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Date:   Thu, 28 Feb 2019 15:13:51 +0100
From:   Pierre Morel <>
To:     Halil Pasic <>
Cc:     Christian Borntraeger <>,
        Tony Krowiak <>,,,,,,,,,,,
Subject: Re: [PATCH v4 1/7] s390: ap: kvm: add PQAP interception for AQIC

On 28/02/2019 15:07, Halil Pasic wrote:
> On Thu, 28 Feb 2019 14:47:35 +0100
> Pierre Morel <> wrote:
>> On 28/02/2019 14:44, Christian Borntraeger wrote:
>>> On 28.02.2019 14:23, Pierre Morel wrote:
>>>> On 28/02/2019 10:42, Christian Borntraeger wrote:
>>>>> On 27.02.2019 19:00, Tony Krowiak wrote:
>>>>>> On 2/27/19 3:09 AM, Pierre Morel wrote:
>>>>>>> On 26/02/2019 16:47, Tony Krowiak wrote:
>>>>>>>> On 2/26/19 6:47 AM, Pierre Morel wrote:
>>>>>>>>> On 25/02/2019 19:36, Tony Krowiak wrote:
>>>>>>>>>> On 2/22/19 10:29 AM, Pierre Morel wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>> We prepare the interception of the PQAP/AQIC instruction for
>>>>>>>>>>> the case the AQIC facility is enabled in the guest.
>>>>>>>>>>> We add a callback inside the KVM arch structure for s390 for
>>>>>>>>>>> a VFIO driver to handle a specific response to the PQAP
>>>>>>>>>>> instruction with the AQIC command.
>>>>>>>>>>> We inject the correct exceptions from inside KVM for the case the
>>>>>>>>>>> callback is not initialized, which happens when the vfio_ap driver
>>>>>>>>>>> is not loaded.
>>>>>>>>>>> If the callback has been setup we call it.
>>>>>>>>>>> If not we setup an answer considering that no queue is available
>>>>>>>>>>> for the guest when no callback has been setup.
>>>>>>>>>>> We do consider the responsability of the driver to always initialize
>>>>>>>>>>> the PQAP callback if it defines queues by initializing the CRYCB for
>>>>>>>>>>> a guest.
>>>>>>>>>>> Signed-off-by: Pierre Morel <>
>>>>>>>>> ...snip...
>>>>>>>>>>> @@ -592,6 +593,55 @@ static int handle_io_inst(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
>>>>>>>>>>>          }
>>>>>>>>>>>      }
>>>>>>>>>>> +/*
>>>>>>>>>>> + * handle_pqap: Handling pqap interception
>>>>>>>>>>> + * @vcpu: the vcpu having issue the pqap instruction
>>>>>>>>>>> + *
>>>>>>>>>>> + * We now support PQAP/AQIC instructions and we need to correctly
>>>>>>>>>>> + * answer the guest even if no dedicated driver's hook is available.
>>>>>>>>>>> + *
>>>>>>>>>>> + * The intercepting code calls a dedicated callback for this instruction
>>>>>>>>>>> + * if a driver did register one in the CRYPTO satellite of the
>>>>>>>>>>> + * SIE block.
>>>>>>>>>>> + *
>>>>>>>>>>> + * For PQAP/AQIC instructions only, verify privilege and specifications.
>>>>>>>>>>> + *
>>>>>>>>>>> + * If no callback available, the queues are not available, return this to
>>>>>>>>>>> + * the caller.
>>>>>>>>>>> + * Else return the value returned by the callback.
>>>>>>>>>>> + */
>>>>>>>>>>> +static int handle_pqap(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
>>>>>>>>>>> +{
>>>>>>>>>>> +    uint8_t fc;
>>>>>>>>>>> +    struct ap_queue_status status = {};
>>>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>>>> +    /* Verify that the AP instruction are available */
>>>>>>>>>>> +    if (!ap_instructions_available())
>>>>>>>>>>> +        return -EOPNOTSUPP;
>>>>>>>>>> How can the guest even execute an AP instruction if the AP instructions
>>>>>>>>>> are not available? If the AP instructions are not available on the host,
>>>>>>>>>> they will not be available on the guest (i.e., CPU model feature
>>>>>>>>>> S390_FEAT_AP will not be set). I suppose it doesn't hurt to check this
>>>>>>>>>> here given QEMU may not be the only client.
>>>>>>>>>>> +    /* Verify that the guest is allowed to use AP instructions */
>>>>>>>>>>> +    if (!(vcpu->arch.sie_block->eca & ECA_APIE))
>>>>>>>>>>> +        return -EOPNOTSUPP;
>>>>>>>>>>> +    /* Verify that the function code is AQIC */
>>>>>>>>>>> +    fc = vcpu->run->s.regs.gprs[0] >> 24;
>>>>>>>>>>> +    if (fc != 0x03)
>>>>>>>>>>> +        return -EOPNOTSUPP;
>>>>>>>>>> You must have missed my suggestion to move this to the
>>>>>>>>>> vcpu->kvm->arch.crypto.pqap_hook(vcpu) in the following responses:
>>>>>>>>> Please consider what happen if the vfio_ap module is not loaded.
>>>>>>>> I have considered it and even verified my expectations empirically. If
>>>>>>>> the vfio_ap module is not loaded, you will not be able to create an mdev device.
