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Date:   Sun, 17 Jan 2021 12:23:00 +0100
From:   Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@...il.com>
To:     Bill Wendling <morbo@...gle.com>
Cc:     Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>,
        Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@...nel.org>,
        Linux Doc Mailing List <linux-doc@...r.kernel.org>,
        LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        Linux Kbuild mailing list <linux-kbuild@...r.kernel.org>,
        Clang-Built-Linux ML <clang-built-linux@...glegroups.com>,
        Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>,
        Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>,
        Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@...gle.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v5] pgo: add clang's Profile Guided Optimization infrastructure

On Sun, Jan 17, 2021 at 11:53 AM Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@...il.com> wrote:
>
> On Sun, Jan 17, 2021 at 11:44 AM Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@...il.com> wrote:
> >
> > On Sat, Jan 16, 2021 at 9:23 PM Bill Wendling <morbo@...gle.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > On Sat, Jan 16, 2021 at 9:39 AM Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@...il.com> wrote:
> > > > On Sat, Jan 16, 2021 at 10:44 AM 'Bill Wendling' via Clang Built Linux
> > > > <clang-built-linux@...glegroups.com> wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > From: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@...gle.com>
> > > > >
> > > > > Enable the use of clang's Profile-Guided Optimization[1]. To generate a
> > > > > profile, the kernel is instrumented with PGO counters, a representative
> > > > > workload is run, and the raw profile data is collected from
> > > > > /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw.
> > > > >
> > > > > The raw profile data must be processed by clang's "llvm-profdata" tool
> > > > > before it can be used during recompilation:
> > > > >
> > > > >   $ cp /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw vmlinux.profraw
> > > > >   $ llvm-profdata merge --output=vmlinux.profdata vmlinux.profraw
> > > > >
> > > > > Multiple raw profiles may be merged during this step.
> > > > >
> > > > > The data can now be used by the compiler:
> > > > >
> > > > >   $ make LLVM=1 KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata ...
> > > > >
> > > > > This initial submission is restricted to x86, as that's the platform we
> > > > > know works. This restriction can be lifted once other platforms have
> > > > > been verified to work with PGO.
> > > > >
> > > > > Note that this method of profiling the kernel is clang-native, unlike
> > > > > the clang support in kernel/gcov.
> > > > >
> > > > > [1] https://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#profile-guided-optimization
> > > > >
> > > > > Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@...gle.com>
> > > > > Co-developed-by: Bill Wendling <morbo@...gle.com>
> > > > > Signed-off-by: Bill Wendling <morbo@...gle.com>
> > > > > ---
> > > > > v2: - Added "__llvm_profile_instrument_memop" based on Nathan Chancellor's
> > > > >       testing.
> > > > >     - Corrected documentation, re PGO flags when using LTO, based on Fangrui
> > > > >       Song's comments.
> > > > > v3: - Added change log section based on Sedat Dilek's comments.
> > > > > v4: - Remove non-x86 Makfile changes and se "hweight64" instead of using our
> > > > >       own popcount implementation, based on Nick Desaulniers's comment.
> > > > > v5: - Correct padding calculation, discovered by Nathan Chancellor.
> > > > > ---
> > > > >  Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst     |   1 +
> > > > >  Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst       | 127 +++++++++
> > > > >  MAINTAINERS                           |   9 +
> > > > >  Makefile                              |   3 +
> > > > >  arch/Kconfig                          |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/Kconfig                      |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/boot/Makefile                |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile     |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/crypto/Makefile              |   2 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile          |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S         |   2 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile        |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile           |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile         |   1 +
> > > > >  arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile             |   1 +
> > > > >  drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile |   1 +
> > > > >  include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h     |  44 +++
> > > > >  kernel/Makefile                       |   1 +
> > > > >  kernel/pgo/Kconfig                    |  35 +++
> > > > >  kernel/pgo/Makefile                   |   5 +
> > > > >  kernel/pgo/fs.c                       | 382 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > > > >  kernel/pgo/instrument.c               | 185 +++++++++++++
> > > > >  kernel/pgo/pgo.h                      | 206 ++++++++++++++
> > > > >  scripts/Makefile.lib                  |  10 +
> > > > >  24 files changed, 1022 insertions(+)
> > > > >  create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
> > > > >  create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/Kconfig
> > > > >  create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/Makefile
