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Date:   Wed, 29 Nov 2017 14:36:36 +0200
From:   Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@...el.com>
To:     peterz@...radead.org
Cc:     linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, keescook@...omium.org,
        david@...morbit.com, Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@...el.com>
Subject: [PATCH] refcount_t: documentation for memory ordering differences

Some functions from refcount_t API provide different
memory ordering guarantees that their atomic counterparts.
This adds a document outlining these differences.

Signed-off-by: Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@...el.com>
---
 Documentation/core-api/index.rst              |   1 +
 Documentation/core-api/refcount-vs-atomic.rst | 129 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 130 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/core-api/refcount-vs-atomic.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/core-api/index.rst b/Documentation/core-api/index.rst
index d5bbe03..d4d54b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/core-api/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/core-api/index.rst
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ Core utilities
    kernel-api
    assoc_array
    atomic_ops
+   refcount-vs-atomic
    cpu_hotplug
    local_ops
    workqueue
diff --git a/Documentation/core-api/refcount-vs-atomic.rst b/Documentation/core-api/refcount-vs-atomic.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5619d48
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/core-api/refcount-vs-atomic.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,129 @@
+===================================
+refcount_t API compared to atomic_t
+===================================
+
+The goal of refcount_t API is to provide a minimal API for implementing
+an object's reference counters. While a generic architecture-independent
+implementation from lib/refcount.c uses atomic operations underneath,
+there are a number of differences between some of the refcount_*() and
+atomic_*() functions with regards to the memory ordering guarantees.
+This document outlines the differences and provides respective examples
+in order to help maintainers validate their code against the change in
+these memory ordering guarantees.
+
+memory-barriers.txt and atomic_t.txt provide more background to the
+memory ordering in general and for atomic operations specifically.
+
+Relevant types of memory ordering
+=================================
+
+**Note**: the following section only covers some of the memory
+ordering types that are relevant for the atomics and reference
+counters and used through this document. For a much broader picture
+please consult memory-barriers.txt document.
+
+In the absence of any memory ordering guarantees (i.e. fully unordered)
+atomics & refcounters only provide atomicity and
+program order (po) relation (on the same CPU). It guarantees that
+each atomic_*() and refcount_*() operation is atomic and instructions
+are executed in program order on a single CPU.
+This is implemented using READ_ONCE()/WRITE_ONCE() and
+compare-and-swap primitives.
+
+A strong (full) memory ordering guarantees that all prior loads and
+stores (all po-earlier instructions) on the same CPU are completed
+before any po-later instruction is executed on the same CPU.
+It also guarantees that all po-earlier stores on the same CPU
+and all propagated stores from other CPUs must propagate to all
+other CPUs before any po-later instruction is executed on the original
+CPU (A-cumulative property). This is implemented using smp_mb().
+
+A RELEASE memory ordering guarantees that all prior loads and
+stores (all po-earlier instructions) on the same CPU are completed
+before the operation. It also guarantees that all po-earlier
+stores on the same CPU and all propagated stores from other CPUs
+must propagate to all other CPUs before the release operation
+(A-cumulative property). This is implemented using smp_store_release().
+
+A control dependency (on success) for refcounters guarantees that
+if a reference for an object was successfully obtained (reference
+counter increment or addition happened, function returned true),
+then further stores are ordered against this operation.
+Control dependency on stores are not implemented using any explicit
+barriers, but rely on CPU not to speculate on stores. This is only
+a single CPU relation and provides no guarantees for other CPUs.
+
+
+Comparison of functions
+=======================
+
+case 1) - non-"Read/Modify/Write" (RMW) ops
+-------------------------------------------
+
+Function changes:
+                atomic_set() --> refcount_set()
+                atomic_read() --> refcount_read()
+
+Memory ordering guarantee changes:
+                none (both fully unordered)
+
+case 2) - increment-based ops that return no value
+--------------------------------------------------
+
+Function changes:
+                atomic_inc() --> refcount_inc()
+                atomic_add() --> refcount_add()
+
+Memory ordering guarantee changes:
+                none (both fully unordered)
+
+
+case 3) - decrement-based RMW ops that return no value
+------------------------------------------------------
+Function changes:
+                atomic_dec() --> refcount_dec()
+
+Memory ordering guarantee changes:
+                fully unordered --> RELEASE ordering
+
+
+case 4) - increment-based RMW ops that return a value
+-----------------------------------------------------
+
+Function changes:
+                atomic_inc_not_zero() --> refcount_inc_not_zero()
+                no atomic counterpart --> refcount_add_not_zero()
+
+Memory ordering guarantees changes:
+                fully ordered --> control dependency on success for stores
+
+*Note*: we really assume here that necessary ordering is provided as a result
+of obtaining pointer to the object!
+
+
+case 5) - decrement-based RMW ops that return a value
+-----------------------------------------------------
+
+Function changes:
+                atomic_dec_and_test() --> refcount_dec_and_test()
+                atomic_sub_and_test() --> refcount_sub_and_test()
+                no atomic counterpart --> refcount_dec_if_one()
+                atomic_add_unless(&var, -1, 1) --> refcount_dec_not_one(&var)
+
+Memory ordering guarantees changes:
+                fully ordered --> RELEASE ordering + control dependency
+
+Note: atomic_add_unless() only provides full order on success.
+
+
+case 6) - lock-based RMW
+------------------------
+
+Function changes:
+
+                atomic_dec_and_lock() --> refcount_dec_and_lock()
+                atomic_dec_and_mutex_lock() --> refcount_dec_and_mutex_lock()
+
+Memory ordering guarantees changes:
+                fully ordered --> RELEASE ordering + control dependency +
+                                  hold spin_lock() on success
-- 
2.7.4

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