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Date:   Tue, 15 Dec 2020 12:54:44 +0100
From:   SeongJae Park <sjpark@...zon.com>
To:     <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>
CC:     SeongJae Park <sjpark@...zon.de>, <Jonathan.Cameron@...wei.com>,
        <aarcange@...hat.com>, <acme@...nel.org>,
        <alexander.shishkin@...ux.intel.com>, <amit@...nel.org>,
        <benh@...nel.crashing.org>, <brendan.d.gregg@...il.com>,
        <brendanhiggins@...gle.com>, <cai@....pw>,
        <colin.king@...onical.com>, <corbet@....net>, <david@...hat.com>,
        <dwmw@...zon.com>, <elver@...gle.com>, <fan.du@...el.com>,
        <foersleo@...zon.de>, <gthelen@...gle.com>, <irogers@...gle.com>,
        <jolsa@...hat.com>, <kirill@...temov.name>, <mark.rutland@....com>,
        <mgorman@...e.de>, <minchan@...nel.org>, <mingo@...hat.com>,
        <namhyung@...nel.org>, <peterz@...radead.org>,
        <rdunlap@...radead.org>, <riel@...riel.com>, <rientjes@...gle.com>,
        <rostedt@...dmis.org>, <rppt@...nel.org>, <sblbir@...zon.com>,
        <shakeelb@...gle.com>, <shuah@...nel.org>, <sj38.park@...il.com>,
        <snu@...zon.de>, <vbabka@...e.cz>, <vdavydov.dev@...il.com>,
        <yang.shi@...ux.alibaba.com>, <ying.huang@...el.com>,
        <zgf574564920@...il.com>, <linux-damon@...zon.com>,
        <linux-mm@...ck.org>, <linux-doc@...r.kernel.org>,
        <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: [PATCH v23 11/15] tools: Introduce a minimal user-space tool for DAMON

From: SeongJae Park <sjpark@...zon.de>

'damon-dbgfs' provides simple user space interface for DAMON, but using
the interface for complex usages could require annoying repetitive
works.  Writing a user space data access monitoring applications on top
of the debugfs interface and using the application would be better for
such complex cases.

This commit introduces a reference implementation of such user space
application built on top of the debugfs interface, namely 'DAMon
Operator' (DAMO).  It contains a shallow wrapper python script of the
debugfs interface and various visualization of the monitoring results
convenient user interface.

Note that it is initially aimed to be used for minimal reference of the
'damon-dbgfs' interface and for debugging of the DAMON itself.

Signed-off-by: SeongJae Park <sjpark@...zon.de>
---
 tools/damon/.gitignore    |   1 +
 tools/damon/_damon.py     | 130 ++++++++++++++
 tools/damon/_dist.py      |  35 ++++
 tools/damon/_recfile.py   |  23 +++
 tools/damon/bin2txt.py    |  67 +++++++
 tools/damon/damo          |  37 ++++
 tools/damon/heats.py      | 362 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tools/damon/nr_regions.py |  91 ++++++++++
 tools/damon/record.py     | 135 ++++++++++++++
 tools/damon/report.py     |  45 +++++
 tools/damon/wss.py        | 100 +++++++++++
 11 files changed, 1026 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/.gitignore
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/_damon.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/_dist.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/_recfile.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/bin2txt.py
 create mode 100755 tools/damon/damo
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/heats.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/nr_regions.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/record.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/report.py
 create mode 100644 tools/damon/wss.py

diff --git a/tools/damon/.gitignore b/tools/damon/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..96403d36ff93
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+__pycache__/*
diff --git a/tools/damon/_damon.py b/tools/damon/_damon.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1f6a292e8c25
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/_damon.py
@@ -0,0 +1,130 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+"""
+Contains core functions for DAMON debugfs control.
