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Date:   Tue, 5 Oct 2021 13:57:00 -0700
From:   Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
To:     Luis Chamberlain <mcgrof@...nel.org>
Cc:     tj@...nel.org, gregkh@...uxfoundation.org,
        akpm@...ux-foundation.org, minchan@...nel.org, jeyu@...nel.org,
        shuah@...nel.org, bvanassche@....org, dan.j.williams@...el.com,
        joe@...ches.com, tglx@...utronix.de, rostedt@...dmis.org,
        linux-spdx@...r.kernel.org, linux-doc@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-block@...r.kernel.org, linux-fsdevel@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-kselftest@...r.kernel.org, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: [PATCH v8 12/12] zram: use ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS to fix sysfs
 deadlock module removal

On Mon, Sep 27, 2021 at 09:38:05AM -0700, Luis Chamberlain wrote:
> The ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS is typically used to avoid boiler plate
> code which is used in many drivers. Embracing ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS was
> long due on the zram driver, however a recent fix for sysfs allows
> users of ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS to also associate a module to the group
> attribute.

Does this mean that other modules using sysfs but _not_
ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS() are still vulnerable to potential use-after-free of
the kernfs fops?

-Kees

> 
> In zram's case this also means it allows us to fix a race which triggers
> a deadlock on the zram driver. This deadlock happens when a sysfs attribute
> use a lock also used on module removal. This happens when for instance a
> sysfs file on a driver is used, then at the same time we have module
> removal call trigger. The module removal call code holds a lock, and then
> the sysfs file entry waits for the same lock. While holding the lock the
> module removal tries to remove the sysfs entries, but these cannot be
> removed yet as one is waiting for a lock. This won't complete as the lock
> is already held. Likewise module removal cannot complete, and so we
> deadlock.
> 
> Sysfs fixes this when the group attributes have a module associated to
> it, sysfs will *try* to get a refcount to the module when a shared
> lock is used, prior to mucking with a sysfs attribute. If this fails we
> just give up right away.
> 
> This deadlock was first reported with the zram driver, a sketch of how
> this can happen follows:
> 
> CPU A                              CPU B
>                                    whatever_store()
> module_unload
>   mutex_lock(foo)
>                                    mutex_lock(foo)
>    del_gendisk(zram->disk);
>      device_del()
>        device_remove_groups()
> 
> In this situation whatever_store() is waiting for the mutex foo to
> become unlocked, but that won't happen until module removal is complete.
> But module removal won't complete until the sysfs file being poked
> completes which is waiting for a lock already held.
> 
> This issue can be reproduced easily on the zram driver as follows:
> 
> Loop 1 on one terminal:
> 
> while true;
> 	do modprobe zram;
> 	modprobe -r zram;
> done
> 
> Loop 2 on a second terminal:
> while true; do
> 	echo 1024 >  /sys/block/zram0/disksize;
> 	echo 1 > /sys/block/zram0/reset;
> done
> 
> Without this patch we end up in a deadlock, and the following
> stack trace is produced which hints to us what the issue was:
> 
> INFO: task bash:888 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
>       Tainted: G            E 5.12.0-rc1-next-20210304+ #4
