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Date:   Fri, 20 Nov 2020 14:43:04 +0800
From:   Muchun Song <songmuchun@...edance.com>
To:     corbet@....net, mike.kravetz@...cle.com, tglx@...utronix.de,
        mingo@...hat.com, bp@...en8.de, x86@...nel.org, hpa@...or.com,
        dave.hansen@...ux.intel.com, luto@...nel.org, peterz@...radead.org,
        viro@...iv.linux.org.uk, akpm@...ux-foundation.org,
        paulmck@...nel.org, mchehab+huawei@...nel.org,
        pawan.kumar.gupta@...ux.intel.com, rdunlap@...radead.org,
        oneukum@...e.com, anshuman.khandual@....com, jroedel@...e.de,
        almasrymina@...gle.com, rientjes@...gle.com, willy@...radead.org,
        osalvador@...e.de, mhocko@...e.com, song.bao.hua@...ilicon.com
Cc:     duanxiongchun@...edance.com, linux-doc@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-mm@...ck.org,
        linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org,
        Muchun Song <songmuchun@...edance.com>
Subject: [PATCH v5 00/21] Free some vmemmap pages of hugetlb page

Hi all,

This patch series will free some vmemmap pages(struct page structures)
associated with each hugetlbpage when preallocated to save memory.

The struct page structures (page structs) are used to describe a physical
page frame. By default, there is a one-to-one mapping from a page frame to
it's corresponding page struct.

The HugeTLB pages consist of multiple base page size pages and is supported
by many architectures. See hugetlbpage.rst in the Documentation directory
for more details. On the x86 architecture, HugeTLB pages of size 2MB and 1GB
are currently supported. Since the base page size on x86 is 4KB, a 2MB
HugeTLB page consists of 512 base pages and a 1GB HugeTLB page consists of
4096 base pages. For each base page, there is a corresponding page struct.

Within the HugeTLB subsystem, only the first 4 page structs are used to
contain unique information about a HugeTLB page. HUGETLB_CGROUP_MIN_ORDER
provides this upper limit. The only 'useful' information in the remaining
page structs is the compound_head field, and this field is the same for all
tail pages.

By removing redundant page structs for HugeTLB pages, memory can returned to
the buddy allocator for other uses.

When the system boot up, every 2M HugeTLB has 512 struct page structs which
size is 8 pages(sizeof(struct page) * 512 / PAGE_SIZE).

    HugeTLB                  struct pages(8 pages)         page frame(8 pages)
 +-----------+ ---virt_to_page---> +-----------+   mapping to   +-----------+
 |           |                     |     0     | -------------> |     0     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     1     | -------------> |     1     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     2     | -------------> |     2     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     3     | -------------> |     3     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     4     | -------------> |     4     |
 |    2MB    |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     5     | -------------> |     5     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     6     | -------------> |     6     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     7     | -------------> |     7     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |
 |           |
 |           |
 +-----------+

The value of page->compound_head is the same for all tail pages. The first
page of page structs (page 0) associated with the HugeTLB page contains the 4
page structs necessary to describe the HugeTLB. The only use of the remaining
pages of page structs (page 1 to page 7) is to point to page->compound_head.
Therefore, we can remap pages 2 to 7 to page 1. Only 2 pages of page structs
will be used for each HugeTLB page. This will allow us to free the remaining
6 pages to the buddy allocator.

Here is how things look after remapping.

    HugeTLB                  struct pages(8 pages)         page frame(8 pages)
 +-----------+ ---virt_to_page---> +-----------+   mapping to   +-----------+
 |           |                     |     0     | -------------> |     0     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     1     | -------------> |     1     |
 |           |                     +-----------+                +-----------+
 |           |                     |     2     | ----------------^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
 |           |                     +-----------+                   | | | | |
 |           |                     |     3     | ------------------+ | | | |
 |           |                     +-----------+                     | | | |
 |           |                     |     4     | --------------------+ | | |
 |    2MB    |                     +-----------+                       | | |
 |           |                     |     5     | ----------------------+ | |
 |           |                     +-----------+                         | |
 |           |                     |     6     | ------------------------+ |
 |           |                     +-----------+                           |
 |           |                     |     7     | --------------------------+
 |           |                     +-----------+
 |           |
 |           |
 |           |
 +-----------+

When a HugeTLB is freed to the buddy system, we should allocate 6 pages for
vmemmap pages and restore the previous mapping relationship.