+"""
+
+import os
+import subprocess
+
+debugfs_attrs = None
+debugfs_record = None
+debugfs_target_ids = None
+debugfs_monitor_on = None
+
+def set_target_id(tid):
+    with open(debugfs_target_ids, 'w') as f:
+        f.write('%s\n' % tid)
+
+def turn_damon(on_off):
+    return subprocess.call("echo %s > %s" % (on_off, debugfs_monitor_on),
+            shell=True, executable="/bin/bash")
+
+def is_damon_running():
+    with open(debugfs_monitor_on, 'r') as f:
+        return f.read().strip() == 'on'
+
+class Attrs:
+    sample_interval = None
+    aggr_interval = None
+    regions_update_interval = None
+    min_nr_regions = None
+    max_nr_regions = None
+    rbuf_len = None
+    rfile_path = None
+
+    def __init__(self, s, a, r, n, x, l, f):
+        self.sample_interval = s
+        self.aggr_interval = a
+        self.regions_update_interval = r
+        self.min_nr_regions = n
+        self.max_nr_regions = x
+        self.rbuf_len = l
+        self.rfile_path = f
+
+    def __str__(self):
+        return "%s %s %s %s %s %s %s" % (self.sample_interval,
+                self.aggr_interval, self.regions_update_interval,
+                self.min_nr_regions, self.max_nr_regions, self.rbuf_len,
+                self.rfile_path)
+
+    def attr_str(self):
+        return "%s %s %s %s %s " % (self.sample_interval, self.aggr_interval,
+                self.regions_update_interval, self.min_nr_regions,
+                self.max_nr_regions)
+
+    def record_str(self):
+        return '%s %s ' % (self.rbuf_len, self.rfile_path)
+
+    def apply(self):
+        ret = subprocess.call('echo %s > %s' % (self.attr_str(), debugfs_attrs),
+                shell=True, executable='/bin/bash')
+        if ret:
+            return ret
+        ret = subprocess.call('echo %s > %s' % (self.record_str(),
+            debugfs_record), shell=True, executable='/bin/bash')
+        if ret:
+            return ret
+
+def current_attrs():
+    with open(debugfs_attrs, 'r') as f:
+        attrs = f.read().split()
+    attrs = [int(x) for x in attrs]
+
+    with open(debugfs_record, 'r') as f:
+        rattrs = f.read().split()
+    attrs.append(int(rattrs[0]))
+    attrs.append(rattrs[1])
+
+    return Attrs(*attrs)
+
+def chk_update_debugfs(debugfs):
+    global debugfs_attrs
+    global debugfs_record
+    global debugfs_target_ids
+    global debugfs_monitor_on
+
+    debugfs_damon = os.path.join(debugfs, 'damon')
+    debugfs_attrs = os.path.join(debugfs_damon, 'attrs')
+    debugfs_record = os.path.join(debugfs_damon, 'record')
+    debugfs_target_ids = os.path.join(debugfs_damon, 'target_ids')
+    debugfs_monitor_on = os.path.join(debugfs_damon, 'monitor_on')
+
+    if not os.path.isdir(debugfs_damon):
+        print("damon debugfs dir (%s) not found", debugfs_damon)
+        exit(1)
+
+    for f in [debugfs_attrs, debugfs_record, debugfs_target_ids,
+            debugfs_monitor_on]:
+        if not os.path.isfile(f):
+            print("damon debugfs file (%s) not found" % f)
+            exit(1)
+
+def cmd_args_to_attrs(args):
+    "Generate attributes with specified arguments"
+    sample_interval = args.sample
+    aggr_interval = args.aggr
+    regions_update_interval = args.updr
+    min_nr_regions = args.minr
+    max_nr_regions = args.maxr
+    rbuf_len = args.rbuf
+    if not os.path.isabs(args.out):
+        args.out = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), args.out)
+    rfile_path = args.out
+    return Attrs(sample_interval, aggr_interval, regions_update_interval,
+            min_nr_regions, max_nr_regions, rbuf_len, rfile_path)
+
+def set_attrs_argparser(parser):
+    parser.add_argument('-d', '--debugfs', metavar='<debugfs>', type=str,
+            default='/sys/kernel/debug', help='debugfs mounted path')
+    parser.add_argument('-s', '--sample', metavar='<interval>', type=int,
+            default=5000, help='sampling interval')
+    parser.add_argument('-a', '--aggr', metavar='<interval>', type=int,
+            default=100000, help='aggregate interval')
+    parser.add_argument('-u', '--updr', metavar='<interval>', type=int,
+            default=1000000, help='regions update interval')
+    parser.add_argument('-n', '--minr', metavar='<# regions>', type=int,
+            default=10, help='minimal number of regions')
+    parser.add_argument('-m', '--maxr', metavar='<# regions>', type=int,
+            default=1000, help='maximum number of regions')
diff --git a/tools/damon/_dist.py b/tools/damon/_dist.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6435f98f4275
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/_dist.py
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+import os
+import struct
+import subprocess
+
+def access_patterns(f):
+    nr_regions = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+
+    patterns = []
+    for r in range(nr_regions):
+        saddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+        eaddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+        nr_accesses = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+        patterns.append([eaddr - saddr, nr_accesses])
+    return patterns
+
+def plot_dist(data_file, output_file, xlabel, ylabel):
+    terminal = output_file.split('.')[-1]
+    if not terminal in ['pdf', 'jpeg', 'png', 'svg']:
+        os.remove(data_file)
+        print("Unsupported plot output type.")
