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Date:   Tue,  5 Mar 2019 15:59:04 +0800
From:   Dongli Zhang <>
Subject: [PATCH v4.9 1/1] jiffies: use jiffies64_to_nsecs() to fix 100% steal usage for xen vcpu hotplug

[ Not relevant upstream, therefore no upstream commit. ]

To fix, use jiffies64_to_nsecs() directly instead of deriving the result
according to jiffies_to_usecs().

As the return type of jiffies_to_usecs() is 'unsigned int', when the return
value is more than the size of 'unsigned int', the leading 32 bits would be

Suppose USEC_PER_SEC=1000000L and HZ=1000, below are the expected and
actual incorrect result of jiffies_to_usecs(0x7770ef70):

- expected  : jiffies_to_usecs(0x7770ef70) = 0x000001d291274d80
- incorrect : jiffies_to_usecs(0x7770ef70) = 0x0000000091274d80

The leading 0x000001d200000000 is discarded.

After xen vcpu hotplug and when the new vcpu steal clock is calculated for
the first time, the result of this_rq()->prev_steal_time in
steal_account_process_tick() would be far smaller than the expected
value, due to that jiffies_to_usecs() discards the leading 32 bits.

As a result, the diff between current steal and this_rq()->prev_steal_time
is always very large. Steal usage would become 100% when the initial steal
clock obtained from xen hypervisor is very large during xen vcpu hotplug,
that is, when the guest is already up for a long time.

The bug can be detected by doing the following:

* Boot xen guest with vcpus=2 and maxvcpus=4
* Leave the guest running for a month so that the initial steal clock for
  the new vcpu would be very large
* Hotplug 2 extra vcpus
* The steal time of new vcpus in /proc/stat would increase abnormally and
  sometimes steal usage in top can become 100%

This was incidentally fixed in the patch set starting by
commit 93825f2ec736 ("jiffies: Reuse TICK_NSEC instead of NSEC_PER_JIFFY")
and ended with
commit b672592f0221 ("sched/cputime: Remove generic asm headers").

This version applies to the v4.9 series.

Suggested-by: Juergen Gross <>
Signed-off-by: Dongli Zhang <>
 include/linux/jiffies.h | 6 +++---
 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/jiffies.h b/include/linux/jiffies.h
index 734377a..94aff43 100644
--- a/include/linux/jiffies.h
+++ b/include/linux/jiffies.h
@@ -287,13 +287,13 @@ extern unsigned long preset_lpj;
 extern unsigned int jiffies_to_msecs(const unsigned long j);
 extern unsigned int jiffies_to_usecs(const unsigned long j);
+extern u64 jiffies64_to_nsecs(u64 j);
 static inline u64 jiffies_to_nsecs(const unsigned long j)
-	return (u64)jiffies_to_usecs(j) * NSEC_PER_USEC;
+	return jiffies64_to_nsecs(j);
-extern u64 jiffies64_to_nsecs(u64 j);
 extern unsigned long __msecs_to_jiffies(const unsigned int m);

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