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Date:   Fri, 23 Sep 2022 13:43:22 +0200
From:   Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@...e.cz>
To:     Feng Tang <feng.tang@...el.com>,
        Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>,
        Christoph Lameter <cl@...ux.com>,
        Pekka Enberg <penberg@...nel.org>,
        David Rientjes <rientjes@...gle.com>,
        Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@....com>,
        Roman Gushchin <roman.gushchin@...ux.dev>,
        Hyeonggon Yoo <42.hyeyoo@...il.com>,
        Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@...gle.com>,
        Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>,
        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@...il.com>
Cc:     Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@...el.com>, linux-mm@...ck.org,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, kasan-dev@...glegroups.com,
        Robin Murphy <robin.murphy@....com>,
        John Garry <john.garry@...wei.com>,
        Kefeng Wang <wangkefeng.wang@...wei.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v6 1/4] mm/slub: enable debugging memory wasting of
 kmalloc

On 9/13/22 08:54, Feng Tang wrote:
> kmalloc's API family is critical for mm, with one nature that it will
> round up the request size to a fixed one (mostly power of 2). Say
> when user requests memory for '2^n + 1' bytes, actually 2^(n+1) bytes
> could be allocated, so in worst case, there is around 50% memory
> space waste.
> 
> The wastage is not a big issue for requests that get allocated/freed
> quickly, but may cause problems with objects that have longer life
> time.
> 
> We've met a kernel boot OOM panic (v5.10), and from the dumped slab
> info:
> 
>     [   26.062145] kmalloc-2k            814056KB     814056KB
> 
> From debug we found there are huge number of 'struct iova_magazine',
> whose size is 1032 bytes (1024 + 8), so each allocation will waste
> 1016 bytes. Though the issue was solved by giving the right (bigger)
> size of RAM, it is still nice to optimize the size (either use a
> kmalloc friendly size or create a dedicated slab for it).
> 
> And from lkml archive, there was another crash kernel OOM case [1]
> back in 2019, which seems to be related with the similar slab waste
> situation, as the log is similar:
> 
>     [    4.332648] iommu: Adding device 0000:20:02.0 to group 16
>     [    4.338946] swapper/0 invoked oom-killer: gfp_mask=0x6040c0(GFP_KERNEL|__GFP_COMP), nodemask=(null), order=0, oom_score_adj=0
>     ...
>     [    4.857565] kmalloc-2048           59164KB      59164KB
> 
> The crash kernel only has 256M memory, and 59M is pretty big here.
> (Note: the related code has been changed and optimised in recent
> kernel [2], these logs are just picked to demo the problem, also
> a patch changing its size to 1024 bytes has been merged)
> 
> So add an way to track each kmalloc's memory waste info, and
> leverage the existing SLUB debug framework (specifically
> SLUB_STORE_USER) to show its call stack of original allocation,
> so that user can evaluate the waste situation, identify some hot
> spots and optimize accordingly, for a better utilization of memory.
> 
> The waste info is integrated into existing interface:
> '/sys/kernel/debug/slab/kmalloc-xx/alloc_traces', one example of
> 'kmalloc-4k' after boot is:
> 
>  126 ixgbe_alloc_q_vector+0xbe/0x830 [ixgbe] waste=233856/1856 age=280763/281414/282065 pid=1330 cpus=32 nodes=1
>      __kmem_cache_alloc_node+0x11f/0x4e0
>      __kmalloc_node+0x4e/0x140
>      ixgbe_alloc_q_vector+0xbe/0x830 [ixgbe]
>      ixgbe_init_interrupt_scheme+0x2ae/0xc90 [ixgbe]
>      ixgbe_probe+0x165f/0x1d20 [ixgbe]
>      local_pci_probe+0x78/0xc0
>      work_for_cpu_fn+0x26/0x40
>      ...
> 
> which means in 'kmalloc-4k' slab, there are 126 requests of
> 2240 bytes which got a 4KB space (wasting 1856 bytes each
> and 233856 bytes in total), from ixgbe_alloc_q_vector().
> 
> And when system starts some real workload like multiple docker
> instances, there could are more severe waste.
> 
> [1]. https://lkml.org/lkml/2019/8/12/266
> [2]. https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/2920df89-9975-5785-f79b-257d3052dfaf@huawei.com/
> 
> [Thanks Hyeonggon for pointing out several bugs about sorting/format]
> [Thanks Vlastimil for suggesting way to reduce memory usage of
>  orig_size and keep it only for kmalloc objects]
> 
> Signed-off-by: Feng Tang <feng.tang@...el.com>
> Reviewed-by: Hyeonggon Yoo <42.hyeyoo@...il.com>
> Cc: Robin Murphy <robin.murphy@....com>
> Cc: John Garry <john.garry@...wei.com>
> Cc: Kefeng Wang <wangkefeng.wang@...wei.com>

