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Date:   Wed,  5 Aug 2020 19:56:22 -0700
From:   Chris Goldsworthy <>
        Chris Goldsworthy <>,
        Susheel Khiani <>,
        Vinayak Menon <>
Subject: [PATCH] mm: cma: retry allocations in cma_alloc

CMA allocations will fail if 'pinned' pages are in a CMA area, since we
cannot migrate pinned pages. The _refcount of a struct page being greater
than _mapcount for that page can cause pinning for anonymous pages.  This
is because try_to_unmap(), which (1) is called in the CMA allocation path,
and (2) decrements both _refcount and _mapcount for a page, will stop
unmapping a page from VMAs once the _mapcount for a page reaches 0.  This
implies that after try_to_unmap() has finished successfully for a page
where _recount > _mapcount, that _refcount will be greater than 0.  Later
in the CMA allocation path in migrate_page_move_mapping(), we will have one
more reference count than intended for anonymous pages, meaning the
allocation will fail for that page.

One example of where _refcount can be greater than _mapcount for a page we
would not expect to be pinned is inside of copy_one_pte(), which is called
during a fork. For ptes for which pte_present(pte) == true, copy_one_pte()
will increment the _refcount field followed by the  _mapcount field of a
page. If the process doing copy_one_pte() is context switched out after
incrementing _refcount but before incrementing _mapcount, then the page
will be temporarily pinned.

So, inside of cma_alloc(), instead of giving up when alloc_contig_range()
returns -EBUSY after having scanned a whole CMA-region bitmap, perform
retries with sleeps to give the system an opportunity to unpin any pinned

Signed-off-by: Chris Goldsworthy <>
Co-developed-by: Susheel Khiani <>
Signed-off-by: Susheel Khiani <>
Co-developed-by: Vinayak Menon <>
Signed-off-by: Vinayak Menon <>
 mm/cma.c | 24 ++++++++++++++++++++++--
 1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/cma.c b/mm/cma.c
index 7f415d7..7b85fe6 100644
--- a/mm/cma.c
+++ b/mm/cma.c
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 #include <linux/highmem.h>
 #include <linux/io.h>
 #include <linux/kmemleak.h>
+#include <linux/delay.h>
 #include <trace/events/cma.h>
 #include "cma.h"
@@ -418,6 +419,8 @@ struct page *cma_alloc(struct cma *cma, size_t count, unsigned int align,
 	size_t i;
 	struct page *page = NULL;
 	int ret = -ENOMEM;
+	int num_attempts = 0;
+	int max_retries = 5;
 	if (!cma || !cma->count || !cma->bitmap)
 		return NULL;
@@ -442,8 +445,25 @@ struct page *cma_alloc(struct cma *cma, size_t count, unsigned int align,
 				bitmap_maxno, start, bitmap_count, mask,
 		if (bitmap_no >= bitmap_maxno) {
-			mutex_unlock(&cma->lock);
-			break;
+			if ((num_attempts < max_retries) && (ret == -EBUSY)) {
+				mutex_unlock(&cma->lock);
+				/*
+				 * Page may be momentarily pinned by some other
+				 * process which has been scheduled out, e.g.
+				 * in exit path, during unmap call, or process
+				 * fork and so cannot be freed there. Sleep
+				 * for 100ms and retry the allocation.
+				 */
+				start = 0;
+				ret = -ENOMEM;
+				msleep(100);
+				num_attempts++;
+				continue;
+			} else {
+				mutex_unlock(&cma->lock);
+				break;
+			}
 		bitmap_set(cma->bitmap, bitmap_no, bitmap_count);
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