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Date:   Fri, 10 May 2019 17:32:15 -0700
From:   Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@...gle.com>
To:     Roman Gushchin <guro@...com>
Cc:     Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Linux MM <linux-mm@...ck.org>,
        LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        Kernel Team <kernel-team@...com>,
        Johannes Weiner <hannes@...xchg.org>,
        Michal Hocko <mhocko@...nel.org>,
        Rik van Riel <riel@...riel.com>,
        Christoph Lameter <cl@...ux.com>,
        Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@...il.com>,
        Cgroups <cgroups@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 0/7] mm: reparent slab memory on cgroup removal

From: Roman Gushchin <guro@...com>
Date: Wed, May 8, 2019 at 1:30 PM
To: Andrew Morton, Shakeel Butt
Cc: <linux-mm@...ck.org>, <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
<kernel-team@...com>, Johannes Weiner, Michal Hocko, Rik van Riel,
Christoph Lameter, Vladimir Davydov, <cgroups@...r.kernel.org>, Roman
Gushchin

> # Why do we need this?
>
> We've noticed that the number of dying cgroups is steadily growing on most
> of our hosts in production. The following investigation revealed an issue
> in userspace memory reclaim code [1], accounting of kernel stacks [2],
> and also the mainreason: slab objects.
>
> The underlying problem is quite simple: any page charged
> to a cgroup holds a reference to it, so the cgroup can't be reclaimed unless
> all charged pages are gone. If a slab object is actively used by other cgroups,
> it won't be reclaimed, and will prevent the origin cgroup from being reclaimed.
>
> Slab objects, and first of all vfs cache, is shared between cgroups, which are
> using the same underlying fs, and what's even more important, it's shared
> between multiple generations of the same workload. So if something is running
> periodically every time in a new cgroup (like how systemd works), we do
> accumulate multiple dying cgroups.
>
> Strictly speaking pagecache isn't different here, but there is a key difference:
> we disable protection and apply some extra pressure on LRUs of dying cgroups,

How do you apply extra pressure on dying cgroups? cgroup-v2 does not
have memory.force_empty.


> and these LRUs contain all charged pages.
> My experiments show that with the disabled kernel memory accounting the number
> of dying cgroups stabilizes at a relatively small number (~100, depends on
> memory pressure and cgroup creation rate), and with kernel memory accounting
> it grows pretty steadily up to several thousands.
>
> Memory cgroups are quite complex and big objects (mostly due to percpu stats),
> so it leads to noticeable memory losses. Memory occupied by dying cgroups
> is measured in hundreds of megabytes. I've even seen a host with more than 100Gb
> of memory wasted for dying cgroups. It leads to a degradation of performance
> with the uptime, and generally limits the usage of cgroups.
>
> My previous attempt [3] to fix the problem by applying extra pressure on slab
> shrinker lists caused a regressions with xfs and ext4, and has been reverted [4].
> The following attempts to find the right balance [5, 6] were not successful.
>
> So instead of trying to find a maybe non-existing balance, let's do reparent
> the accounted slabs to the parent cgroup on cgroup removal.
>
>
> # Implementation approach
>
> There is however a significant problem with reparenting of slab memory:
> there is no list of charged pages. Some of them are in shrinker lists,
> but not all. Introducing of a new list is really not an option.
>
> But fortunately there is a way forward: every slab page has a stable pointer
> to the corresponding kmem_cache. So the idea is to reparent kmem_caches
> instead of slab pages.
>
> It's actually simpler and cheaper, but requires some underlying changes:
> 1) Make kmem_caches to hold a single reference to the memory cgroup,
>    instead of a separate reference per every slab page.
> 2) Stop setting page->mem_cgroup pointer for memcg slab pages and use
>    page->kmem_cache->memcg indirection instead. It's used only on
>    slab page release, so it shouldn't be a big issue.
> 3) Introduce a refcounter for non-root slab caches. It's required to
>    be able to destroy kmem_caches when they become empty and release
>    the associated memory cgroup.
>
> There is a bonus: currently we do release empty kmem_caches on cgroup
> removal, however all other are waiting for the releasing of the memory cgroup.
> These refactorings allow kmem_caches to be released as soon as they
> become inactive and free.
>
> Some additional implementation details are provided in corresponding
> commit messages.
>
>
> # Results
>
> Below is the average number of dying cgroups on two groups of our production
> hosts. They do run some sort of web frontend workload, the memory pressure
> is moderate. As we can see, with the kernel memory reparenting the number
> stabilizes in 50s range; however with the original version it grows almost
> linearly and doesn't show any signs of plateauing. The difference in slab
> and percpu usage between patched and unpatched versions also grows linearly.
> In 6 days it reached 200Mb.
>
> day           0    1    2    3    4    5    6
> original     39  338  580  827 1098 1349 1574
> patched      23   44   45   47   50   46   55
> mem diff(Mb) 53   73   99  137  148  182  209
>
>
> # History
>
> v3:
>   1) reworked memcg kmem_cache search on allocation path
>   2) fixed /proc/kpagecgroup interface
>
> v2:
>   1) switched to percpu kmem_cache refcounter
>   2) a reference to kmem_cache is held during the allocation
>   3) slabs stats are fixed for !MEMCG case (and the refactoring
>      is separated into a standalone patch)
>   4) kmem_cache reparenting is performed from deactivatation context
>
> v1:
>   https://lkml.org/lkml/2019/4/17/1095
>
>
> # Links
>
> [1]: commit 68600f623d69 ("mm: don't miss the last page because of
> round-off error")
> [2]: commit 9b6f7e163cd0 ("mm: rework memcg kernel stack accounting")
> [3]: commit 172b06c32b94 ("mm: slowly shrink slabs with a relatively
> small number of objects")
> [4]: commit a9a238e83fbb ("Revert "mm: slowly shrink slabs
> with a relatively small number of objects")
> [5]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2019/1/28/1865
> [6]: https://marc.info/?l=linux-mm&m=155064763626437&w=2
>
>
> Roman Gushchin (7):
>   mm: postpone kmem_cache memcg pointer initialization to
>     memcg_link_cache()
>   mm: generalize postponed non-root kmem_cache deactivation
>   mm: introduce __memcg_kmem_uncharge_memcg()
>   mm: unify SLAB and SLUB page accounting
>   mm: rework non-root kmem_cache lifecycle management
>   mm: reparent slab memory on cgroup removal
>   mm: fix /proc/kpagecgroup interface for slab pages
>
>  include/linux/memcontrol.h |  10 +++
>  include/linux/slab.h       |  13 ++--
>  mm/memcontrol.c            |  97 ++++++++++++++++--------
>  mm/slab.c                  |  25 ++----
>  mm/slab.h                  | 120 +++++++++++++++++++++--------
>  mm/slab_common.c           | 151 ++++++++++++++++++++-----------------
>  mm/slub.c                  |  36 ++-------
>  7 files changed, 267 insertions(+), 185 deletions(-)
>
> --
> 2.20.1
>

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