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Date:   Fri, 22 Mar 2019 07:58:23 -0700
From:   "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.ibm.com>
To:     Joel Fernandes <joel@...lfernandes.org>
Cc:     Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@...utronix.de>,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org,
        Josh Triplett <josh@...htriplett.org>,
        Steven Rostedt <rostedt@...dmis.org>,
        Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@...icios.com>,
        Lai Jiangshan <jiangshanlai@...il.com>, tglx@...utronix.de,
        Mike Galbraith <efault@....de>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3] rcu: Allow to eliminate softirq processing from
 rcutree

On Fri, Mar 22, 2019 at 09:42:07AM -0400, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> On Thu, Mar 21, 2019 at 04:32:44PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > On Wed, Mar 20, 2019 at 04:46:01PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > > On Wed, Mar 20, 2019 at 10:13:33PM +0100, Sebastian Andrzej Siewior wrote:
> > > > Running RCU out of softirq is a problem for some workloads that would
> > > > like to manage RCU core processing independently of other softirq
> > > > work, for example, setting kthread priority.  This commit therefore
> > > > introduces the `rcunosoftirq' option which moves the RCU core work
> > > > from softirq to a per-CPU/per-flavor SCHED_OTHER kthread named rcuc.
> > > > The SCHED_OTHER approach avoids the scalability problems that appeared
> > > > with the earlier attempt to move RCU core processing to from softirq
> > > > to kthreads.  That said, kernels built with RCU_BOOST=y will run the
> > > > rcuc kthreads at the RCU-boosting priority.
> > > > 
> > > > Reported-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>
> > > > Tested-by: Mike Galbraith <efault@....de>
> > > > Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@...utronix.de>
> > > 
> > > Thank you!  I reverted v2 and applied this one with the same sort of
> > > update.  Testing is going well thus far aside from my failing to add
> > > the required "=0" after the rcutree.use_softirq.  I will probably not
> > > be the only one who will run afoul of this, so I updated the commit log
> > > and the documentation accordingly, as shown below.
> > 
> > And I took a look, please see updates/questions interspersed.
> [snip]
> > 
> > > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > 
> > > commit 5971694b716d34baa86f3f1dd44f8e587a17d8f0
> > > Author: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@...utronix.de>
> > > Date:   Wed Mar 20 22:13:33 2019 +0100
> > > 
> > >     rcu: Enable elimination of Tree-RCU softirq processing
> > >     
> > >     Some workloads need to change kthread priority for RCU core processing
> > >     without affecting other softirq work.  This commit therefore introduces
> > >     the rcutree.use_softirq kernel boot parameter, which moves the RCU core
> > >     work from softirq to a per-CPU SCHED_OTHER kthread named rcuc.  Use of
> > >     SCHED_OTHER approach avoids the scalability problems that appeared
> > >     with the earlier attempt to move RCU core processing to from softirq
> > >     to kthreads.  That said, kernels built with RCU_BOOST=y will run the
> > >     rcuc kthreads at the RCU-boosting priority.
> > >     
> > >     Note that rcutree.use_softirq=0 must be specified to move RCU core
> > >     processing to the rcuc kthreads: rcutree.use_softirq=1 is the default.
> > >     
> > >     Reported-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>
> > >     Tested-by: Mike Galbraith <efault@....de>
> > >     Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@...utronix.de>
> > >     Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@...ux.ibm.com>
> > > 
> > > diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
> > > index d377a2166b79..e2ffb1d9de03 100644
> > > --- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
> > > +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
> > > @@ -3672,6 +3672,12 @@
> > >  			the propagation of recent CPU-hotplug changes up
> > >  			the rcu_node combining tree.
> > >  
> > > +	rcutree.use_softirq=	[KNL]
> > > +			If set to zero, move all RCU_SOFTIRQ processing to
> > > +			per-CPU rcuc kthreads.  Defaults to a non-zero