> "echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
> task:bash            state:D stack:    0 pid:  888 ppid: 887 flags:<etc>
> Call Trace:
>  __schedule+0x2e4/0x900
>  schedule+0x46/0xb0
>  schedule_preempt_disabled+0xa/0x10
>  __mutex_lock.constprop.0+0x2c3/0x490
>  ? _kstrtoull+0x35/0xd0
>  reset_store+0x6c/0x160 [zram]
>  kernfs_fop_write_iter+0x124/0x1b0
>  new_sync_write+0x11c/0x1b0
>  vfs_write+0x1c2/0x260
>  ksys_write+0x5f/0xe0
>  do_syscall_64+0x33/0x80
>  entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44/0xae
> RIP: 0033:0x7f34f2c3df33
> RSP: 002b:00007ffe751df6e8 EFLAGS: 00000246 ORIG_RAX: 0000000000000001
> RAX: ffffffffffffffda RBX: 0000000000000002 RCX: 00007f34f2c3df33
> RDX: 0000000000000002 RSI: 0000561ccb06ec10 RDI: 0000000000000001
> RBP: 0000561ccb06ec10 R08: 000000000000000a R09: 0000000000000001
> R10: 0000561ccb157590 R11: 0000000000000246 R12: 0000000000000002
> R13: 00007f34f2d0e6a0 R14: 0000000000000002 R15: 00007f34f2d0e8a0
> INFO: task modprobe:1104 can't die for more than 120 seconds.
> task:modprobe        state:D stack:    0 pid: 1104 ppid: 916 flags:<etc>
> Call Trace:
>  __schedule+0x2e4/0x900
>  schedule+0x46/0xb0
>  __kernfs_remove.part.0+0x228/0x2b0
>  ? finish_wait+0x80/0x80
>  kernfs_remove_by_name_ns+0x50/0x90
>  remove_files+0x2b/0x60
>  sysfs_remove_group+0x38/0x80
>  sysfs_remove_groups+0x29/0x40
>  device_remove_attrs+0x4a/0x80
>  device_del+0x183/0x3e0
>  ? mutex_lock+0xe/0x30
>  del_gendisk+0x27a/0x2d0
>  zram_remove+0x8a/0xb0 [zram]
>  ? hot_remove_store+0xf0/0xf0 [zram]
>  zram_remove_cb+0xd/0x10 [zram]
>  idr_for_each+0x5e/0xd0
>  destroy_devices+0x39/0x6f [zram]
>  __do_sys_delete_module+0x190/0x2a0
>  do_syscall_64+0x33/0x80
>  entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44/0xae
> RIP: 0033:0x7f32adf727d7
> RSP: 002b:00007ffc08bb38a8 EFLAGS: 00000206 ORIG_RAX: 00000000000000b0
> RAX: ffffffffffffffda RBX: 000055eea23cbb10 RCX: 00007f32adf727d7
> RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: 0000000000000800 RDI: 000055eea23cbb78
> RBP: 000055eea23cbb10 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000000
> R10: 00007f32adfe5ac0 R11: 0000000000000206 R12: 000055eea23cbb78
> R13: 0000000000000000 R14: 0000000000000000 R15: 000055eea23cbc20
> 
> [0] https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210401235925.GR4332@42.do-not-panic.com
> 
> Signed-off-by: Luis Chamberlain <mcgrof@...nel.org>
> ---
>  drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c | 11 ++---------
>  1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
> index b26abcb955cc..60a55ae8cd91 100644
> --- a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
> +++ b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
> @@ -1902,14 +1902,7 @@ static struct attribute *zram_disk_attrs[] = {
>  	NULL,
>  };
>  
> -static const struct attribute_group zram_disk_attr_group = {
> -	.attrs = zram_disk_attrs,
> -};
> -
> -static const struct attribute_group *zram_disk_attr_groups[] = {
> -	&zram_disk_attr_group,
> -	NULL,
> -};
> +ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(zram_disk);
>  
>  /*
>   * Allocate and initialize new zram device. the function returns
> @@ -1981,7 +1974,7 @@ static int zram_add(void)
>  		blk_queue_max_write_zeroes_sectors(zram->disk->queue, UINT_MAX);
>  
>  	blk_queue_flag_set(QUEUE_FLAG_STABLE_WRITES, zram->disk->queue);
> -	device_add_disk(NULL, zram->disk, zram_disk_attr_groups);
> +	device_add_disk(NULL, zram->disk, zram_disk_groups);
>  
>  	strlcpy(zram->compressor, default_compressor, sizeof(zram->compressor));
>  
> -- 
> 2.30.2
> 

-- 
Kees Cook

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