>>>>>>> OK, now please consider that another userland tool, not QEMU uses KVM.
>>>>>> What does that have to do with loading the vfio_ap module? Without the
>>>>>> vfio_ap module, there will be no AP devices for the guest. What are you
>>>>>> suggesting here?
>>>>>>>> If you don't have an mdev device, you will not be able to
>>>>>>>> start a guest with a vfio-ap device. If you start a guest without a
>>>>>>>> vfio-ap device, but enable AP instructions for the guest, there will be
>>>>>>>> no AP devices attached to the guest. Without any AP devices attached,
>>>>>>>> the PQAP(AQIC) instructions will not ever get executed.
>>>>>>> This is not right. The instruction will be executed, eventually, after decoding.
>>>>>> Please explain why the PQAP(AQIC) instruction will be executed on a
>>>>>> guest without any devices? Point me to the code in the AP bus where
>>>>>> PQAP(AQIC) is executed without a queue?
>>>>> The host must be prepared to handle malicous and broken guests. So if
>>>>> a guest does PQAP, we must handle that gracefully (e.g. by injecting an
>>>>> exception)
>>>>>>>> Even if for some
>>>>>>>> unknown reason the PQAP(AQIC) instruction is executed - for some unknown
>>>>>>>> reason, it will fail with response code 0x01, AP-queue number not valid.
>>>>>>> No, before accessing the AP-queue the instruction will be decoded and depending on the installed micro-code it will fail with
>>>>>>> - OPERATION EXCEPTION if the micro-code is not installed
>>>>>>> - PRIVILEDGE OPERATION if the instruction is issued from userland (programm state)
>>>>>>> - SPECIFICATION exception if the instruction do not respect the usage specification
>>>>>>> then it will be interpreted by the microcode and access the queue and only then it will fail with RC 0x01, AP queue not valid.
>>>>>>> In the case of KVM, we intercept the instruction because it is issued by the guest and we set the AQIC facility on to force interception.
>>>>>>> KVM do for us all the decode steps I mention here above, if there is or not a pqap hook to be call to simulate the QP queue access.
>>>>>>> That done, the AP queue virtualisation can be called, this is done by calling the hook.
>>>>>> Okay, let's go back to the genesis of this discussion; namely, my
>>>>>> suggestion about moving the fc == 0x03 check into the hook code. If
>>>>>> the vfio_ap module is not loaded, there will be no hook code. In that
>>>>>> case, the check for the hook will fail and ultimately response code
>>>>>> 0x01 will be set in the status word (which may not be the right thing
>>>>>> to do?). You have not stated a single good reason for keeping this
>>>>>> check, but I'm done with this silly argument. It certainly doesn't
>>>>>> hurt anything.
>>>>> The instruction handler must handle the basic checks for the
>>>>> instruction itself as outlined above.
>>>>> Do we want to allow QEMU to fully emulate everything (the  ECA_APIE case being off)?
>>>>> The we should pass along everything to QEMU, but this is already done with the
>>>>> ECA_APIE check, correct?
>>>>> Do we agree that when we are beyond the ECA_APIE check, that we do not emulate
>>>>> in QEMU and we have enabled the AP instructions interpretion?
>>>>> If yes then this has some implication:
>>>>> 1. ECA is on and we should only get PQAP interception for specific FC (namely 3).
>>>>> 2. What we certainly should check is the facility bit of the guest (65) and reject fc==3
>>>>> right away with a specification exception. I do not want the hook to mess with
>>>>> the kvm cpu model. @Pierre would be good to actually check test_kvm_facility(vcpu->kvm, 65))
>>>> Currently the check test_kvm_facility(vcpu->kvm, 65) is done in the instruction handler, what do you mean here?
>>> Found it. I think we should couple the check for 64 to fc==3. Otherwise both things are somewhat
>>> disconnected when reviewing.
>> Right.
>> In the next version I will go the way you proposed anyway and handle all
>> PQAP functions separatly (switch/dedicated functions).
> Sorry what did Christian propose? I've lost you. Christian's initial
> analysis assumed AFAIU that we only have or care for fc == 3.
> BTW have you seen my response to Christians analysis and the changes I
> proposed?

Yes, just pushed the send button. :)


Pierre Morel
Linux/KVM/QEMU in Böblingen - Germany

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