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Date:   Wed, 16 Dec 2020 09:44:04 +0100
From:   SeongJae Park <>
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Subject: [RFC v15.1 8/8] Docs/admin-guide/mm/damon: Document DAMON-based Operation Schemes

From: SeongJae Park <>

This commit add description of DAMON-based operation schemes in the
DAMON documents.

Signed-off-by: SeongJae Park <>
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/guide.rst |  41 ++++++-
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst |  11 ++
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst | 109 ++++++++++++++++++-
 Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst             |   1 -
 4 files changed, 156 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/guide.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/guide.rst
index c51fb843efaa..1f9aa2ebbdb6 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/guide.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/guide.rst
@@ -53,6 +53,11 @@ heats``.  If it shows a simple pattern consists of a small number of memory
 regions having high contrast of access temperature, you could consider manual
 `Program Modification`_.
+If the access pattern is very frequently changing so that you cannot figure out
+what is the performance important region using your human eye, `Automated
+DAMON-based Memory Operations`_ might help the case owing to its machine-level
+microscope view.
 If you still want to absorb more benefits, you should develop `Personalized
 DAMON Application`_ for your special case.
@@ -120,6 +125,36 @@ shows the visualized access patterns of streamcluster workload in PARSEC3
 benchmark suite.  We can easily identify the 100 MiB sized hot object.
+Automated DAMON-based Memory Operations
+Though `Manual Program Optimization` works well in many cases and DAMON can
+help it, modifying the source code is not a good option in many cases.  First
+of all, the source code could be too old or unavailable.  And, many workloads
+will have complex data access patterns that even hard to distinguish hot memory
+objects and cold memory objects with the human eye.  Finding the mapping from
+the visualized access pattern to the source code and injecting the hinting
+system calls inside the code will also be quite challenging.
+By using DAMON-based operation schemes (DAMOS) via ``damo schemes``, you will
+be able to easily optimize your workload in such a case.  Our example schemes
+called 'efficient THP' and 'proactive reclamation' achieved significant speedup
+and memory space saves against 25 realistic workloads [2]_.
+That said, note that you need careful tune of the schemes (e.g., target region
+size and age) and monitoring attributes for the successful use of this
+approach.  Because the optimal values of the parameters will be dependent on
+each system and workload, misconfiguring the parameters could result in worse
+memory management.
+For the tuning, you could measure the performance metrics such as IPC, TLB
+misses, and swap in/out events and adjusts the parameters based on their
+changes.  The total number and the total size of the regions that each scheme
+is applied, which are provided via the debugfs interface and the programming
+interface can also be useful.  Writing a program automating this optimal
+parameter could be an option.
 Personalized DAMON Application
@@ -146,9 +181,9 @@ Referencing previously done successful practices could help you getting the
 sense for this kind of optimizations.  There is an academic paper [1]_
 reporting the visualized access pattern and manual `Program
 Modification`_ results for a number of realistic workloads.  You can also get
-the visualized access patterns [3]_ [4]_ [5]_ and automated DAMON-based memory
-operations results for other realistic workloads that collected with latest
-version of DAMON [2]_ .
+the visualized access patterns [3]_ [4]_ [5]_ and
+`Automated DAMON-based Memory Operations`_ results for other realistic
+workloads that collected with latest version of DAMON [2]_ .
 .. [1]
 .. [2]
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
index deed2ea2321e..35cf4e4ca6aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
@@ -90,6 +90,17 @@ image files. ::
 You can show the images in a web page [1]_ .  Those made with other realistic
 workloads are also available [2]_ [3]_ [4]_.
+Data Access Pattern Aware Memory Management
+Below three commands make every memory region of size >=4K that doesn't
+accessed for >=60 seconds in your workload to be swapped out. ::
+    $ echo "#min-size max-size min-acc max-acc min-age max-age action" > scheme
+    $ echo "4K        max      0       0       60s     max     pageout" >> scheme
+    $ damo schemes -c my_thp_scheme <pid of your workload>
 .. [1]
 .. [2]
 .. [3]
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
index a6606d27a559..96278227f925 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
@@ -219,11 +219,70 @@ Similar to that of ``heats --heatmap``, it also supports 'gnuplot' based simple
 visualization of the distribution via ``--plot`` option.
+DAMON-based Operation Schemes
+The ``schemes`` subcommand allows users to do DAMON-based memory management
+optimizations in a few seconds.  Similar to ``record``, it receives monitoring
+attributes and target.  However, in addition to those, ``schemes`` receives
+data access pattern-based memory operation schemes, which describes what memory