+        exit(-1)
+
+    gnuplot_cmd = """
+    set term %s;
+    set output '%s';
+    set key off;
+    set xlabel '%s';
+    set ylabel '%s';
+    plot '%s' with linespoints;""" % (terminal, output_file, xlabel, ylabel,
+            data_file)
+    subprocess.call(['gnuplot', '-e', gnuplot_cmd])
+    os.remove(data_file)
diff --git a/tools/damon/_recfile.py b/tools/damon/_recfile.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..45dd8ffdb5ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/_recfile.py
@@ -0,0 +1,23 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+import struct
+
+fmt_version = 0
+
+def set_fmt_version(f):
+    global fmt_version
+
+    mark = f.read(16)
+    if mark == b'damon_recfmt_ver':
+        fmt_version = struct.unpack('i', f.read(4))[0]
+    else:
+        fmt_version = 0
+        f.seek(0)
+    return fmt_version
+
+def target_id(f):
+    if fmt_version == 1:
+        return struct.unpack('i', f.read(4))[0]
+    else:
+        return struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
diff --git a/tools/damon/bin2txt.py b/tools/damon/bin2txt.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..79516c72f449
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/bin2txt.py
@@ -0,0 +1,67 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+import argparse
+import os
+import struct
+import sys
+
+import _recfile
+
+def parse_time(bindat):
+    "bindat should be 16 bytes"
+    sec = struct.unpack('l', bindat[0:8])[0]
+    nsec = struct.unpack('l', bindat[8:16])[0]
+    return sec * 1000000000 + nsec;
+
+def pr_region(f):
+    saddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+    eaddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+    nr_accesses = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+    print("%012x-%012x(%10d):\t%d" %
+            (saddr, eaddr, eaddr - saddr, nr_accesses))
+
+def pr_task_info(f):
+    target_id = _recfile.target_id(f)
+    print("target_id: ", target_id)
+    nr_regions = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+    print("nr_regions: ", nr_regions)
+    for r in range(nr_regions):
+        pr_region(f)
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    parser.add_argument('--input', '-i', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            default='damon.data', help='input file name')
+
+def main(args=None):
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    file_path = args.input
+
+    if not os.path.isfile(file_path):
+        print('input file (%s) is not exist' % file_path)
+        exit(1)
+
+    with open(file_path, 'rb') as f:
+        _recfile.set_fmt_version(f)
+        start_time = None
+        while True:
+            timebin = f.read(16)
+            if len(timebin) != 16:
+                break
+            time = parse_time(timebin)
+            if not start_time:
+                start_time = time
+                print("start_time: ", start_time)
+            print("rel time: %16d" % (time - start_time))
+            nr_tasks = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+            print("nr_tasks: ", nr_tasks)
+            for t in range(nr_tasks):
+                pr_task_info(f)
+                print("")
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
diff --git a/tools/damon/damo b/tools/damon/damo
new file mode 100755
index 000000000000..58e1099ae5fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/damo
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+import argparse
+
+import record
+import report
+
+class SubCmdHelpFormatter(argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter):
+    def _format_action(self, action):
+        parts = super(argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
+                self)._format_action(action)
+        # skip sub parsers help
+        if action.nargs == argparse.PARSER:
+            parts = '\n'.join(parts.split('\n')[1:])
+        return parts
+
+parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(formatter_class=SubCmdHelpFormatter)
+
+subparser = parser.add_subparsers(title='command', dest='command',
+        metavar='<command>')
+subparser.required = True
+
+parser_record = subparser.add_parser('record',
+        help='record data accesses of the given target processes')
+record.set_argparser(parser_record)
+
+parser_report = subparser.add_parser('report',
+        help='report the recorded data accesses in the specified form')
+report.set_argparser(parser_report)
+
+args = parser.parse_args()
+
+if args.command == 'record':
+    record.main(args)
+elif args.command == 'report':
+    report.main(args)
diff --git a/tools/damon/heats.py b/tools/damon/heats.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..78a2a793f50e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/heats.py
@@ -0,0 +1,362 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+"""
+Transform binary trace data into human readable text that can be used for
+heatmap drawing, or directly plot the data in a heatmap format.
+
+Format of the text is:
+
+    <time> <space> <heat>
+    ...