Thanks.
Given that the merge window is nearing, and the rest of the series a) has
some changes suggested and b) could be hopefully done in a simpler way with
the proposed ksize() cleanup, I am picking just this patch now to slab.git
(and thus -next), with some small modifications:

...

> +
> +static unsigned int get_orig_size(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object)

Made this inline for consistency.

> +{
> +	void *p = kasan_reset_tag(object);
> +
> +	if (!slub_debug_orig_size(s))
> +		return s->object_size;
> +
> +	p += get_info_end(s);
> +	p += sizeof(struct track) * 2;
> +
> +	return *(unsigned int *)p;
> +}
> +
>  static void slab_bug(struct kmem_cache *s, char *fmt, ...)
>  {
>  	struct va_format vaf;
> @@ -844,6 +890,9 @@ static void print_trailer(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab, u8 *p)
>  	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
>  		off += 2 * sizeof(struct track);
>  
> +	if (slub_debug_orig_size(s))
> +		off += sizeof(unsigned int);
> +
>  	off += kasan_metadata_size(s);
>  
>  	if (off != size_from_object(s))
> @@ -977,7 +1026,8 @@ static int check_bytes_and_report(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab,
>   *
>   * 	A. Free pointer (if we cannot overwrite object on free)
>   * 	B. Tracking data for SLAB_STORE_USER
> - *	C. Padding to reach required alignment boundary or at minimum
> + *	C. Original request size for kmalloc object (SLAB_STORE_USER enabled)
> + *	D. Padding to reach required alignment boundary or at minimum
>   * 		one word if debugging is on to be able to detect writes
>   * 		before the word boundary.
>   *
> @@ -995,10 +1045,14 @@ static int check_pad_bytes(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab, u8 *p)
>  {
>  	unsigned long off = get_info_end(s);	/* The end of info */
>  
> -	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
> +	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER) {
>  		/* We also have user information there */
>  		off += 2 * sizeof(struct track);
>  
> +		if (s->flags & SLAB_KMALLOC)
> +			off += sizeof(unsigned int);
> +	}
> +
>  	off += kasan_metadata_size(s);
>  
>  	if (size_from_object(s) == off)
> @@ -1293,7 +1347,7 @@ static inline int alloc_consistency_checks(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  }
>  
>  static noinline int alloc_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s,
> -					struct slab *slab, void *object)
> +			struct slab *slab, void *object, int orig_size)
>  {
>  	if (s->flags & SLAB_CONSISTENCY_CHECKS) {
>  		if (!alloc_consistency_checks(s, slab, object))
> @@ -1302,6 +1356,7 @@ static noinline int alloc_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  
>  	/* Success. Perform special debug activities for allocs */
>  	trace(s, slab, object, 1);
> +	set_orig_size(s, object, orig_size);
>  	init_object(s, object, SLUB_RED_ACTIVE);
>  	return 1;
>  
> @@ -1570,7 +1625,10 @@ static inline
>  void setup_slab_debug(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab, void *addr) {}
>  
>  static inline int alloc_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s,
> -	struct slab *slab, void *object) { return 0; }
> +	struct slab *slab, void *object, int orig_size) { return 0; }
> +
> +static inline void set_orig_size(struct kmem_cache *s,
> +	void *object, unsigned int orig_size) {}

There's no caller (in this patch alone) for the !SLUB_DEBUG version, so removed.
  
