "return -EINVAL if the new_hash tries to trace all
> recs". So I think we are safe here...
> 
> >Perhaps you want to add it to the "notrace" list. Which would require
> >implementing a ftrace_set_notrace_ip() function. Which I believe is
> >what you want. Any function in the notrace hash will have the same
> >functions in the filter hash be ignored.
> 
> I think this would've been a good alternative if we wanted to protect
> against the empty ops case, but IPMODIFY is also incompatible with notrace..
> (See: commit f8b8be8a310 and this comment here:
> https://www.mail-archive.com/linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org/msg688632.html)
> 
> Speaking of IPMODIFY, a question for Masami - is this flag still
> relevant/needed for kprobes, since jprobes has been deprecated
> recently? IIRC, IPMODIFY was needed in the first place because jprobes
> and livepatch were in direct conflict, but I recall some work being
> done in the past to remove the IPMODIFY flag from kprobes, but I don't
> think this was ever upstreamed. (See: https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/5352481/)

Hmm, good point. I just want to make kprobes transparently using ftrace.
This means if someone writes a kernel module which uses kprobes to
change IP address, which should work with/without CONFIG_FTRACE enabled.
kprobes itself supports to modify regs->ip (under some special settings,
see Documentation/kprobes.txt:Note for geeks), so we can not remove it.

Thank you,

-- 
Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@...nel.org>

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