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Date:   Tue,  5 May 2020 17:31:53 +0200
From:   Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
To:     linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Cc:     Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>,
        Aleksa Sarai <cyphar@...har.com>,
        Alexei Starovoitov <ast@...nel.org>,
        Al Viro <viro@...iv.linux.org.uk>,
        Andy Lutomirski <luto@...nel.org>,
        Christian Heimes <christian@...hon.org>,
        Daniel Borkmann <daniel@...earbox.net>,
        Deven Bowers <deven.desai@...ux.microsoft.com>,
        Eric Chiang <ericchiang@...gle.com>,
        Florian Weimer <fweimer@...hat.com>,
        James Morris <jmorris@...ei.org>, Jan Kara <jack@...e.cz>,
        Jann Horn <jannh@...gle.com>, Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>,
        Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>,
        Lakshmi Ramasubramanian <nramas@...ux.microsoft.com>,
        Matthew Garrett <mjg59@...gle.com>,
        Matthew Wilcox <willy@...radead.org>,
        Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@...il.com>,
        Mickaël Salaün <mickael.salaun@....gouv.fr>,
        Mimi Zohar <zohar@...ux.ibm.com>,
        Philippe Trébuchet 
        <philippe.trebuchet@....gouv.fr>,
        Scott Shell <scottsh@...rosoft.com>,
        Sean Christopherson <sean.j.christopherson@...el.com>,
        Shuah Khan <shuah@...nel.org>,
        Steve Dower <steve.dower@...hon.org>,
        Steve Grubb <sgrubb@...hat.com>,
        Thibaut Sautereau <thibaut.sautereau@....gouv.fr>,
        Vincent Strubel <vincent.strubel@....gouv.fr>,
        kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com, linux-api@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-integrity@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-security-module@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: [PATCH v5 3/6] fs: Enable to enforce noexec mounts or file exec through O_MAYEXEC

Enable to forbid access to files open with O_MAYEXEC.  Thanks to the
noexec option from the underlying VFS mount, or to the file execute
permission, userspace can enforce these execution policies.  This may
allow script interpreters to check execution permission before reading
commands from a file, or dynamic linkers to allow shared object loading.

Add a new sysctl fs.open_mayexec_enforce to enable system administrators
to enforce two complementary security policies according to the
installed system: enforce the noexec mount option, and enforce
executable file permission.  Indeed, because of compatibility with
installed systems, only system administrators are able to check that
this new enforcement is in line with the system mount points and file
permissions.  A following patch adds documentation.

For tailored Linux distributions, it is possible to enforce such
restriction at build time thanks to the CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC option.
The policy can then be configured with CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT and
CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE.

Being able to restrict execution also enables to protect the kernel by
restricting arbitrary syscalls that an attacker could perform with a
crafted binary or certain script languages.  It also improves multilevel
isolation by reducing the ability of an attacker to use side channels
with specific code.  These restrictions can natively be enforced for ELF
binaries (with the noexec mount option) but require this kernel
extension to properly handle scripts (e.g., Python, Perl).  To get a
consistent execution policy, additional memory restrictions should also
be enforced (e.g. thanks to SELinux).

Signed-off-by: Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
Reviewed-by: Thibaut Sautereau <thibaut.sautereau@....gouv.fr>
Cc: Aleksa Sarai <cyphar@...har.com>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@...iv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
---

Changes since v4:
* Add kernel configuration options to enforce O_MAYEXEC at build time,
  and disable the sysctl in such case (requested by James Morris).
* Reword commit message.

Changes since v3:
* Update comment with O_MAYEXEC.

Changes since v2:
* Cosmetic changes.

Changes since v1:
* Move code from Yama to the FS subsystem (suggested by Kees Cook).
* Make omayexec_inode_permission() static (suggested by Jann Horn).
* Use mode 0600 for the sysctl.
* Only match regular files (not directories nor other types), which
  follows the same semantic as commit 73601ea5b7b1 ("fs/open.c: allow
  opening only regular files during execve()").
---
 fs/namei.c         | 87 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 include/linux/fs.h |  5 +++
 kernel/sysctl.c    |  9 +++++
 security/Kconfig   | 26 ++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 126 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/fs/namei.c b/fs/namei.c
index 33b6d372e74a..70f179f6bc6c 100644
--- a/fs/namei.c
+++ b/fs/namei.c
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
 #include <linux/init_task.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/sysctl.h>
 