Apart from 2MB HugeTLB page, we also have 1GB HugeTLB page. It is similar
to the 2MB HugeTLB page. We also can use this approach to free the vmemmap
pages.

In this case, for the 1GB HugeTLB page, we can save 4088 pages(There are
4096 pages for struct page structs, we reserve 2 pages for vmemmap and 8
pages for page tables. So we can save 4088 pages). This is a very substantial
gain. On our server, run some SPDK/QEMU applications which will use 1024GB
hugetlbpage. With this feature enabled, we can save ~16GB(1G hugepage)/~11GB
(2MB hugepage, the worst case is 10GB while the best is 12GB) memory.

Because there are vmemmap page tables reconstruction on the freeing/allocating
path, it increases some overhead. Here are some overhead analysis.

1) Allocating 10240 2MB hugetlb pages.

   a) With this patch series applied:
   # time echo 10240 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages

   real     0m0.166s
   user     0m0.000s
   sys      0m0.166s

   # bpftrace -e 'kprobe:alloc_fresh_huge_page { @start[tid] = nsecs; } kretprobe:alloc_fresh_huge_page /@...rt[tid]/ { @latency = hist(nsecs - @start[tid]); delete(@start[tid]); }'
   Attaching 2 probes...

   @latency:
   [8K, 16K)           8360 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@|
   [16K, 32K)          1868 |@@@@@@@@@@@                                         |
   [32K, 64K)            10 |                                                    |
   [64K, 128K)            2 |                                                    |

   b) Without this patch series:
   # time echo 10240 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages

   real     0m0.066s
   user     0m0.000s
   sys      0m0.066s

   # bpftrace -e 'kprobe:alloc_fresh_huge_page { @start[tid] = nsecs; } kretprobe:alloc_fresh_huge_page /@...rt[tid]/ { @latency = hist(nsecs - @start[tid]); delete(@start[tid]); }'
   Attaching 2 probes...

   @latency:
   [4K, 8K)           10176 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@|
   [8K, 16K)             62 |                                                    |
   [16K, 32K)             2 |                                                    |

   Summarize: this feature is about ~2x slower than before.

2) Freeing 10240 2MB hugetlb pages.

   a) With this patch series applied:
   # time echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages

   real     0m0.004s
   user     0m0.000s
   sys      0m0.002s

   # bpftrace -e 'kprobe:__free_hugepage { @start[tid] = nsecs; } kretprobe:__free_hugepage /@...rt[tid]/ { @latency = hist(nsecs - @start[tid]); delete(@start[tid]); }'
   Attaching 2 probes...

   @latency:
   [16K, 32K)         10240 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@|

   b) Without this patch series:
   # time echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages

   real     0m0.077s
   user     0m0.001s
   sys      0m0.075s

   # bpftrace -e 'kprobe:__free_hugepage { @start[tid] = nsecs; } kretprobe:__free_hugepage /@...rt[tid]/ { @latency = hist(nsecs - @start[tid]); delete(@start[tid]); }'
   Attaching 2 probes...

   @latency:
   [4K, 8K)            9950 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@|
   [8K, 16K)            287 |@                                                   |
   [16K, 32K)             3 |                                                    |

   Summarize: The overhead of __free_hugepage is about ~2-4x slower than before.
              But according to the allocation test above, I think that here is
	      also ~2x slower than before.

              But why the 'real' time of patched is smaller than before? Because
	      In this patch series, the freeing hugetlb is asynchronous(through
	      kwoker).

Although the overhead has increased, the overhead is not significant. Like Mike
said, "However, remember that the majority of use cases create hugetlb pages at
or shortly after boot time and add them to the pool. So, additional overhead is
at pool creation time. There is no change to 'normal run time' operations of
getting a page from or returning a page to the pool (think page fault/unmap)".

Todo:
  1. Free all of the tail vmemmap pages
     Now for the 2MB HugrTLB page, we only free 6 vmemmap pages. we really can
     free 7 vmemmap pages. In this case, we can see 8 of the 512 struct page
     structures has beed set PG_head flag. If we can adjust compound_head()
     slightly and make compound_head() return the real head struct page when
     the parameter is the tail struct page but with PG_head flag set.

