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Date:   Wed, 6 Mar 2019 15:43:07 -0800
From:   Alexander Duyck <alexander.duyck@...il.com>
To:     Nitesh Narayan Lal <nitesh@...hat.com>
Cc:     kvm list <kvm@...r.kernel.org>,
        LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        linux-mm <linux-mm@...ck.org>,
        Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@...hat.com>, lcapitulino@...hat.com,
        pagupta@...hat.com, wei.w.wang@...el.com,
        Yang Zhang <yang.zhang.wz@...il.com>,
        Rik van Riel <riel@...riel.com>,
        David Hildenbrand <david@...hat.com>,
        "Michael S. Tsirkin" <mst@...hat.com>, dodgen@...gle.com,
        Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@...cle.com>,
        dhildenb@...hat.com, Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@...hat.com>
Subject: Re: [RFC][Patch v9 1/6] KVM: Guest free page hinting support

On Wed, Mar 6, 2019 at 7:51 AM Nitesh Narayan Lal <nitesh@...hat.com> wrote:
>
> This patch adds the following:
> 1. Functional skeleton for the guest implementation. It enables the
> guest to maintain the PFN of head buddy free pages of order
> FREE_PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER (currently defined as MAX_ORDER - 1)
> in a per-cpu array.
> Guest uses guest_free_page_enqueue() to enqueue the free pages post buddy
> merging to the above mentioned per-cpu array.
> guest_free_page_try_hinting() is used to initiate hinting operation once
> the collected entries of the per-cpu array reaches or exceeds
> HINTING_THRESHOLD (128). Having larger array size(MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES = 256)
> than HINTING_THRESHOLD allows us to capture more pages specifically when
> guest_free_page_enqueue() is called from free_pcppages_bulk().
> For now guest_free_page_hinting() just resets the array index to continue
> capturing of the freed pages.
> 2. Enables the support for x86 architecture.
>
> Signed-off-by: Nitesh Narayan Lal <nitesh@...hat.com>
> ---
>  arch/x86/Kbuild              |  2 +-
>  arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig         |  8 +++
>  arch/x86/kvm/Makefile        |  2 +
>  include/linux/page_hinting.h | 15 ++++++
>  mm/page_alloc.c              |  5 ++
>  virt/kvm/page_hinting.c      | 98 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  6 files changed, 129 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>  create mode 100644 include/linux/page_hinting.h
>  create mode 100644 virt/kvm/page_hinting.c
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/Kbuild b/arch/x86/Kbuild
> index c625f57472f7..3244df4ee311 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/Kbuild
> +++ b/arch/x86/Kbuild
> @@ -2,7 +2,7 @@ obj-y += entry/
>
>  obj-$(CONFIG_PERF_EVENTS) += events/
>
> -obj-$(CONFIG_KVM) += kvm/
> +obj-$(subst m,y,$(CONFIG_KVM)) += kvm/
>
>  # Xen paravirtualization support
>  obj-$(CONFIG_XEN) += xen/
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig b/arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig
> index 72fa955f4a15..2fae31459706 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig
> @@ -96,6 +96,14 @@ config KVM_MMU_AUDIT
>          This option adds a R/W kVM module parameter 'mmu_audit', which allows
>          auditing of KVM MMU events at runtime.
>
> +# KVM_FREE_PAGE_HINTING will allow the guest to report the free pages to the
> +# host in regular interval of time.
> +config KVM_FREE_PAGE_HINTING
> +       def_bool y
> +       depends on KVM
> +       select VIRTIO
> +       select VIRTIO_BALLOON
> +
>  # OK, it's a little counter-intuitive to do this, but it puts it neatly under
>  # the virtualization menu.
>  source "drivers/vhost/Kconfig"
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/Makefile b/arch/x86/kvm/Makefile
> index 69b3a7c30013..78640a80501e 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kvm/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/x86/kvm/Makefile
> @@ -16,6 +16,8 @@ kvm-y                 += x86.o mmu.o emulate.o i8259.o irq.o lapic.o \
>                            i8254.o ioapic.o irq_comm.o cpuid.o pmu.o mtrr.o \
>                            hyperv.o page_track.o debugfs.o
>
> +obj-$(CONFIG_KVM_FREE_PAGE_HINTING)    += $(KVM)/page_hinting.o
> +
>  kvm-intel-y            += vmx/vmx.o vmx/vmenter.o vmx/pmu_intel.o vmx/vmcs12.o vmx/evmcs.o vmx/nested.o
>  kvm-amd-y              += svm.o pmu_amd.o
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/page_hinting.h b/include/linux/page_hinting.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..90254c582789
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/page_hinting.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
> +#include <linux/gfp.h>
> +/*
> + * Size of the array which is used to store the freed pages is defined by
> + * MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES.
> + */
> +#define MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES       256
> +/*
> + * Threshold value after which hinting needs to be initiated on the captured
> + * free pages.
> + */
> +#define HINTING_THRESHOLD      128
> +#define FREE_PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER    (MAX_ORDER - 1)
> +
> +void guest_free_page_enqueue(struct page *page, int order);
> +void guest_free_page_try_hinting(void);
> diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
> index d295c9bc01a8..684d047f33ee 100644
> --- a/mm/page_alloc.c
> +++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
> @@ -67,6 +67,7 @@
>  #include <linux/lockdep.h>
>  #include <linux/nmi.h>
>  #include <linux/psi.h>
> +#include <linux/page_hinting.h>
>
>  #include <asm/sections.h>
>  #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> @@ -1194,9 +1195,11 @@ static void free_pcppages_bulk(struct zone *zone, int count,
>                         mt = get_pageblock_migratetype(page);
>
>                 __free_one_page(page, page_to_pfn(page), zone, 0, mt);
> +               guest_free_page_enqueue(page, 0);
>                 trace_mm_page_pcpu_drain(page, 0, mt);
>         }
>         spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> +       guest_free_page_try_hinting();
>  }
>

Trying to enqueue pages from here seems like a really bad idea. You
are essentially putting yourself in a hot-path for order 0 pages and
going to cause significant bottlenecks.