 #include "internal.h"
 #include "mount.h"
@@ -411,10 +412,90 @@ static int sb_permission(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *inode, int mask)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+#define OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_NONE	0
+#define OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT	(1 << 0)
+#define OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE	(1 << 1)
+#define _OMAYEXEC_LAST		OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE
+#define _OMAYEXEC_MASK		((_OMAYEXEC_LAST << 1) - 1)
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+const int sysctl_omayexec_enforce =
+#ifdef CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT
+	OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT |
+#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE
+	OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE |
+#endif
+	OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_NONE;
+#else /* CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC */
+int sysctl_omayexec_enforce __read_mostly = OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_NONE;
+#endif /* CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC */
+
+/*
+ * Handle open_mayexec_enforce sysctl
+ */
+#if defined(CONFIG_SYSCTL) && !defined(CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC)
+int proc_omayexec(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void __user *buffer,
+		size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	int error;
+
+	if (write) {
+		struct ctl_table table_copy;
+		int tmp_mayexec_enforce;
+
+		if (!capable(CAP_MAC_ADMIN))
+			return -EPERM;
+
+		tmp_mayexec_enforce = *((int *)table->data);
+		table_copy = *table;
+		/* Do not erase sysctl_omayexec_enforce. */
+		table_copy.data = &tmp_mayexec_enforce;
+		error = proc_dointvec(&table_copy, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
+		if (error)
+			return error;
+
+		if ((tmp_mayexec_enforce | _OMAYEXEC_MASK) != _OMAYEXEC_MASK)
+			return -EINVAL;
+
+		*((int *)table->data) = tmp_mayexec_enforce;
+	} else {
+		error = proc_dointvec(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
+		if (error)
+			return error;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
+/**
+ * omayexec_inode_permission - Check O_MAYEXEC before accessing an inode
+ *
+ * @inode: Inode to check permission on
+ * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_OPENEXEC, %MAY_EXECMOUNT, %MAY_EXEC)
+ *
+ * Returns 0 if access is permitted, -EACCES otherwise.
+ */
+static inline int omayexec_inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
+{
+	if (!(mask & MAY_OPENEXEC))
+		return 0;
+
+	if ((sysctl_omayexec_enforce & OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT) &&
+			!(mask & MAY_EXECMOUNT))
+		return -EACCES;
+
+	if (sysctl_omayexec_enforce & OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE)
+		return generic_permission(inode, MAY_EXEC);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 /**
  * inode_permission - Check for access rights to a given inode
  * @inode: Inode to check permission on
- * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC)
+ * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC, %MAY_OPENEXEC,
+ *        %MAY_EXECMOUNT)
  *
  * Check for read/write/execute permissions on an inode.  We use fs[ug]id for
  * this, letting us set arbitrary permissions for filesystem access without
@@ -454,6 +535,10 @@ int inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
 	if (retval)
 		return retval;
 
+	retval = omayexec_inode_permission(inode, mask);
+	if (retval)
+		return retval;
+
 	return security_inode_permission(inode, mask);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(inode_permission);
diff --git a/include/linux/fs.h b/include/linux/fs.h
index 79435fca6c3e..39c80a64d054 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -83,6 +83,9 @@ extern int sysctl_protected_symlinks;
 extern int sysctl_protected_hardlinks;
 extern int sysctl_protected_fifos;
 extern int sysctl_protected_regular;
+#ifndef CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+extern int sysctl_omayexec_enforce;
+#endif
 
 typedef __kernel_rwf_t rwf_t;
 
@@ -3545,6 +3548,8 @@ int proc_nr_dentry(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
 		  void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos);
 int proc_nr_inodes(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
 		   void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos);
+int proc_omayexec(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void __user *buffer,
+		size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos);
 int __init get_filesystem_list(char *buf);
 
 #define __FMODE_EXEC		((__force int) FMODE_EXEC)
diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
index 8a176d8727a3..29bbf79f444c 100644
--- a/kernel/sysctl.c
+++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
@@ -1892,6 +1892,15 @@ static struct ctl_table fs_table[] = {
 		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
 		.extra2		= &two,
 	},
+#ifndef CONFIG_OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+	{
+		.procname       = "open_mayexec_enforce",
+		.data           = &sysctl_omayexec_enforce,
+		.maxlen         = sizeof(int),
+		.mode           = 0600,
+		.proc_handler   = proc_omayexec,
+	},
+#endif
 #if defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC) || defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC_MODULE)
 	{
 		.procname	= "binfmt_misc",
diff --git a/security/Kconfig b/security/Kconfig
index cd3cc7da3a55..d8fac9240d14 100644
--- a/security/Kconfig
+++ b/security/Kconfig
@@ -230,6 +230,32 @@ config STATIC_USERMODEHELPER_PATH
 	  If you wish for all usermode helper programs to be disabled,
 	  specify an empty string here (i.e. "").
 
+menuconfig OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+	tristate "Configure O_MAYEXEC behavior at build time"
+	---help---
+	  Enable to enforce O_MAYEXEC at build time, and disable the dedicated
+	  fs.open_mayexec_enforce sysctl.
+
+	  See Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst for more details.
+
+if OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+
+config OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT
+	bool "Mount restriction"
+	default y
+	---help---
+	  Forbid opening files with the O_MAYEXEC option if their underlying VFS is
+	  mounted with the noexec option or if their superblock forbids execution
+	  of its content (e.g., /proc).
+
+config OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE
+	bool "File permission restriction"
+	---help---
+	  Forbid opening files with the O_MAYEXEC option if they are not marked as
+	  executable for the current process (e.g., POSIX permissions).
+
+endif # OMAYEXEC_STATIC
+
 source "security/selinux/Kconfig"
 source "security/smack/Kconfig"
 source "security/tomoyo/Kconfig"
-- 
2.26.2

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