>  static inline void free_debug_processing(
>  	struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab,
> @@ -1999,7 +2057,7 @@ static inline void remove_partial(struct kmem_cache_node *n,
>   * it to full list if it was the last free object.
>   */
>  static void *alloc_single_from_partial(struct kmem_cache *s,
> -		struct kmem_cache_node *n, struct slab *slab)
> +		struct kmem_cache_node *n, struct slab *slab, int orig_size)
>  {
>  	void *object;
>  
> @@ -2009,7 +2067,7 @@ static void *alloc_single_from_partial(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  	slab->freelist = get_freepointer(s, object);
>  	slab->inuse++;
>  
> -	if (!alloc_debug_processing(s, slab, object)) {
> +	if (!alloc_debug_processing(s, slab, object, orig_size)) {
>  		remove_partial(n, slab);
>  		return NULL;
>  	}
> @@ -2028,7 +2086,7 @@ static void *alloc_single_from_partial(struct kmem_cache *s,
>   * and put the slab to the partial (or full) list.
>   */
>  static void *alloc_single_from_new_slab(struct kmem_cache *s,
> -					struct slab *slab)
> +					struct slab *slab, int orig_size)
>  {
>  	int nid = slab_nid(slab);
>  	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, nid);
> @@ -2040,7 +2098,7 @@ static void *alloc_single_from_new_slab(struct kmem_cache *s,
>  	slab->freelist = get_freepointer(s, object);
>  	slab->inuse = 1;
>  
> -	if (!alloc_debug_processing(s, slab, object))
> +	if (!alloc_debug_processing(s, slab, object, orig_size))
>  		/*
>  		 * It's not really expected that this would fail on a
>  		 * freshly allocated slab, but a concurrent memory
> @@ -2118,7 +2176,7 @@ static inline bool pfmemalloc_match(struct slab *slab, gfp_t gfpflags);
>   * Try to allocate a partial slab from a specific node.
>   */
>  static void *get_partial_node(struct kmem_cache *s, struct kmem_cache_node *n,
> -			      struct slab **ret_slab, gfp_t gfpflags)
> +			      struct partial_context *pc)
>  {
>  	struct slab *slab, *slab2;
>  	void *object = NULL;
> @@ -2138,11 +2196,12 @@ static void *get_partial_node(struct kmem_cache *s, struct kmem_cache_node *n,
>  	list_for_each_entry_safe(slab, slab2, &n->partial, slab_list) {
>  		void *t;
>  
> -		if (!pfmemalloc_match(slab, gfpflags))
> +		if (!pfmemalloc_match(slab, pc->flags))
>  			continue;
>  
>  		if (kmem_cache_debug(s)) {
> -			object = alloc_single_from_partial(s, n, slab);
> +			object = alloc_single_from_partial(s, n, slab,
> +							pc->orig_size);
>  			if (object)
>  				break;
>  			continue;
> @@ -2153,7 +2212,7 @@ static void *get_partial_node(struct kmem_cache *s, struct kmem_cache_node *n,
>  			break;
>  
>  		if (!object) {
> -			*ret_slab = slab;
> +			*pc->slab = slab;
>  			stat(s, ALLOC_FROM_PARTIAL);
>  			object = t;
>  		} else {
> @@ -2177,14 +2236,13 @@ static void *get_partial_node(struct kmem_cache *s, struct kmem_cache_node *n,
>  /*
>   * Get a slab from somewhere. Search in increasing NUMA distances.
>   */
> -static void *get_any_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags,
> -			     struct slab **ret_slab)
> +static void *get_any_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, struct partial_context *pc)
>  {
>  #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
>  	struct zonelist *zonelist;
>  	struct zoneref *z;
>  	struct zone *zone;
> -	enum zone_type highest_zoneidx = gfp_zone(flags);
> +	enum zone_type highest_zoneidx = gfp_zone(pc->flags);
>  	void *object;
>  	unsigned int cpuset_mems_cookie;
>  
> @@ -2212,15 +2270,15 @@ static void *get_any_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags,
>  
>  	do {
>  		cpuset_mems_cookie = read_mems_allowed_begin();
> -		zonelist = node_zonelist(mempolicy_slab_node(), flags);
> +		zonelist = node_zonelist(mempolicy_slab_node(), pc->flags);
>  		for_each_zone_zonelist(zone, z, zonelist, highest_zoneidx) {
>  			struct kmem_cache_node *n;
>  
>  			n = get_node(s, zone_to_nid(zone));
>  
> -			if (n && cpuset_zone_allowed(zone, flags) &&
> +			if (n && cpuset_zone_allowed(zone, pc->flags) &&
>  					n->nr_partial > s->min_partial) {
> -				object = get_partial_node(s, n, ret_slab, flags);
> +				object = get_partial_node(s, n, pc);
>  				if (object) {
>  					/*
>  					 * Don't check read_mems_allowed_retry()
> @@ -2241,8 +2299,7 @@ static void *get_any_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags,
>  /*
>   * Get a partial slab, lock it and return it.
>   */
> -static void *get_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, int node,