     In order to make the code evolution route clearer. This feature can can be
     a separate patch after this patchset is solid.

  Changelog in v5:
  1. Rework somme comments and code in the [PATCH v4 04/21] and [PATCH v4 05/21].
     Thanks to Mike and Oscar's suggestions.

  Changelog in v4:
  1. Move all the vmemmap functions to hugetlb_vmemmap.c.
  2. Make the CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE_FREE_VMEMMAP default to y, if we want to
     disable this feature, we should disable it by a boot/kernel command line.
  3. Remove vmemmap_pgtable_{init, deposit, withdraw}() helper functions.
  4. Initialize page table lock for vmemmap through core_initcall mechanism.

  Thanks for Mike and Oscar's suggestions.

  Changelog in v3:
  1. Rename some helps function name. Thanks Mike.
  2. Rework some code. Thanks Mike and Oscar.
  3. Remap the tail vmemmap page with PAGE_KERNEL_RO instead of
     PAGE_KERNEL. Thanks Matthew.
  4. Add some overhead analysis in the cover letter.
  5. Use vmemap pmd table lock instead of a hugetlb specific global lock.

  Changelog in v2:
  1. Fix do not call dissolve_compound_page in alloc_huge_page_vmemmap().
  2. Fix some typo and code style problems.
  3. Remove unused handle_vmemmap_fault().
  4. Merge some commits to one commit suggested by Mike.

Muchun Song (21):
  mm/memory_hotplug: Move bootmem info registration API to
    bootmem_info.c
  mm/memory_hotplug: Move {get,put}_page_bootmem() to bootmem_info.c
  mm/hugetlb: Introduce a new config HUGETLB_PAGE_FREE_VMEMMAP
  mm/hugetlb: Introduce nr_free_vmemmap_pages in the struct hstate
  mm/hugetlb: Introduce pgtable allocation/freeing helpers
  mm/bootmem_info: Introduce {free,prepare}_vmemmap_page()
  mm/bootmem_info: Combine bootmem info and type into page->freelist
  mm/hugetlb: Initialize page table lock for vmemmap
  mm/hugetlb: Free the vmemmap pages associated with each hugetlb page
  mm/hugetlb: Defer freeing of hugetlb pages
  mm/hugetlb: Allocate the vmemmap pages associated with each hugetlb
    page
  mm/hugetlb: Introduce remap_huge_page_pmd_vmemmap helper
  mm/hugetlb: Use PG_slab to indicate split pmd
  mm/hugetlb: Support freeing vmemmap pages of gigantic page
  mm/hugetlb: Set the PageHWPoison to the raw error page
  mm/hugetlb: Flush work when dissolving hugetlb page
  mm/hugetlb: Add a kernel parameter hugetlb_free_vmemmap
  mm/hugetlb: Merge pte to huge pmd only for gigantic page
  mm/hugetlb: Gather discrete indexes of tail page
  mm/hugetlb: Add BUILD_BUG_ON to catch invalid usage of tail struct
    page
  mm/hugetlb: Disable freeing vmemmap if struct page size is not power
    of two

 Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt |   9 +
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/hugetlbpage.rst    |   3 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/hugetlb.h                  |  17 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable_64_types.h         |   8 +
 arch/x86/mm/init_64.c                           |   7 +-
 fs/Kconfig                                      |  14 +
 include/linux/bootmem_info.h                    |  78 +++
 include/linux/hugetlb.h                         |  19 +
 include/linux/hugetlb_cgroup.h                  |  15 +-
 include/linux/memory_hotplug.h                  |  27 -
 mm/Makefile                                     |   2 +
 mm/bootmem_info.c                               | 124 ++++
 mm/hugetlb.c                                    | 163 ++++-
 mm/hugetlb_vmemmap.c                            | 765 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
 mm/hugetlb_vmemmap.h                            | 103 ++++
 mm/memory_hotplug.c                             | 116 ----
 mm/sparse.c                                     |   5 +-
 17 files changed, 1295 insertions(+), 180 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 include/linux/bootmem_info.h
 create mode 100644 mm/bootmem_info.c
 create mode 100644 mm/hugetlb_vmemmap.c
 create mode 100644 mm/hugetlb_vmemmap.h

-- 
2.11.0

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