> > > +			value, meaning that RCU_SOFTIRQ is used by default.
> > > +			Specify rcutree.use_softirq=0 to use rcuc kthreads.
> > > +
> > >  	rcutree.rcu_fanout_exact= [KNL]
> > >  			Disable autobalancing of the rcu_node combining
> > >  			tree.  This is used by rcutorture, and might
> > > diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.c b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> > > index ec77ec336f58..6bd05c9918cc 100644
> > > --- a/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> > > +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> > > @@ -51,6 +51,12 @@
> > >  #include <linux/tick.h>
> > >  #include <linux/sysrq.h>
> > >  #include <linux/kprobes.h>
> > > +#include <linux/gfp.h>
> > > +#include <linux/oom.h>
> > > +#include <linux/smpboot.h>
> > > +#include <linux/jiffies.h>
> > > +#include <linux/sched/isolation.h>
> > > +#include "../time/tick-internal.h"
> > >  
> > >  #include "tree.h"
> > >  #include "rcu.h"
> > > @@ -92,6 +98,9 @@ struct rcu_state rcu_state = {
> > >  /* Dump rcu_node combining tree at boot to verify correct setup. */
> > >  static bool dump_tree;
> > >  module_param(dump_tree, bool, 0444);
> > > +/* Move RCU_SOFTIRQ to rcuc kthreads. */
> > 
> > I am replacing this with:
> > 
> > +/* By default, use RCU_SOFTIRQ instead of rcuc kthreads. */
> > 
> > > +static bool use_softirq = 1;
> > > +module_param(use_softirq, bool, 0444);
> > >  /* Control rcu_node-tree auto-balancing at boot time. */
> > >  static bool rcu_fanout_exact;
> > >  module_param(rcu_fanout_exact, bool, 0444);
> > > @@ -2253,7 +2262,7 @@ void rcu_force_quiescent_state(void)
> > >  EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(rcu_force_quiescent_state);
> > >  
> > >  /* Perform RCU core processing work for the current CPU.  */
> > > -static __latent_entropy void rcu_core(struct softirq_action *unused)
> > > +static __latent_entropy void rcu_core(void)
> > >  {
> > >  	unsigned long flags;
> > >  	struct rcu_data *rdp = raw_cpu_ptr(&rcu_data);
> > > @@ -2295,6 +2304,34 @@ static __latent_entropy void rcu_core(struct softirq_action *unused)
> > >  	trace_rcu_utilization(TPS("End RCU core"));
> > >  }
> > >  
> > > +static void rcu_core_si(struct softirq_action *h)
> > > +{
> > > +	rcu_core();
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static void rcu_wake_cond(struct task_struct *t, int status)
> > > +{
> > > +	/*
> > > +	 * If the thread is yielding, only wake it when this
> > > +	 * is invoked from idle
> > > +	 */
> > > +	if (t && (status != RCU_KTHREAD_YIELDING || is_idle_task(current)))
> > > +		wake_up_process(t);
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static void invoke_rcu_core_kthread(void)
> > > +{
> > > +	struct task_struct *t;
> > > +	unsigned long flags;
> > > +
> > > +	local_irq_save(flags);
> > > +	__this_cpu_write(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_has_work, 1);
> > > +	t = __this_cpu_read(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_kthread_task);
> > > +	if (t != NULL && t != current)
> > > +		rcu_wake_cond(t, __this_cpu_read(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_kthread_status));
> > > +	local_irq_restore(flags);
> > > +}
> > > +
> > >  /*
> > >   * Schedule RCU callback invocation.  If the running implementation of RCU
> > >   * does not support RCU priority boosting, just do a direct call, otherwise
> > > @@ -2306,18 +2343,94 @@ static void invoke_rcu_callbacks(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> > >  {
> > >  	if (unlikely(!READ_ONCE(rcu_scheduler_fully_active)))
> > >  		return;
> > > -	if (likely(!rcu_state.boost)) {
> > > -		rcu_do_batch(rdp);
> > > -		return;
> > > -	}
> > > -	invoke_rcu_callbacks_kthread();
> > > +	if (rcu_state.boost || !use_softirq)
> > > +		invoke_rcu_core_kthread();
> > > +	rcu_do_batch(rdp);
> > >  }
> > >  
> > > +/*
> > > + * Wake up this CPU's rcuc kthread to do RCU core processing.
> > > + */
> > >  static void invoke_rcu_core(void)
> > >  {
> > > -	if (cpu_online(smp_processor_id()))
> > > +	if (!cpu_online(smp_processor_id()))
> > > +		return;
> > > +	if (use_softirq)
> > >  		raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
> > > +	else
> > > +		invoke_rcu_core_kthread();
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static void rcu_cpu_kthread_park(unsigned int cpu)
