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Date:   Fri, 15 Oct 2021 21:51:56 +0900
From:   Masami Hiramatsu <>
To:     Steven Rostedt <>
Cc:     "Naveen N . Rao" <>,
        Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <>,
        Ingo Molnar <>,,, Sven Schnelle <>,
        Catalin Marinas <>,
        Will Deacon <>,
        Russell King <>,
        Nathan Chancellor <>,
        Nick Desaulniers <>,
Subject: [PATCH 08/10] ARM: kprobes: Make a frame pointer on __kretprobe_trampoline

Currently kretprobe on ARM just fills r0-r11 of pt_regs, but
that is not enough for the stacktrace. Moreover, from the user
kretprobe handler, stacktrace needs a frame pointer on the

This adds a frame pointer on __kretprobe_trampoline for both gcc
and clang case. Those have different frame pointer so we need
different but similar stack on pt_regs.

Gcc makes the frame pointer (fp) to point the 'pc' address of
the {fp, ip (=sp), lr, pc}, this means {r11, r13, r14, r15}.
Thus if we save the r11 (fp) on pt_regs->r12, we can make this
set on the end of pt_regs.

On the other hand, Clang makes the frame pointer to point the
'fp' address of {fp, lr} on stack. Since the next to the
pt_regs->lr is pt_regs->sp, I reused the pair of pt_regs->fp
and pt_regs->ip.
So this stores the 'lr' on pt_regs->ip and make the fp to point

For both cases, saves __kretprobe_trampoline address to
pt_regs->lr, so that the stack tracer can identify this frame
pointer has been made by the __kretprobe_trampoline.

Note that if the CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER is not set, this keeps
fp as is.

Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <>
 arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c |   29 ++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 1 file changed, 24 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
index 95f23b47ba27..7cbd65a22769 100644
--- a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
+++ b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
@@ -368,16 +368,35 @@ int __kprobes kprobe_exceptions_notify(struct notifier_block *self,
  * When a retprobed function returns, trampoline_handler() is called,
  * calling the kretprobe's handler. We construct a struct pt_regs to
- * give a view of registers r0-r11 to the user return-handler.  This is
- * not a complete pt_regs structure, but that should be plenty sufficient
- * for kretprobe handlers which should normally be interested in r0 only
- * anyway.
+ * give a view of registers r0-r11, sp, lr, and pc to the user
+ * return-handler. This is not a complete pt_regs structure, but that
+ * should be enough for stacktrace from the return handler with or
+ * without pt_regs.
 void __naked __kprobes __kretprobe_trampoline(void)
 	__asm__ __volatile__ (
-		"sub	sp, sp, #16		\n\t"
+		"ldr	lr, =__kretprobe_trampoline	\n\t"
+		"stmdb	sp!, {sp, lr, pc}	\n\t"
+	/* __kretprobe_trampoline makes a framepointer on pt_regs. */
+		/* In clang case, pt_regs->ip = lr. */
+		"stmdb	sp!, {lr}		\n\t"
 		"stmdb	sp!, {r0 - r11}		\n\t"
+		/* fp points regs->r11 (fp) */
+		"add	fp, sp,	#44		\n\t"
+#else /* !CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG */
+		/* In gcc case, pt_regs->ip = fp. */
+		"stmdb	sp!, {fp}		\n\t"
+		"stmdb	sp!, {r0 - r11}		\n\t"
+		/* fp points regs->r15 (pc) */
+		"add	fp, sp, #60		\n\t"
+#endif /* CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG */
+		"sub	sp, sp, #4		\n\t"
+		"stmdb	sp!, {r0 - r11}		\n\t"
 		"mov	r0, sp			\n\t"
 		"bl	trampoline_handler	\n\t"
 		"mov	lr, r0			\n\t"

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