+
+"""
+
+import argparse
+import os
+import struct
+import subprocess
+import sys
+import tempfile
+
+import _recfile
+
+class HeatSample:
+    space_idx = None
+    sz_time_space = None
+    heat = None
+
+    def __init__(self, space_idx, sz_time_space, heat):
+        if sz_time_space < 0:
+            raise RuntimeError()
+        self.space_idx = space_idx
+        self.sz_time_space = sz_time_space
+        self.heat = heat
+
+    def total_heat(self):
+        return self.heat * self.sz_time_space
+
+    def merge(self, sample):
+        "sample must have a space idx that same to self"
+        heat_sum = self.total_heat() + sample.total_heat()
+        self.heat = heat_sum / (self.sz_time_space + sample.sz_time_space)
+        self.sz_time_space += sample.sz_time_space
+
+def pr_samples(samples, time_idx, time_unit, region_unit):
+    display_time = time_idx * time_unit
+    for idx, sample in enumerate(samples):
+        display_addr = idx * region_unit
+        if not sample:
+            print("%s\t%s\t%s" % (display_time, display_addr, 0.0))
+            continue
+        print("%s\t%s\t%s" % (display_time, display_addr, sample.total_heat() /
+            time_unit / region_unit))
+
+def to_idx(value, min_, unit):
+    return (value - min_) // unit
+
+def read_task_heats(f, tid, aunit, amin, amax):
+    tid_ = _recfile.target_id(f)
+    nr_regions = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+    if tid_ != tid:
+        f.read(20 * nr_regions)
+        return None
+    samples = []
+    for i in range(nr_regions):
+        saddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+        eaddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+        eaddr = min(eaddr, amax - 1)
+        heat = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+
+        if eaddr <= amin:
+            continue
+        if saddr >= amax:
+            continue
+        saddr = max(amin, saddr)
+        eaddr = min(amax, eaddr)
+
+        sidx = to_idx(saddr, amin, aunit)
+        eidx = to_idx(eaddr - 1, amin, aunit)
+        for idx in range(sidx, eidx + 1):
+            sa = max(amin + idx * aunit, saddr)
+            ea = min(amin + (idx + 1) * aunit, eaddr)
+            sample = HeatSample(idx, (ea - sa), heat)
+            samples.append(sample)
+    return samples
+
+def parse_time(bindat):
+    sec = struct.unpack('l', bindat[0:8])[0]
+    nsec = struct.unpack('l', bindat[8:16])[0]
+    return sec * 1000000000 + nsec
+
+def apply_samples(target_samples, samples, start_time, end_time, aunit, amin):
+    for s in samples:
+        sample = HeatSample(s.space_idx,
+                s.sz_time_space * (end_time - start_time), s.heat)
+        idx = sample.space_idx
+        if not target_samples[idx]:
+            target_samples[idx] = sample
+        else:
+            target_samples[idx].merge(sample)
+
+def __pr_heats(f, tid, tunit, tmin, tmax, aunit, amin, amax):
+    heat_samples = [None] * ((amax - amin) // aunit)
+
+    start_time = 0
+    end_time = 0
+    last_flushed = -1
+    while True:
+        start_time = end_time
+        timebin = f.read(16)
+        if (len(timebin)) != 16:
+            break
+        end_time = parse_time(timebin)
+        nr_tasks = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+        samples_set = {}
+        for t in range(nr_tasks):
+            samples = read_task_heats(f, tid, aunit, amin, amax)
+            if samples:
+                samples_set[tid] = samples
+        if not tid in samples_set:
+            continue
+        if start_time >= tmax:
+            continue
+        if end_time <= tmin:
+            continue
+        start_time = max(start_time, tmin)
+        end_time = min(end_time, tmax)
+
+        sidx = to_idx(start_time, tmin, tunit)
+        eidx = to_idx(end_time - 1, tmin, tunit)
+        for idx in range(sidx, eidx + 1):
+            if idx != last_flushed:
+                pr_samples(heat_samples, idx, tunit, aunit)
+                heat_samples = [None] * ((amax - amin) // aunit)
+                last_flushed = idx
+            st = max(start_time, tmin + idx * tunit)
+            et = min(end_time, tmin + (idx + 1) * tunit)
+            apply_samples(heat_samples, samples_set[tid], st, et, aunit, amin)
+
+def pr_heats(args):
+    binfile = args.input
+    tid = args.tid
+    tres = args.tres
+    tmin = args.tmin
+    ares = args.ares
+    amin = args.amin
+
+    tunit = (args.tmax - tmin) // tres
+    aunit = (args.amax - amin) // ares
+
+    # Compensate the values so that those fit with the resolution
+    tmax = tmin + tunit * tres
+    amax = amin + aunit * ares
+
+    with open(binfile, 'rb') as f:
+        _recfile.set_fmt_version(f)
+        __pr_heats(f, tid, tunit, tmin, tmax, aunit, amin, amax)