> -			 struct slab **ret_slab)
> +static void *get_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, int node, struct partial_context *pc)
>  {
>  	void *object;
>  	int searchnode = node;
> @@ -2250,11 +2307,11 @@ static void *get_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, int node,
>  	if (node == NUMA_NO_NODE)
>  		searchnode = numa_mem_id();
>  
> -	object = get_partial_node(s, get_node(s, searchnode), ret_slab, flags);
> +	object = get_partial_node(s, get_node(s, searchnode), pc);
>  	if (object || node != NUMA_NO_NODE)
>  		return object;
>  
> -	return get_any_partial(s, flags, ret_slab);
> +	return get_any_partial(s, pc);
>  }
>  
>  #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPTION
> @@ -2974,11 +3031,12 @@ static inline void *get_freelist(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab)
>   * already disabled (which is the case for bulk allocation).
>   */
>  static void *___slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
> -			  unsigned long addr, struct kmem_cache_cpu *c)
> +			  unsigned long addr, struct kmem_cache_cpu *c, unsigned int orig_size)
>  {
>  	void *freelist;
>  	struct slab *slab;
>  	unsigned long flags;
> +	struct partial_context pc;
>  
>  	stat(s, ALLOC_SLOWPATH);
>  
> @@ -3092,7 +3150,10 @@ static void *___slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
>  
>  new_objects:
>  
> -	freelist = get_partial(s, gfpflags, node, &slab);
> +	pc.flags = gfpflags;
> +	pc.slab = &slab;
> +	pc.orig_size = orig_size;
> +	freelist = get_partial(s, node, &pc);
>  	if (freelist)
>  		goto check_new_slab;
>  
> @@ -3108,7 +3169,7 @@ static void *___slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
>  	stat(s, ALLOC_SLAB);
>  
>  	if (kmem_cache_debug(s)) {
> -		freelist = alloc_single_from_new_slab(s, slab);
> +		freelist = alloc_single_from_new_slab(s, slab, orig_size);
>  
>  		if (unlikely(!freelist))
>  			goto new_objects;
> @@ -3140,6 +3201,7 @@ static void *___slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
>  		 */
>  		if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
>  			set_track(s, freelist, TRACK_ALLOC, addr);
> +
>  		return freelist;
>  	}
>  
> @@ -3182,7 +3244,7 @@ static void *___slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
>   * pointer.
>   */
>  static void *__slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
> -			  unsigned long addr, struct kmem_cache_cpu *c)
> +			  unsigned long addr, struct kmem_cache_cpu *c, unsigned int orig_size)
>  {
>  	void *p;
>  
> @@ -3195,7 +3257,7 @@ static void *__slab_alloc(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t gfpflags, int node,
>  	c = slub_get_cpu_ptr(s->cpu_slab);
>  #endif
>  
> -	p = ___slab_alloc(s, gfpflags, node, addr, c);
> +	p = ___slab_alloc(s, gfpflags, node, addr, c, orig_size);
>  #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_COUNT
>  	slub_put_cpu_ptr(s->cpu_slab);
>  #endif
> @@ -3280,7 +3342,7 @@ static __always_inline void *slab_alloc_node(struct kmem_cache *s, struct list_l
>  
>  	if (!USE_LOCKLESS_FAST_PATH() ||
>  	    unlikely(!object || !slab || !node_match(slab, node))) {
> -		object = __slab_alloc(s, gfpflags, node, addr, c);
> +		object = __slab_alloc(s, gfpflags, node, addr, c, orig_size);
>  	} else {
>  		void *next_object = get_freepointer_safe(s, object);
>  
> @@ -3747,7 +3809,7 @@ int kmem_cache_alloc_bulk(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, size_t size,
>  			 * of re-populating per CPU c->freelist
>  			 */
>  			p[i] = ___slab_alloc(s, flags, NUMA_NO_NODE,
> -					    _RET_IP_, c);
> +					    _RET_IP_, c, s->object_size);
>  			if (unlikely(!p[i]))
>  				goto error;
>  
> @@ -4150,12 +4212,17 @@ static int calculate_sizes(struct kmem_cache *s)
>  	}
>  
>  #ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG
> -	if (flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
> +	if (flags & SLAB_STORE_USER) {
>  		/*
>  		 * Need to store information about allocs and frees after
>  		 * the object.
>  		 */
>  		size += 2 * sizeof(struct track);
> +
> +		/* Save the original kmalloc request size */
> +		if (flags & SLAB_KMALLOC)
> +			size += sizeof(unsigned int);
> +	}
>  #endif
>  
>  	kasan_cache_create(s, &size, &s->flags);
> @@ -4770,7 +4837,7 @@ void __init kmem_cache_init(void)
>  
>  	/* Now we can use the kmem_cache to allocate kmalloc slabs */
>  	setup_kmalloc_cache_index_table();
> -	create_kmalloc_caches(0);
> +	create_kmalloc_caches(SLAB_KMALLOC);