>  static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone,
> @@ -1210,7 +1213,9 @@ static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone,
>                 migratetype = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
>         }
>         __free_one_page(page, pfn, zone, order, migratetype);
> +       guest_free_page_enqueue(page, order);
>         spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> +       guest_free_page_try_hinting();
>  }

I really think it would be better to leave the page assembly to the
buddy allocator. Instead you may want to focus on somehow tagging the
pages as being recently freed but not hinted on so that you can come
back later to work on them.

>  static void __meminit __init_single_page(struct page *page, unsigned long pfn,
> diff --git a/virt/kvm/page_hinting.c b/virt/kvm/page_hinting.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..48b4b5e796b0
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/virt/kvm/page_hinting.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,98 @@
> +#include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/page_hinting.h>
> +
> +/*
> + * struct guest_free_pages- holds array of guest freed PFN's along with an
> + * index variable to track total freed PFN's.
> + * @free_pfn_arr: array to store the page frame number of all the pages which
> + * are freed by the guest.
> + * @guest_free_pages_idx: index to track the number entries stored in
> + * free_pfn_arr.
> + */
> +struct guest_free_pages {
> +       unsigned long free_page_arr[MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES];
> +       int free_pages_idx;
> +};
> +
> +DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct guest_free_pages, free_pages_obj);
> +
> +struct page *get_buddy_page(struct page *page)
> +{
> +       unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
> +       unsigned int order;
> +
> +       for (order = 0; order < MAX_ORDER; order++) {
> +               struct page *page_head = page - (pfn & ((1 << order) - 1));
> +
> +               if (PageBuddy(page_head) && page_private(page_head) >= order)
> +                       return page_head;
> +       }
> +       return NULL;
> +}
> +

You would be much better off just letting the buddy allocator take care of this.

I really think the spot I had my arch_merge_page call would work much
better than this. The buddy allocator is already optimized to handle
merging the pages and such so we should really let it do its job
rather than reinventing it ourselves.

> +static void guest_free_page_hinting(void)
> +{
> +       struct guest_free_pages *hinting_obj = &get_cpu_var(free_pages_obj);
> +
> +       hinting_obj->free_pages_idx = 0;
> +       put_cpu_var(hinting_obj);
> +}
> +

Shouldn't this be guarded with a local_irq_save to prevent someone
from possibly performing an enqueue on the same CPU as the one you are
resetting the work on, or is just the preempt_disable int he
get_cpu_var enough to handle the case? If so could we get away with
the same thing for the guest_free_page_enqueue?

> +int if_exist(struct page *page)
> +{
> +       int i = 0;
> +       struct guest_free_pages *hinting_obj = this_cpu_ptr(&free_pages_obj);
> +
> +       while (i < MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES) {
> +               if (page_to_pfn(page) == hinting_obj->free_page_arr[i])
> +                       return 1;
> +               i++;
> +       }
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +

Doing a linear search for the page is going to be painful. Also this
is only searching a per-cpu list. What if you have this split over a
couple of CPUs?

> +void guest_free_page_enqueue(struct page *page, int order)
> +{
> +       unsigned long flags;
> +       struct guest_free_pages *hinting_obj;
> +       int l_idx;
> +
> +       /*
> +        * use of global variables may trigger a race condition between irq and
> +        * process context causing unwanted overwrites. This will be replaced
> +        * with a better solution to prevent such race conditions.
> +        */
> +       local_irq_save(flags);
> +       hinting_obj = this_cpu_ptr(&free_pages_obj);
> +       l_idx = hinting_obj->free_pages_idx;
> +       if (l_idx != MAX_FGPT_ENTRIES) {
> +               if (PageBuddy(page) && page_private(page) >=
> +                   FREE_PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER) {
> +                       hinting_obj->free_page_arr[l_idx] = page_to_pfn(page);
> +                       hinting_obj->free_pages_idx += 1;
> +               } else {
> +                       struct page *buddy_page = get_buddy_page(page);
> +
> +                       if (buddy_page && page_private(buddy_page) >=
> +                           FREE_PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER &&
> +                           !if_exist(buddy_page)) {
> +                               unsigned long buddy_pfn =
> +                                       page_to_pfn(buddy_page);
> +
> +                               hinting_obj->free_page_arr[l_idx] =
> +                                                       buddy_pfn;
> +                               hinting_obj->free_pages_idx += 1;
> +                       }
> +               }
> +       }
> +       local_irq_restore(flags);
> +}
> +
> +void guest_free_page_try_hinting(void)
> +{
> +       struct guest_free_pages *hinting_obj;
> +
> +       hinting_obj = this_cpu_ptr(&free_pages_obj);
> +       if (hinting_obj->free_pages_idx >= HINTING_THRESHOLD)
> +               guest_free_page_hinting();
> +}
> --
> 2.17.2
>

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