+
+class GuideInfo:
+    tid = None
+    start_time = None
+    end_time = None
+    lowest_addr = None
+    highest_addr = None
+    gaps = None
+
+    def __init__(self, tid, start_time):
+        self.tid = tid
+        self.start_time = start_time
+        self.gaps = []
+
+    def regions(self):
+        regions = []
+        region = [self.lowest_addr]
+        for gap in self.gaps:
+            for idx, point in enumerate(gap):
+                if idx == 0:
+                    region.append(point)
+                    regions.append(region)
+                else:
+                    region = [point]
+        region.append(self.highest_addr)
+        regions.append(region)
+        return regions
+
+    def total_space(self):
+        ret = 0
+        for r in self.regions():
+            ret += r[1] - r[0]
+        return ret
+
+    def __str__(self):
+        lines = ['target_id:%d' % self.tid]
+        lines.append('time: %d-%d (%d)' % (self.start_time, self.end_time,
+                    self.end_time - self.start_time))
+        for idx, region in enumerate(self.regions()):
+            lines.append('region\t%2d: %020d-%020d (%d)' %
+                    (idx, region[0], region[1], region[1] - region[0]))
+        return '\n'.join(lines)
+
+def is_overlap(region1, region2):
+    if region1[1] < region2[0]:
+        return False
+    if region2[1] < region1[0]:
+        return False
+    return True
+
+def overlap_region_of(region1, region2):
+    return [max(region1[0], region2[0]), min(region1[1], region2[1])]
+
+def overlapping_regions(regions1, regions2):
+    overlap_regions = []
+    for r1 in regions1:
+        for r2 in regions2:
+            if is_overlap(r1, r2):
+                r1 = overlap_region_of(r1, r2)
+        if r1:
+            overlap_regions.append(r1)
+    return overlap_regions
+
+def get_guide_info(binfile):
+    "Read file, return the set of guide information objects of the data"
+    guides = {}
+    with open(binfile, 'rb') as f:
+        _recfile.set_fmt_version(f)
+        while True:
+            timebin = f.read(16)
+            if len(timebin) != 16:
+                break
+            monitor_time = parse_time(timebin)
+            nr_tasks = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+            for t in range(nr_tasks):
+                tid = _recfile.target_id(f)
+                nr_regions = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+                if not tid in guides:
+                    guides[tid] = GuideInfo(tid, monitor_time)
+                guide = guides[tid]
+                guide.end_time = monitor_time
+
+                last_addr = None
+                gaps = []
+                for r in range(nr_regions):
+                    saddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+                    eaddr = struct.unpack('L', f.read(8))[0]
+                    f.read(4)
+
+                    if not guide.lowest_addr or saddr < guide.lowest_addr:
+                        guide.lowest_addr = saddr
+                    if not guide.highest_addr or eaddr > guide.highest_addr:
+                        guide.highest_addr = eaddr
+
+                    if not last_addr:
+                        last_addr = eaddr
+                        continue
+                    if last_addr != saddr:
+                        gaps.append([last_addr, saddr])
+                    last_addr = eaddr
+
+                if not guide.gaps:
+                    guide.gaps = gaps
+                else:
+                    guide.gaps = overlapping_regions(guide.gaps, gaps)
+    return sorted(list(guides.values()), key=lambda x: x.total_space(),
+                    reverse=True)
+
+def pr_guide(binfile):
+    for guide in get_guide_info(binfile):
+        print(guide)
+
+def region_sort_key(region):
+    return region[1] - region[0]
+
+def set_missed_args(args):
+    if args.tid and args.tmin and args.tmax and args.amin and args.amax:
+        return
+    guides = get_guide_info(args.input)
+    guide = guides[0]
+    if not args.tid:
+        args.tid = guide.tid
+    for g in guides:
+        if g.tid == args.tid:
+            guide = g
+            break
+
+    if not args.tmin:
+        args.tmin = guide.start_time
+    if not args.tmax:
+        args.tmax = guide.end_time
+
+    if not args.amin or not args.amax:
+        region = sorted(guide.regions(), key=lambda x: x[1] - x[0],
+                reverse=True)[0]
+        args.amin = region[0]
+        args.amax = region[1]
+
+def plot_heatmap(data_file, output_file):
+    terminal = output_file.split('.')[-1]
+    if not terminal in ['pdf', 'jpeg', 'png', 'svg']:
+        os.remove(data_file)
+        print("Unsupported plot output type.")