> > > > >  create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/fs.c
> > > > >  create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/instrument.c
> > > > >  create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/pgo.h
> > > > >
> > > > > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
> > > > > index f7809c7b1ba9e..8d6418e858062 100644
> > > > > --- a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
> > > > > +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
> > > > > @@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ whole; patches welcome!
> > > > >     kgdb
> > > > >     kselftest
> > > > >     kunit/index
> > > > > +   pgo
> > > > >
> > > > >
> > > > >  .. only::  subproject and html
> > > > > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
> > > > > new file mode 100644
> > > > > index 0000000000000..b7f11d8405b73
> > > > > --- /dev/null
> > > > > +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
> > > > > @@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
> > > > > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > > > > +
> > > > > +===============================
> > > > > +Using PGO with the Linux kernel
> > > > > +===============================
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Clang's profiling kernel support (PGO_) enables profiling of the Linux kernel
> > > > > +when building with Clang. The profiling data is exported via the ``pgo``
> > > > > +debugfs directory.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +.. _PGO: https://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#profile-guided-optimization
> > > > > +
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Preparation
> > > > > +===========
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Configure the kernel with:
> > > > > +
> > > > > +.. code-block:: make
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   CONFIG_DEBUG_FS=y
> > > > > +   CONFIG_PGO_CLANG=y
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Note that kernels compiled with profiling flags will be significantly larger
> > > > > +and run slower.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted:
> > > > > +
> > > > > +.. code-block:: sh
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
> > > > > +
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Customization
> > > > > +=============
> > > > > +
> > > > > +You can enable or disable profiling for individual file and directories by
> > > > > +adding a line similar to the following to the respective kernel Makefile:
> > > > > +
> > > > > +- For a single file (e.g. main.o)
> > > > > +
> > > > > +  .. code-block:: make
> > > > > +
> > > > > +     PGO_PROFILE_main.o := y
> > > > > +
> > > > > +- For all files in one directory
> > > > > +
> > > > > +  .. code-block:: make
> > > > > +
> > > > > +     PGO_PROFILE := y
> > > > > +
> > > > > +To exclude files from being profiled use
> > > > > +
> > > > > +  .. code-block:: make
> > > > > +
> > > > > +     PGO_PROFILE_main.o := n
> > > > > +
> > > > > +and
> > > > > +
> > > > > +  .. code-block:: make
> > > > > +
> > > > > +     PGO_PROFILE := n
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Only files which are linked to the main kernel image or are compiled as kernel
> > > > > +modules are supported by this mechanism.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Files
> > > > > +=====
> > > > > +
> > > > > +The PGO kernel support creates the following files in debugfs:
> > > > > +
> > > > > +``/sys/kernel/debug/pgo``
> > > > > +       Parent directory for all PGO-related files.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +``/sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset``
> > > > > +       Global reset file: resets all coverage data to zero when written to.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +``/sys/kernel/debug/profraw``
> > > > > +       The raw PGO data that must be processed with ``llvm_profdata``.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Workflow
> > > > > +========
> > > > > +
> > > > > +The PGO kernel can be run on the host or test machines. The data though should
> > > > > +be analyzed with Clang's tools from the same Clang version as the kernel was
> > > > > +compiled. Clang's tolerant of version skew, but it's easier to use the same
> > > > > +Clang version.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +The profiling data is useful for optimizing the kernel, analyzing coverage,
> > > > > +etc. Clang offers tools to perform these tasks.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +Here is an example workflow for profiling an instrumented kernel with PGO and
> > > > > +using the result to optimize the kernel:
> > > > > +
> > > > > +1) Install the kernel on the TEST machine.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +2) Reset the data counters right before running the load tests
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   .. code-block:: sh
> > > > > +
> > > > > +      $ echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset
> > > > > +
> > > >
> > > > I do not get this...
> > > >
> > > > # mount | grep debugfs
> > > > debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
> > > >
> > > > After the load-test...?
> > > >
> > > > echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset
> > > >
> > > Writing anything to /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset will cause it to reset
> > > the profiling counters. I picked 1 (one) semi-randomly, but it could
> > > be any number, letter, your favorite short story, etc. You don't want
> > > to reset it before collecting the profiling data from your load tests
> > > though.
> > >
