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Date:   Wed, 12 Aug 2020 20:31:05 -0400
From:   Pavel Tatashin <pasha.tatashin@...een.com>
To:     Roman Gushchin <guro@...com>
Cc:     Bharata B Rao <bharata@...ux.ibm.com>,
        "linux-mm@...ck.org" <linux-mm@...ck.org>,
        Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Michal Hocko <mhocko@...nel.org>,
        Johannes Weiner <hannes@...xchg.org>,
        Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@...gle.com>,
        Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@...il.com>,
        "linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org" <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        Kernel Team <Kernel-team@...com>,
        Yafang Shao <laoar.shao@...il.com>,
        stable <stable@...r.kernel.org>,
        Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Sasha Levin <sashal@...nel.org>,
        Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@...uxfoundation.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 00/28] The new cgroup slab memory controller

On Wed, Aug 12, 2020 at 8:04 PM Roman Gushchin <guro@...com> wrote:
>
> On Wed, Aug 12, 2020 at 07:16:08PM -0400, Pavel Tatashin wrote:
> > Guys,
> >
> > There is a convoluted deadlock that I just root caused, and that is
> > fixed by this work (at least based on my code inspection it appears to
> > be fixed); but the deadlock exists in older and stable kernels, and I
> > am not sure whether to create a separate patch for it, or backport
> > this whole thing.
>

Hi Roman,

> Hi Pavel,
>
> wow, it's a quite complicated deadlock. Thank you for providing
> a perfect analysis!

Thank you, it indeed took me a while to fully grasp the deadlock.

>
> Unfortunately, backporting the whole new slab controller isn't an option:
> it's way too big and invasive.

This is what I thought as well, this is why I want to figure out what
is the best way forward.

> Do you already have a standalone fix?

Not yet, I do not have a standalone fix. I suspect the best fix would
be to address fix css_killed_work_fn() stack so we never have:
cgroup_mutex -> mem_hotplug_lock. Either decoupling them or reverse
the order would work. If you have suggestions since you worked on this
code recently, please let me know.