> > > +{
> > > +	per_cpu(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_kthread_status, cpu) = RCU_KTHREAD_OFFCPU;
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static int rcu_cpu_kthread_should_run(unsigned int cpu)
> > > +{
> > > +	return __this_cpu_read(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_has_work);
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +/*
> > > + * Per-CPU kernel thread that invokes RCU callbacks.  This replaces
> > > + * the RCU softirq used in configurations of RCU that do not support RCU
> > > + * priority boosting.
> > > + */
> > > +static void rcu_cpu_kthread(unsigned int cpu)
> > > +{
> > > +	unsigned int *statusp = this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_data.rcu_cpu_kthread_status);
> > > +	char work, *workp = this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_data.rcu_cpu_has_work);
> > > +	int spincnt;
> > > +
> > > +	for (spincnt = 0; spincnt < 10; spincnt++) {
> > > +		trace_rcu_utilization(TPS("Start CPU kthread@..._wait"));
> > > +		local_bh_disable();
> > > +		*statusp = RCU_KTHREAD_RUNNING;
> > > +		local_irq_disable();
> > > +		work = *workp;
> > > +		*workp = 0;
> > > +		local_irq_enable();
> > > +		if (work)
> > > +			rcu_core();
> > > +		local_bh_enable();
> > > +		if (*workp == 0) {
> > > +			trace_rcu_utilization(TPS("End CPU kthread@..._wait"));
> > > +			*statusp = RCU_KTHREAD_WAITING;
> > > +			return;
> > > +		}
> > > +	}
> > > +	*statusp = RCU_KTHREAD_YIELDING;
> > > +	trace_rcu_utilization(TPS("Start CPU kthread@..._yield"));
> > > +	schedule_timeout_interruptible(2);
> > > +	trace_rcu_utilization(TPS("End CPU kthread@..._yield"));
> > > +	*statusp = RCU_KTHREAD_WAITING;
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static struct smp_hotplug_thread rcu_cpu_thread_spec = {
> > > +	.store			= &rcu_data.rcu_cpu_kthread_task,
> > > +	.thread_should_run	= rcu_cpu_kthread_should_run,
> > > +	.thread_fn		= rcu_cpu_kthread,
> > > +	.thread_comm		= "rcuc/%u",
> > > +	.setup			= rcu_cpu_kthread_setup,
> > > +	.park			= rcu_cpu_kthread_park,
> > > +};
> > > +
> > > +/*
> > > + * Spawn per-CPU RCU core processing kthreads.
> > > + */
> > > +static int __init rcu_spawn_core_kthreads(void)
> > > +{
> > > +	int cpu;
> > > +
> > > +	for_each_possible_cpu(cpu)
> > > +		per_cpu(rcu_data.rcu_cpu_has_work, cpu) = 0;
> > > +	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_BOOST) && use_softirq)
> > > +		return 0;
> > > +	WARN_ONCE(smpboot_register_percpu_thread(&rcu_cpu_thread_spec),
> > > +		  "%s: Could not start rcuc kthread, OOM is now expected behavior\n", __func__);
> > > +	return 0;
> > >  }
> > > +early_initcall(rcu_spawn_core_kthreads);
> > >  
> > >  /*
> > >   * Handle any core-RCU processing required by a call_rcu() invocation.
> > > @@ -3355,7 +3468,8 @@ void __init rcu_init(void)
> > >  	rcu_init_one();
> > >  	if (dump_tree)
> > >  		rcu_dump_rcu_node_tree();
> > > -	open_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ, rcu_core);
> > > +	if (use_softirq)
> > > +		open_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ, rcu_core_si);
> > >  
> > >  	/*
> > >  	 * We don't need protection against CPU-hotplug here because
> > > diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.h b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> > > index e253d11af3c4..a1a72a1ecb02 100644
> > > --- a/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> > > +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> > > @@ -407,8 +407,8 @@ void call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func);
> > >  static void dump_blkd_tasks(struct rcu_node *rnp, int ncheck);
> > >  static void rcu_initiate_boost(struct rcu_node *rnp, unsigned long flags);
> > >  static void rcu_preempt_boost_start_gp(struct rcu_node *rnp);
> > > -static void invoke_rcu_callbacks_kthread(void);
> > >  static bool rcu_is_callbacks_kthread(void);
> > > +static void rcu_cpu_kthread_setup(unsigned int cpu);
> > >  static void __init rcu_spawn_boost_kthreads(void);
> > >  static void rcu_prepare_kthreads(int cpu);
> > >  static void rcu_cleanup_after_idle(void);
> > > diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> > > index f46b4af96ab9..b807204ffd83 100644