+        exit(-1)
+
+    gnuplot_cmd = """
+    set term %s;
+    set output '%s';
+    set key off;
+    set xrange [0:];
+    set yrange [0:];
+    set xlabel 'Time (ns)';
+    set ylabel 'Address (bytes)';
+    plot '%s' using 1:2:3 with image;""" % (terminal, output_file, data_file)
+    subprocess.call(['gnuplot', '-e', gnuplot_cmd])
+    os.remove(data_file)
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    parser.add_argument('--input', '-i', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            default='damon.data', help='input file name')
+    parser.add_argument('--tid', metavar='<id>', type=int,
+            help='target id')
+    parser.add_argument('--tres', metavar='<resolution>', type=int,
+            default=500, help='time resolution of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--tmin', metavar='<time>', type=lambda x: int(x,0),
+            help='minimal time of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--tmax', metavar='<time>', type=lambda x: int(x,0),
+            help='maximum time of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--ares', metavar='<resolution>', type=int, default=500,
+            help='space address resolution of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--amin', metavar='<address>', type=lambda x: int(x,0),
+            help='minimal space address of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--amax', metavar='<address>', type=lambda x: int(x,0),
+            help='maximum space address of the output')
+    parser.add_argument('--guide', action='store_true',
+            help='print a guidance for the min/max/resolution settings')
+    parser.add_argument('--heatmap', metavar='<file>', type=str,
+            help='heatmap image file to create')
+
+def main(args=None):
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    if args.guide:
+        pr_guide(args.input)
+    else:
+        set_missed_args(args)
+        orig_stdout = sys.stdout
+        if args.heatmap:
+            tmp_path = tempfile.mkstemp()[1]
+            tmp_file = open(tmp_path, 'w')
+            sys.stdout = tmp_file
+
+        pr_heats(args)
+
+        if args.heatmap:
+            sys.stdout = orig_stdout
+            tmp_file.flush()
+            tmp_file.close()
+            plot_heatmap(tmp_path, args.heatmap)
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
diff --git a/tools/damon/nr_regions.py b/tools/damon/nr_regions.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..960dd4362472
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/nr_regions.py
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+"Print out distribution of the number of regions in the given record"
+
+import argparse
+import struct
+import sys
+import tempfile
+
+import _dist
+import _recfile
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    parser.add_argument('--input', '-i', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            default='damon.data', help='input file name')
+    parser.add_argument('--range', '-r', type=int, nargs=3,
+            metavar=('<start>', '<stop>', '<step>'),
+            help='range of percentiles to print')
+    parser.add_argument('--sortby', '-s', choices=['time', 'size'],
+            help='the metric to be used for sorting the number of regions')
+    parser.add_argument('--plot', '-p', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            help='plot the distribution to an image file')
+
+def main(args=None):
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    percentiles = [0, 25, 50, 75, 100]
+
+    file_path = args.input
+    if args.range:
+        percentiles = range(args.range[0], args.range[1], args.range[2])
+    nr_regions_sort = True
+    if args.sortby == 'time':
+        nr_regions_sort = False
+
+    tid_pattern_map = {}
+    with open(file_path, 'rb') as f:
+        _recfile.set_fmt_version(f)
+        start_time = None
+        while True:
+            timebin = f.read(16)
+            if len(timebin) != 16:
+                break
+            nr_tasks = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+            for t in range(nr_tasks):
+                tid = _recfile.target_id(f)
+                if not tid in tid_pattern_map:
+                    tid_pattern_map[tid] = []
+                tid_pattern_map[tid].append(_dist.access_patterns(f))
+
+    orig_stdout = sys.stdout
+    if args.plot:
+        tmp_path = tempfile.mkstemp()[1]
+        tmp_file = open(tmp_path, 'w')
+        sys.stdout = tmp_file
+
+    print('# <percentile> <# regions>')
+    for tid in tid_pattern_map.keys():
+        # Skip firs 20 regions as those would not adaptively adjusted
+        snapshots = tid_pattern_map[tid][20:]
+        nr_regions_dist = []
+        for snapshot in snapshots:
+            nr_regions_dist.append(len(snapshot))
+        if nr_regions_sort:
+            nr_regions_dist.sort(reverse=False)
+
+        print('# target_id\t%s' % tid)
+        print('# avr:\t%d' % (sum(nr_regions_dist) / len(nr_regions_dist)))
+        for percentile in percentiles:
+            thres_idx = int(percentile / 100.0 * len(nr_regions_dist))
+            if thres_idx == len(nr_regions_dist):
+                thres_idx -= 1
+            threshold = nr_regions_dist[thres_idx]
+            print('%d\t%d' % (percentile, nr_regions_dist[thres_idx]))
+
+    if args.plot:
+        sys.stdout = orig_stdout
+        tmp_file.flush()
+        tmp_file.close()
+        xlabel = 'runtime (percent)'
+        if nr_regions_sort:
+            xlabel = 'percentile'
+        _dist.plot_dist(tmp_path, args.plot, xlabel,
+                'number of monitoring target regions')
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
diff --git a/tools/damon/record.py b/tools/damon/record.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6d1cbe593b94
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/record.py
@@ -0,0 +1,135 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+"""
+Record data access patterns of the target process.