Thank you,
Pasha

>
> Thanks!
>
>
> >
> > Thread #1: Hot-removes memory
> > device_offline
> >   memory_subsys_offline
> >     offline_pages
> >       __offline_pages
> >         mem_hotplug_lock <- write access
> >       waits for Thread #3 refcnt for pfn 9e5113 to get to 1 so it can
> > migrate it.
> >
> > Thread #2: ccs killer kthread
> >    css_killed_work_fn
> >      cgroup_mutex  <- Grab this Mutex
> >      mem_cgroup_css_offline
> >        memcg_offline_kmem.part
> >           memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches
> >             get_online_mems
> >               mem_hotplug_lock <- waits for Thread#1 to get read access
> >
> > Thread #3: crashing userland program
> > do_coredump
> >   elf_core_dump
> >       get_dump_page() -> get page with pfn#9e5113, and increment refcnt
> >       dump_emit
> >         __kernel_write
> >           __vfs_write
> >             new_sync_write
> >               pipe_write
> >                 pipe_wait   -> waits for Thread #4 systemd-coredump to
> > read the pipe
> >
> > Thread #4: systemd-coredump
> > ksys_read
> >   vfs_read
> >     __vfs_read
> >       seq_read
> >         proc_single_show
> >           proc_cgroup_show
> >             cgroup_mutex -> waits from Thread #2 for this lock.
>
> >
> > In Summary:
> > Thread#1 waits for Thread#3 for refcnt, Thread#3 waits for Thread#4 to
> > read pipe. Thread#4 waits for Thread#2 for cgroup_mutex lock; Thread#2
> > waits for Thread#1 for mem_hotplug_lock rwlock.
> >
> > This work appears to fix this deadlock because cgroup_mutex is not
> > called anymore before mem_hotplug_lock (unless I am missing it), as it
> > removes memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches.
> >
> > Thank you,
> > Pasha
> >
> > On Wed, Jan 29, 2020 at 9:42 PM Roman Gushchin <guro@...com> wrote:
> > >
> > > On Thu, Jan 30, 2020 at 07:36:26AM +0530, Bharata B Rao wrote:
> > > > On Mon, Jan 27, 2020 at 09:34:25AM -0800, Roman Gushchin wrote:
> > > > > The existing cgroup slab memory controller is based on the idea of
> > > > > replicating slab allocator internals for each memory cgroup.
> > > > > This approach promises a low memory overhead (one pointer per page),
> > > > > and isn't adding too much code on hot allocation and release paths.
> > > > > But is has a very serious flaw: it leads to a low slab utilization.
> > > > >
> > > > > Using a drgn* script I've got an estimation of slab utilization on
> > > > > a number of machines running different production workloads. In most
> > > > > cases it was between 45% and 65%, and the best number I've seen was
> > > > > around 85%. Turning kmem accounting off brings it to high 90s. Also
> > > > > it brings back 30-50% of slab memory. It means that the real price
> > > > > of the existing slab memory controller is way bigger than a pointer
> > > > > per page.
> > > > >
> > > > > The real reason why the existing design leads to a low slab utilization
> > > > > is simple: slab pages are used exclusively by one memory cgroup.
> > > > > If there are only few allocations of certain size made by a cgroup,
> > > > > or if some active objects (e.g. dentries) are left after the cgroup is
> > > > > deleted, or the cgroup contains a single-threaded application which is
> > > > > barely allocating any kernel objects, but does it every time on a new CPU:
> > > > > in all these cases the resulting slab utilization is very low.
> > > > > If kmem accounting is off, the kernel is able to use free space
> > > > > on slab pages for other allocations.
> > > > >
> > > > > Arguably it wasn't an issue back to days when the kmem controller was
> > > > > introduced and was an opt-in feature, which had to be turned on
> > > > > individually for each memory cgroup. But now it's turned on by default
> > > > > on both cgroup v1 and v2. And modern systemd-based systems tend to
> > > > > create a large number of cgroups.
> > > > >
> > > > > This patchset provides a new implementation of the slab memory controller,
> > > > > which aims to reach a much better slab utilization by sharing slab pages
> > > > > between multiple memory cgroups. Below is the short description of the new
> > > > > design (more details in commit messages).
> > > > >
> > > > > Accounting is performed per-object instead of per-page. Slab-related
> > > > > vmstat counters are converted to bytes. Charging is performed on page-basis,
> > > > > with rounding up and remembering leftovers.
> > > > >
> > > > > Memcg ownership data is stored in a per-slab-page vector: for each slab page
> > > > > a vector of corresponding size is allocated. To keep slab memory reparenting
> > > > > working, instead of saving a pointer to the memory cgroup directly an
> > > > > intermediate object is used. It's simply a pointer to a memcg (which can be
> > > > > easily changed to the parent) with a built-in reference counter. This scheme
> > > > > allows to reparent all allocated objects without walking them over and
> > > > > changing memcg pointer to the parent.
> > > > >
> > > > > Instead of creating an individual set of kmem_caches for each memory cgroup,
> > > > > two global sets are used: the root set for non-accounted and root-cgroup
> > > > > allocations and the second set for all other allocations. This allows to
> > > > > simplify the lifetime management of individual kmem_caches: they are
> > > > > destroyed with root counterparts. It allows to remove a good amount of code
> > > > > and make things generally simpler.
> > > > >
> > > > > The patchset* has been tested on a number of different workloads in our
> > > > > production. In all cases it saved significant amount of memory, measured
> > > > > from high hundreds of MBs to single GBs per host. On average, the size
> > > > > of slab memory has been reduced by 35-45%.
> > > >
> > > > Here are some numbers from multiple runs of sysbench and kernel compilation
> > > > with this patchset on a 10 core POWER8 host:
> > > >
> > > > ==========================================================================
> > > > Peak usage of memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes, memory.usage_in_bytes and
> > > > meminfo:Slab for Sysbench oltp_read_write with mysqld running as part
> > > > of a mem cgroup (Sampling every 5s)
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >                               5.5.0-rc7-mm1   +slab patch     %reduction
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes    15859712        4456448         72
> > > > memory.usage_in_bytes         337510400       335806464       .5
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    814336          607296          25
> > > >
> > > > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes    16187392        4653056         71
> > > > memory.usage_in_bytes         318832640       300154880       5
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    789888          559744          29
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > Peak usage of memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes, memory.usage_in_bytes and
> > > > meminfo:Slab for kernel compilation (make -s -j64) Compilation was
> > > > done from bash that is in a memory cgroup. (Sampling every 5s)
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >                               5.5.0-rc7-mm1   +slab patch     %reduction
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes    338493440       231931904       31
> > > > memory.usage_in_bytes         7368015872      6275923968      15
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    1139072         785408          31
> > > >
> > > > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes    341835776       236453888       30
> > > > memory.usage_in_bytes         6540427264      6072893440      7
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    1074304         761280          29
> > > >
> > > > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes    340525056       233570304       31
> > > > memory.usage_in_bytes         6406209536      6177357824      3
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    1244288         739712          40
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >
> > > > Slab consumption right after boot
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >                               5.5.0-rc7-mm1   +slab patch     %reduction
> > > > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > > Slab: (kB)                    821888          583424          29
> > > > ==========================================================================
> > > >
> > > > Summary:
> > > >
> > > > With sysbench and kernel compilation,  memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes shows
> > > > around 70% and 30% reduction consistently.
> > > >
> > > > Didn't see consistent reduction of memory.usage_in_bytes with sysbench and
> > > > kernel compilation.
> > > >
> > > > Slab usage (from /proc/meminfo) shows consistent 30% reduction and the
> > > > same is seen right after boot too.
> > >
> > > That's just perfect!
> > >
> > > memory.usage_in_bytes was most likely the same because the freed space
> > > was taken by pagecache.
> > >
> > > Thank you very much for testing!
> > >
> > > Roman

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