> > > --- a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> > > +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> > > @@ -11,29 +11,7 @@
> > >   *	   Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@...ux.ibm.com>
> > >   */
> > >  
> > > -#include <linux/delay.h>
> > > -#include <linux/gfp.h>
> > > -#include <linux/oom.h>
> > > -#include <linux/sched/debug.h>
> > > -#include <linux/smpboot.h>
> > > -#include <linux/sched/isolation.h>
> > > -#include <uapi/linux/sched/types.h>
> > > -#include "../time/tick-internal.h"
> > > -
> > > -#ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST
> > >  #include "../locking/rtmutex_common.h"
> > > -#else /* #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST */
> > > -
> > > -/*
> > > - * Some architectures do not define rt_mutexes, but if !CONFIG_RCU_BOOST,
> > > - * all uses are in dead code.  Provide a definition to keep the compiler
> > > - * happy, but add WARN_ON_ONCE() to complain if used in the wrong place.
> > > - * This probably needs to be excluded from -rt builds.
> > > - */
> > > -#define rt_mutex_owner(a) ({ WARN_ON_ONCE(1); NULL; })
> > > -#define rt_mutex_futex_unlock(x) WARN_ON_ONCE(1)
> > > -
> > > -#endif /* #else #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST */
> > >  
> > >  #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_NOCB_CPU
> > >  static cpumask_var_t rcu_nocb_mask; /* CPUs to have callbacks offloaded. */
> > > @@ -94,6 +72,8 @@ static void __init rcu_bootup_announce_oddness(void)
> > >  		pr_info("\tRCU debug GP init slowdown %d jiffies.\n", gp_init_delay);
> > >  	if (gp_cleanup_delay)
> > >  		pr_info("\tRCU debug GP init slowdown %d jiffies.\n", gp_cleanup_delay);
> > > +	if (!use_softirq)
> > > +		pr_info("\tRCU_SOFTIRQ processing moved to rcuc kthreads.\n");
> > >  	if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_EQS_DEBUG))
> > >  		pr_info("\tRCU debug extended QS entry/exit.\n");
> > >  	rcupdate_announce_bootup_oddness();
> > > @@ -629,7 +609,10 @@ static void rcu_read_unlock_special(struct task_struct *t)
> > >  		/* Need to defer quiescent state until everything is enabled. */
> > >  		if (irqs_were_disabled) {
> > >  			/* Enabling irqs does not reschedule, so... */
> > > -			raise_softirq_irqoff(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
> > > +			if (!use_softirq)
> > > +				raise_softirq_irqoff(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
> > > +			else
> > > +				invoke_rcu_core();
> > 
> > This can result in deadlock.  This happens when the scheduler invokes
> > rcu_read_unlock() with one of the rq or pi locks held, which means that
> > interrupts are disabled.  And it also means that the wakeup done in
> > invoke_rcu_core() could go after the same rq or pi lock.
> > 
> > What we really need here is some way to make soemthing happen on this
> > CPU just after interrupts are re-enabled.  Here are the options I see:
> > 
> > 1.	Do set_tsk_need_resched() and set_preempt_need_resched(),
> > 	just like in the "else" clause below.  This sort of works, but
> > 	relies on some later interrupt or similar to get things started.
> > 	This is just fine for normal grace periods, but not so much for
> > 	expedited grace periods.
> > 
> > 2.	IPI some other CPU and have it IPI us back.  Not such a good plan
> > 	when running an SMP kernel on a single CPU.
> > 
> > 3.	Have a "stub" RCU_SOFTIRQ that contains only the following:
> > 
> > 	/* Report any deferred quiescent states if preemption enabled. */
> > 	if (!(preempt_count() & PREEMPT_MASK)) {
> > 		rcu_preempt_deferred_qs(current);
> > 	} else if (rcu_preempt_need_deferred_qs(current)) {
> > 		set_tsk_need_resched(current);
> > 		set_preempt_need_resched();
> > 	}
> > 
> > 4.	Except that raise_softirq_irqoff() could potentially have this
> > 	same problem if rcu_read_unlock() is invoked at process level
> > 	from the scheduler with either rq or pi locks held.  :-/
> > 
> > 	Which raises the question "why aren't I seeing hangs and
> > 	lockdep splats?"
> 
> Interesting, could it be you're not seeing a hang in the regular case,
> because enqueuing ksoftirqd on the same CPU as where the rcu_read_unlock is
> happening is a rare event? First, ksoftirqd has to even be awakened in the
> first place. On the other hand, with the new code the thread is always awaked
> and is more likely to run into the issue you found?