+"""
+
+import argparse
+import os
+import signal
+import subprocess
+import time
+
+import _damon
+
+def pidfd_open(pid):
+    import ctypes
+    libc = ctypes.CDLL(None)
+    syscall = libc.syscall
+    syscall.argtypes = [ctypes.c_int, ctypes.c_int, ctypes.c_uint]
+    syscall.restype = ctypes.c_long
+
+    NR_pidfd_open = 434
+
+    return syscall(NR_pidfd_open, pid, 0)
+
+def do_record(target, is_target_cmd, attrs, old_attrs, pidfd):
+    if os.path.isfile(attrs.rfile_path):
+        os.rename(attrs.rfile_path, attrs.rfile_path + '.old')
+
+    if attrs.apply():
+        print('attributes (%s) failed to be applied' % attrs)
+        cleanup_exit(old_attrs, -1)
+    print('# damon attrs: %s %s' % (attrs.attr_str(), attrs.record_str()))
+    if is_target_cmd:
+        p = subprocess.Popen(target, shell=True, executable='/bin/bash')
+        target = p.pid
+
+    if pidfd:
+        fd = pidfd_open(int(target))
+        if fd < 0:
+            print('failed getting pidfd of %s: %s' % (target, fd))
+            cleanup_exit(old_attrs, -1)
+
+        # NOTE: The race is still possible because the pid might be already
+        # reused before above pidfd_open() returned.  Eliminating the race is
+        # impossible unless we drop the pid support.  This option handling is
+        # only for reference of the pidfd usage.
+        target = 'pidfd %s' % fd
+
+    if _damon.set_target_id(target):
+        print('target id setting (%s) failed' % target)
+        cleanup_exit(old_attrs, -2)
+    if _damon.turn_damon('on'):
+        print('could not turn on damon' % target)
+        cleanup_exit(old_attrs, -3)
+    while not _damon.is_damon_running():
+        time.sleep(1)
+    print('Press Ctrl+C to stop')
+    if is_target_cmd:
+        p.wait()
+    while True:
+        # damon will turn it off by itself if the target tasks are terminated.
+        if not _damon.is_damon_running():
+            break
+        time.sleep(1)
+
+    if pidfd:
+        os.close(fd)
+    cleanup_exit(old_attrs, 0)
+
+def cleanup_exit(orig_attrs, exit_code):
+    if _damon.is_damon_running():
+        if _damon.turn_damon('off'):
+            print('failed to turn damon off!')
+        while _damon.is_damon_running():
+            time.sleep(1)
+    if orig_attrs:
+        if orig_attrs.apply():
+            print('original attributes (%s) restoration failed!' % orig_attrs)
+    exit(exit_code)
+
+def sighandler(signum, frame):
+    print('\nsignal %s received' % signum)
+    cleanup_exit(orig_attrs, signum)
+
+def chk_permission():
+    if os.geteuid() != 0:
+        print("Run as root")
+        exit(1)
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    _damon.set_attrs_argparser(parser)
+    parser.add_argument('target', type=str, metavar='<target>',
+            help='the target command or the pid to record')
+    parser.add_argument('--pidfd', action='store_true',
+            help='use pidfd type target id')
+    parser.add_argument('-l', '--rbuf', metavar='<len>', type=int,
+            default=1024*1024, help='length of record result buffer')
+    parser.add_argument('-o', '--out', metavar='<file path>', type=str,
+            default='damon.data', help='output file path')
+
+def main(args=None):
+    global orig_attrs
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    chk_permission()
+    _damon.chk_update_debugfs(args.debugfs)
+
+    signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, sighandler)
+    signal.signal(signal.SIGTERM, sighandler)
+    orig_attrs = _damon.current_attrs()
+
+    args.schemes = ''
+    pidfd = args.pidfd
+    new_attrs = _damon.cmd_args_to_attrs(args)
+    target = args.target
+
+    target_fields = target.split()
+    if not subprocess.call('which %s &> /dev/null' % target_fields[0],
+            shell=True, executable='/bin/bash'):
+        do_record(target, True, new_attrs, orig_attrs, pidfd)
+    else:
+        try:
+            pid = int(target)
+        except:
+            print('target \'%s\' is neither a command, nor a pid' % target)
+            exit(1)
+        do_record(target, False, new_attrs, orig_attrs, pidfd)
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
diff --git a/tools/damon/report.py b/tools/damon/report.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c661c7b2f1af
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/report.py
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+import argparse
+
+import bin2txt
+import heats
+import nr_regions
+import wss
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    subparsers = parser.add_subparsers(title='report type', dest='report_type',
+            metavar='<report type>', help='the type of the report to generate')
