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Date:   Wed, 19 Aug 2020 10:04:37 +0800
From:   Feng Tang <feng.tang@...el.com>
To:     "Luck, Tony" <tony.luck@...el.com>
Cc:     Borislav Petkov <bp@...e.de>,
        kernel test robot <rong.a.chen@...el.com>,
        LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, lkp@...ts.01.org
Subject: Re: [LKP] Re: [x86/mce] 1de08dccd3: will-it-scale.per_process_ops
 -14.1% regression

On Tue, Aug 18, 2020 at 01:06:54PM -0700, Luck, Tony wrote:
> On Tue, Aug 18, 2020 at 04:29:43PM +0800, Feng Tang wrote:
> > Hi Borislav,
> > 
> > On Sat, Apr 25, 2020 at 03:01:36PM +0200, Borislav Petkov wrote:
> > > On Sat, Apr 25, 2020 at 07:44:14PM +0800, kernel test robot wrote:
> > > > Greeting,
> > > > 
> > > > FYI, we noticed a -14.1% regression of will-it-scale.per_process_ops due to commit:
> > > > 
> > > > 
> > > > commit: 1de08dccd383482a3e88845d3554094d338f5ff9 ("x86/mce: Add a struct mce.kflags field")
> > > 
> > > I don't see how a struct mce member addition will cause any performance
> > > regression. Please check your test case.
> > 
> > Sorry for the late response.
> > 
> > We've done more rounds of test, and the test results are consistent.
> > 
> > Our suspect is the commit changes the data alignment of other kernel
> > domains than mce, which causes the performance change to this malloc
> > microbenchmark.
> > 
> > Without the patch, size of 'struct mce' is 120 bytes, while it will
> > be 128 bytes after adding the '__u64 kflags' 
> > 
> > And we also debugged further:
> > 
> > * add "mce=off" to kernel cmdline, the performance change keeps. 
> > 
> > * change the 'kflags' from __u64 to __u32 (the size of mce will
> >   go back to 120 bytes), the performance change is gone
> > 
> > * only comment off '__u64 kflags', peformance change is gone.
> > 
> > We also tried perf c2c tool to capture some data, but the platform
> > is a Xeon Phi which doesn't support it. Capturing raw HITM event
> > also can not provide useful data.
> > 
> > 0day has reported quite some strange peformance bump like this,
> >   https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200205123216.GO12867@shao2-debian/
> >   https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200114085637.GA29297@shao2-debian/
> >   https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200330011254.GA14393@feng-iot/
> > for some of which, the bump could be gone if we hack to force all
> > kernel functions to be aligned, but it doesn't work for this case.
> > 
> > So together with the debugging above, we thought this could be a
> > data alignment change caused performance bump.
> 
> So if this was a change to a structure in some performance sensitive
> path, I'd totally understand how it could end up with a 14% change on
> some benchmark that stressed that code path.

> But I doubt the kernel ever touches a "struct mce" during execution
> of your benchmark (I presume your test machine isn't getting thousands
> of corrected memory errors during the test :-) ).

No, it isn't getting any mce error :) It's a Xeon Phi platform. 

We've tried the "mce=off" cmdline option, and the 14% keeps. So we
thought the mce itself isn't the cause.

> We do have some DEFINE_PER_CPU data objects of type "struct mce":
> 
> $ git grep 'DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct mce,'
> arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mce/core.c:static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct mce, mces_seen);
> arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mce/core.c:DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct mce, injectm);
> 
> Maybe making those slightly bigger has pushed some other per_cpu object
> into an unfortunate alignment where some frequently used data is now
> split between two cache lines instead of sitting in one?

Yes, I also checked the percpu data part of kernel System map, seems
it only affects alignments of several variables, from 'mce_pooll_banks'
to 'tsc_adjust', and the alignment restores for 'lapic_events', but I
can't see any of them could be related to this malloc microbenchmark
	
old map:

	0000000000018c60 d mces_seen
	0000000000018ce0 D injectm
	0000000000018d58 D mce_poll_banks
	0000000000018d60 D mce_poll_count
	0000000000018d64 D mce_exception_count
	0000000000018d68 D mce_device
	0000000000018d70 d cmci_storm_state
	0000000000018d74 d cmci_storm_cnt
	0000000000018d78 d cmci_time_stamp
	0000000000018d80 d cmci_backoff_cnt
	0000000000018d88 d mce_banks_owned
	0000000000018d90 d smca_misc_banks_map
	0000000000018d94 d bank_map
	0000000000018d98 d threshold_banks
	0000000000018da0 d thermal_state
	0000000000019260 D pqr_state
	0000000000019270 d arch_prev_mperf
	0000000000019278 d arch_prev_aperf
	0000000000019280 D arch_freq_scale
	00000000000192a0 d tsc_adjust
	00000000000192c0 d lapic_events

new map:

	0000000000018c60 d mces_seen
	0000000000018ce0 D injectm
	0000000000018d60 D mce_poll_banks
	0000000000018d68 D mce_poll_count
	0000000000018d6c D mce_exception_count
	0000000000018d70 D mce_device
	0000000000018d78 d cmci_storm_state
	0000000000018d7c d cmci_storm_cnt
	0000000000018d80 d cmci_time_stamp
	0000000000018d88 d cmci_backoff_cnt
	0000000000018d90 d mce_banks_owned
	0000000000018d98 d smca_misc_banks_map
	0000000000018d9c d bank_map
	0000000000018da0 d threshold_banks
	0000000000018dc0 d thermal_state
	0000000000019280 D pqr_state
	0000000000019290 d arch_prev_mperf
	0000000000019298 d arch_prev_aperf
	00000000000192a0 D arch_freq_scale
	00000000000192c0 d tsc_adjust
	0000000000019300 d lapic_events

> Can you collect some perf trace data for the benchmark when running
> on kernels with kflags as __u32 and __u64 (looks to be the minimal
> possible change that you found that still exhibits this problem).
>
> We'd like to find out which kernel functions are burning extra CPU
> cycles and maybe understand why.

Ok, will do that and report back. 0day has recently upgraded the gcc,
default config, rootfs, so it may take some time to reproduce this with
old gcc/environment (and yes, gcc, kernel config, rootfs could all
affect micro benchmark's result :))

Thanks,
Feng

> The answer isn't to tinker with "struct mce". Other changes could trigger
> this same change in alignment. Anything that is this perfomance sensitive
> needs to have some "__attribute__((aligned(64)))" (or whatever) to
> make sure arbitrary changes elsewhere don't do this.
> 
> -Tony

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