+operation action should be applied to memory regions showing specific data
+access pattern.  Then, it starts the data access monitoring and automatically
+applies the schemes to the targets.
+The operation schemes should be saved in a text file in below format and passed
+to ``schemes`` subcommand via ``--schemes`` option. ::
+    min-size max-size min-acc max-acc min-age max-age action
+The format also supports comments, several units for size and age of regions,
+and human readable action names.  Currently supported operation actions are
+``willneed``, ``cold``, ``pageout``, ``hugepage`` and ``nohugepage``.  Each of
+the actions works same to the madvise() system call hints having the name.
+Please also note that the range is inclusive (closed interval), and ``0`` for
+max values means infinite. Below example schemes are possible. ::
+    # format is:
+    # <min/max size> <min/max frequency (0-100)> <min/max age> <action>
+    #
+    # B/K/M/G/T for Bytes/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB
+    # us/ms/s/m/h/d for micro-seconds/milli-seconds/seconds/minutes/hours/days
+    # 'min/max' for possible min/max value.
+    # if a region keeps a high access frequency for >=100ms, put the region on
+    # the head of the LRU list (call madvise() with MADV_WILLNEED).
+    min    max      80      max     100ms   max willneed
+    # if a region keeps a low access frequency for >=200ms and <=one hour, put
+    # the region on the tail of the LRU list (call madvise() with MADV_COLD).
+    min     max     10      20      200ms   1h  cold
+    # if a region keeps a very low access frequency for >=60 seconds, swap out
+    # the region immediately (call madvise() with MADV_PAGEOUT).
+    min     max     0       10      60s     max pageout
+    # if a region of a size >=2MiB keeps a very high access frequency for
+    # >=100ms, let the region to use huge pages (call madvise() with
+    2M      max     90      100     100ms   max hugepage
+    # If a regions of a size >=2MiB keeps small access frequency for >=100ms,
+    # avoid the region using huge pages (call madvise() with MADV_NOHUGEPAGE).
+    2M      max     0       25      100ms   max nohugepage
+For example, you can make a running process named 'foo' to use huge pages for
+memory regions keeping 2MB or larger size and having very high access frequency
+for at least 100 milliseconds using below commands::
+    $ echo "2M max    90 max    100ms max    hugepage" > my_thp_scheme
+    $ ./damo schemes --schemes my_thp_scheme `pidof foo`
 debugfs Interface
-DAMON exports four files, ``attrs``, ``target_ids``, ``record``, and
-``monitor_on`` under its debugfs directory, ``<debugfs>/damon/``.
+DAMON exports five files, ``attrs``, ``target_ids``, ``record``, ``schemes``
+and ``monitor_on`` under its debugfs directory, ``<debugfs>/damon/``.
@@ -280,6 +339,52 @@ saved in ``/``. ::
 The recording can be disabled by setting the buffer size zero.
+For usual DAMON-based data access aware memory management optimizations, users
+would simply want the system to apply a memory management action to a memory
+region of a specific size having a specific access frequency for a specific
+time.  DAMON receives such formalized operation schemes from the user and
+applies those to the target processes.  It also counts the total number and
+size of regions that each scheme is applied.  This statistics can be used for
+online analysis or tuning of the schemes.
+Users can get and set the schemes by reading from and writing to ``schemes``
+debugfs file.  Reading the file also shows the statistics of each scheme.  To
+the file, each of the schemes should be represented in each line in below form:
+    min-size max-size min-acc max-acc min-age max-age action
+Note that the ranges are closed interval.  Bytes for the size of regions
+(``min-size`` and ``max-size``), number of monitored accesses per aggregate
+interval for access frequency (``min-acc`` and ``max-acc``), number of
+aggregate intervals for the age of regions (``min-age`` and ``max-age``), and a
+predefined integer for memory management actions should be used.  The supported
+numbers and their meanings are as below.
+ - 0: Call ``madvise()`` for the region with ``MADV_WILLNEED``
+ - 1: Call ``madvise()`` for the region with ``MADV_COLD``
+ - 2: Call ``madvise()`` for the region with ``MADV_PAGEOUT``
+ - 3: Call ``madvise()`` for the region with ``MADV_HUGEPAGE``
+ - 4: Call ``madvise()`` for the region with ``MADV_NOHUGEPAGE``
+ - 5: Do nothing but count the statistics
+You can disable schemes by simply writing an empty string to the file.  For
+example, below commands applies a scheme saying "If a memory region of size in
+[4KiB, 8KiB] is showing accesses per aggregate interval in [0, 5] for aggregate
+interval in [10, 20], page out the region", check the entered scheme again, and
+finally remove the scheme. ::
+    # cd <debugfs>/damon
+    # echo "4096 8192    0 5    10 20    2" > schemes
+    # cat schemes
+    4096 8192 0 5 10 20 2 0 0
+    # echo > schemes
+The last two integers in the 4th line of above example is the total number and
+the total size of the regions that the scheme is applied.
 Turning On/Off
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst b/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst
index 17dca3c12aad..69aec1287aaf 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst
@@ -28,4 +28,3 @@ workloads and systems.
-   plans

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