> > > > > +3) Run the load tests.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +4) Collect the raw profile data
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   .. code-block:: sh
> > > > > +
> > > > > +      $ cp -a /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw /tmp/vmlinux.profraw
> > > > > +
> > > >
> > > > This is only 4,9M small and seen from the date 5mins before I run the
> > > > echo-1 line.
> > > >
> > > > # ll /sys/kernel/debug/pgo
> > > > insgesamt 0
> > > > drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 0 16. Jan 17:29 .
> > > > drwx------ 41 root root 0 16. Jan 17:29 ..
> > > > -rw-------  1 root root 0 16. Jan 17:29 profraw
> > > > --w-------  1 root root 0 16. Jan 18:19 reset
> > > >
> > > > # cp -a /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw /tmp/vmlinux.profraw
> > > >
> > > > # ll /tmp/vmlinux.profraw
> > > > -rw------- 1 root root 4,9M 16. Jan 17:29 /tmp/vmlinux.profraw
> > > >
> > > > For me there was no prof-data collected from my defconfig kernel-build.
> > > >
> > > The /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw file is read-only. Nothing writes to
> > > it, not even the kernel. All it does is serialize the profiling
> > > counters from a memory location in the kernel into a format that
> > > LLVM's tools can understand.
> > >
> > > > > +5) (Optional) Download the raw profile data to the HOST machine.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +6) Process the raw profile data
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   .. code-block:: sh
> > > > > +
> > > > > +      $ llvm-profdata merge --output=vmlinux.profdata vmlinux.profraw
> > > > > +
> > > >
> > > > Is that executed in /path/to/linux/git?
> > > >
> > > The llvm-profdata tool is not in the linux source tree. You need to
> > > grab it from a clang distribution (or built from clang's git repo).
> > >
> > > > > +   Note that multiple raw profile data files can be merged during this step.
> > > > > +
> > > > > +7) Rebuild the kernel using the profile data (PGO disabled)
> > > > > +
> > > > > +   .. code-block:: sh
> > > > > +
> > > > > +      $ make LLVM=1 KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata ...
> > > >
> > > > How big is vmlinux.profdata (make defconfig)?
> > > >
> > > I don't have numbers for this, but from what you listed here, it's ~5M
> > > in size. The size is proportional to the number of counters
> > > instrumented in the kernel.
> > >
> > > > Do I need to do a full defconfig build or can I stop the build after
> > > > let me say 10mins?
> > > >
> > > You should do a full rebuild. Make sure that PGO is disabled during the rebuild.
> > >
> >
> > Thanks Bill for all the information.
> >
> > And sorry if I am so pedantic.
> >
> > I have installed my Debian system with Legacy-BIOS enabled.
> >
> > When I rebuild with KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata (LLVM=1 I
> > have as a default) my system hangs on reboot.
> >
> > [ diffconfig ]
> > $ scripts/diffconfig /boot/config-5.11.0-rc3-8-amd64-clang12-pgo
> > /boot/config-5.11.0-rc3-9-amd64-clang12-pgo
> > BUILD_SALT "5.11.0-rc3-8-amd64-clang12-pgo" -> "5.11.0-rc3-9-amd64-clang12-pgo"
> > PGO_CLANG y -> n
> >
> > [ my make line ]
> > $ cat ../start-build_5.11.0-rc3-9-amd64-clang12-pgo.txt
> > dileks     63120   63095  0 06:47 pts/2    00:00:00 /usr/bin/perf_5.10
> > stat make V=1 -j4 HOSTCC=clang HOSTCXX=clang++ HOSTLD=ld.lld CC=clang
> > LD=ld.lld LLVM=1 LLVM_IAS=1 PAHOLE=/opt/pahole/bin/pahole
> > LOCALVERSION=-9-amd64-clang12-pgo KBUILD_VERBOSE=1
> > KBUILD_BUILD_HOST=iniza KBUILD_BUILD_USER=sedat.dilek@...il.com
> > KBUILD_BUILD_TIMESTAMP=2021-01-17 bindeb-pkg
> > KDEB_PKGVERSION=5.11.0~rc3-9~bullseye+dileks1
> > KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata
> >
> > ( Yes, 06:47 a.m. in the morning :-). )
> >
> > When I boot with the rebuild Linux-kernel I see:
> >
> > Wrong EFI loader signature
> > ...
> > Decompressing
> > Parsing EFI
> > Performing Relocations done.
> > Booting the Kernel.
> >
> > *** SYSTEM HANGS ***
> > ( I waited for approx 1 min )
> >
> > I tried to turn UEFI support ON and OFF.
> > No success.
> >
> > Does Clang-PGO support Legacy-BIOS or is something different wrong?
> >
> > Thanks.
> >
>
> My bootloader is GRUB.
>
> In UEFI-BIOS settings there is no secure-boot disable option.
> Just simple "Use UEFI BIOS" enabled|disabled.
>
> Installed Debian packages:
>
> ii grub-common 2.04-12
> ii grub-pc 2.04-12
> ii grub-pc-bin 2.04-12
> ii grub2-common 2.04-12
>
> I found in the below link to do in grub-shell:
>
> set check_signatures=no
>
> But this is when grub-efi is installed.
>
> - Sedat -
>
> Link: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/126286/grub-efi-disable-signature-check

Forget about that "Wrong EFI bootloader" - I see this with all other
kernels (all boot fine).

I tried in QEMU with and without KASLR:

[ run_qemu.sh ]
KPATH=$(pwd)

APPEND="root=/dev/ram0 console=ttyS0 hung_task_panic=1 earlyprintk=ttyS0,115200"
APPEND="$APPEND nokaslr"

qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -M pc -kernel $KPATH/bzImage -initrd
$KPATH/initrd.img -m 512 -net none -serial stdio -append "${APPEND}"
[ /run_qemu.sh ]

$ ./run_qemu.sh
Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)... ok
Wrong EFI loader signature.
early console in extract_kernel
input_data: 0x000000000289940d
input_len: 0x000000000069804a
output: 0x0000000001000000
output_len: 0x0000000001ef2010
kernel_total_size: 0x0000000001c2c000
needed_size: 0x0000000002000000
trampoline_32bit: 0x000000000009d000


KASLR disabled: 'nokaslr' on cmdline.


Decompressing Linux... Parsing ELF... No relocation needed... done.
Booting the kernel.

QEMU run stops, too.

- Sedat

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