No, in many cases, including the self-deadlock that showed up last night,
raise_softirq_irqoff() will simply set a bit in a per-CPU variable.
One case where this happens is when called from an interrupt handler.

> The lockdep splats should be a more common occurence though IMO. If you could
> let me know which RCU config is hanging, I can try to debug this at my end as
> well.

TREE01, TREE02, TREE03, and TREE09.  I would guess that TREE08 would also
do the same thing, given that it also sets PREEMPT=y and tests Tree RCU.

Please see the patch I posted and tested overnight.  I suspect that there
is a better fix, but this does at least seem to suppress the error.

> > Assuming that this really is a problem, perhaps I need to do something
> > like the following:
> > 
> > 		if (in_interrupt()) {
> > 			/* In interrupt, so catch softirq on the way out. */
> > 			if (use_softirq)
> > 				raise_softirq_irqoff(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
> > 			else
> > 				invoke_rcu_core();
> > 		} else {
> > 			/* Force resschedule, perhaps quite a bit later. */
> > 			set_tsk_need_resched(current);
> > 			set_preempt_need_resched();
> > 		}
> > 
> > This can delay the quiescent state when rcu_read_unlock() is invoked from
> > process level with interrupts disabled.  I suppose I could post a very
> > short-timeout hrtimer, but would that be lightweight enough?  I cannot
> > use self-targeted smp_call_function_single() because it wants interrupts
> > enabled and because it will just do a direct call, which won't help here.
> > I could use a timer, though the latency is larger than would be good.
> 
> I was thinking for some time, we should have statistics counters for this
> sort of thing. So we run rcutorture and then sample the stats counters from
> /proc or something to see how long all of these things took (longest grace
> period etc). Would that be something of interest to make this task easier?
> 
> > Also, having lots of non-migratable timers might be considered unfriendly,
> > though they shouldn't be -that- heavily utilized.  Yet, anyway...
> > I could try adding logic to local_irq_enable() and local_irq_restore(),
> > but that probably wouldn't go over all that well.  Besides, sometimes
> > interrupt enabling happens in assembly language.
> > 
> > It is quite likely that delays to expedited grace periods wouldn't
> > happen all that often.  First, the grace period has to start while
> > the CPU itself (not some blocked task) is in an RCU read-side critical
> > section, second, that critical section cannot be preempted, and third
> > the rcu_read_unlock() must run with interrupts disabled.
> > 
> > Ah, but that sequence of events is not supposed to happen with the
> > scheduler lock!
> > 
> > From Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.html:
> > 
> > 	It is forbidden to hold any of scheduler's runqueue or
> > 	priority-inheritance spinlocks across an rcu_read_unlock()
> > 	unless interrupts have been disabled across the entire RCU
> > 	read-side critical section, that is, up to and including the
> > 	matching rcu_read_lock().
> > 
> > Here are the reasons we even get to rcu_read_unlock_special():
> > 
> > 1.	The just-ended RCU read-side critical section was preempted.
> > 	This clearly cannot happen if interrupts are disabled across
> > 	the entire critical section.
> > 
> > 2.	The scheduling-clock interrupt noticed that this critical
> > 	section has been taking a long time.  But scheduling-clock
> > 	interrupts also cannot happen while interrupts are disabled.
> > 
> > 3.	An expedited grace periods started during this critical
> > 	section.  But if that happened, the corresponding IPI would
> > 	have waited until this CPU enabled interrupts, so this
> > 	cannot happen either.
> > 
> > So the call to invoke_rcu_core() should be OK after all.
> > 
> > Which is a bit of a disappointment, given that I am still seeing hangs!
> 
> Oh ok, discount whatever I just said then ;-) Indeed I remember this
> requirement too now. Your neat documentation skills are indeed life saving :D

No, this did turn out to be the problem area.  Or at least one of the
problem areas.  Again, see my earlier email.

> > I might replace this invoke_rcu_core() with set_tsk_need_resched() and
> > set_preempt_need_resched() to see if that gets rid of the hangs, but
> > first...
> 
> Could we use the NMI watchdog to dump the stack at the time of the hang? May
> be a deadlock will present on the stack (I think its config is called
> HARDLOCKUP_DETECTOR or something).

Another approach would be to instrument the locking code that notices
the recursive acquisition.  Or to run lockdep...  Because none of the
failing scenarios enable lockdep!  ;-)

							Thanx, Paul

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