+    subparsers.required = True
+
+    parser_raw = subparsers.add_parser('raw', help='human readable raw data')
+    bin2txt.set_argparser(parser_raw)
+
+    parser_heats = subparsers.add_parser('heats', help='heats of regions')
+    heats.set_argparser(parser_heats)
+
+    parser_wss = subparsers.add_parser('wss', help='working set size')
+    wss.set_argparser(parser_wss)
+
+    parser_nr_regions = subparsers.add_parser('nr_regions',
+            help='number of regions')
+    nr_regions.set_argparser(parser_nr_regions)
+
+def main(args=None):
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    if args.report_type == 'raw':
+        bin2txt.main(args)
+    elif args.report_type == 'heats':
+        heats.main(args)
+    elif args.report_type == 'wss':
+        wss.main(args)
+    elif args.report_type == 'nr_regions':
+        nr_regions.main(args)
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
diff --git a/tools/damon/wss.py b/tools/damon/wss.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..54e2ac7cf83b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/damon/wss.py
@@ -0,0 +1,100 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python3
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+"Print out the distribution of the working set sizes of the given trace"
+
+import argparse
+import struct
+import sys
+import tempfile
+
+import _dist
+import _recfile
+
+def set_argparser(parser):
+    parser.add_argument('--input', '-i', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            default='damon.data', help='input file name')
+    parser.add_argument('--range', '-r', type=int, nargs=3,
+            metavar=('<start>', '<stop>', '<step>'),
+            help='range of wss percentiles to print')
+    parser.add_argument('--thres', '-t', type=int, default=1,
+            metavar='<# accesses>',
+            help='minimal number of accesses for treated as working set')
+    parser.add_argument('--sortby', '-s', choices=['time', 'size'],
+            help='the metric to be used for the sort of the working set sizes')
+    parser.add_argument('--plot', '-p', type=str, metavar='<file>',
+            help='plot the distribution to an image file')
+
+def main(args=None):
+    if not args:
+        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+        set_argparser(parser)
+        args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    percentiles = [0, 25, 50, 75, 100]
+
+    file_path = args.input
+    if args.range:
+        percentiles = range(args.range[0], args.range[1], args.range[2])
+    wss_sort = True
+    if args.sortby == 'time':
+        wss_sort = False
+
+    tid_pattern_map = {}
+    with open(file_path, 'rb') as f:
+        _recfile.set_fmt_version(f)
+        start_time = None
+        while True:
+            timebin = f.read(16)
+            if len(timebin) != 16:
+                break
+            nr_tasks = struct.unpack('I', f.read(4))[0]
+            for t in range(nr_tasks):
+                tid = _recfile.target_id(f)
+                if not tid in tid_pattern_map:
+                    tid_pattern_map[tid] = []
+                tid_pattern_map[tid].append(_dist.access_patterns(f))
+
+    orig_stdout = sys.stdout
+    if args.plot:
+        tmp_path = tempfile.mkstemp()[1]
+        tmp_file = open(tmp_path, 'w')
+        sys.stdout = tmp_file
+
+    print('# <percentile> <wss>')
+    for tid in tid_pattern_map.keys():
+        # Skip first 20 snapshots as regions may not adjusted yet.
+        snapshots = tid_pattern_map[tid][20:]
+        wss_dist = []
+        for snapshot in snapshots:
+            wss = 0
+            for p in snapshot:
+                # Ignore regions not accessed
+                if p[1] < args.thres:
+                    continue
+                wss += p[0]
+            wss_dist.append(wss)
+        if wss_sort:
+            wss_dist.sort(reverse=False)
+
+        print('# target_id\t%s' % tid)
+        print('# avr:\t%d' % (sum(wss_dist) / len(wss_dist)))
+        for percentile in percentiles:
+            thres_idx = int(percentile / 100.0 * len(wss_dist))
+            if thres_idx == len(wss_dist):
+                thres_idx -= 1
+            threshold = wss_dist[thres_idx]
+            print('%d\t%d' % (percentile, wss_dist[thres_idx]))
+
+    if args.plot:
+        sys.stdout = orig_stdout
+        tmp_file.flush()
+        tmp_file.close()
+        xlabel = 'runtime (percent)'
+        if wss_sort:
+            xlabel = 'percentile'
+        _dist.plot_dist(tmp_path, args.plot, xlabel,
+                'working set size (bytes)')
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    main()
-- 
2.17.1

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