Instead of this, add the flag in the common creation function, so SLAB kmalloc caches are also marked even if there's no use for it there now.

--- a/mm/slab_common.c
+++ b/mm/slab_common.c
@@ -649,7 +649,8 @@ struct kmem_cache *__init create_kmalloc_cache(const char *name,
        if (!s)
                panic("Out of memory when creating slab %s\n", name);
 
-       create_boot_cache(s, name, size, flags, useroffset, usersize);
+       create_boot_cache(s, name, size, flags | SLAB_KMALLOC, useroffset,
+                                                               usersize);
        kasan_cache_create_kmalloc(s);
        list_add(&s->list, &slab_caches);
        s->refcount = 1;


>  	/* Setup random freelists for each cache */
>  	init_freelist_randomization();
> @@ -4937,6 +5004,7 @@ struct location {
>  	depot_stack_handle_t handle;
>  	unsigned long count;
>  	unsigned long addr;
> +	unsigned long waste;
>  	long long sum_time;
>  	long min_time;
>  	long max_time;
> @@ -4983,13 +5051,15 @@ static int alloc_loc_track(struct loc_track *t, unsigned long max, gfp_t flags)
>  }
>  
>  static int add_location(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
> -				const struct track *track)
> +				const struct track *track,
> +				unsigned int orig_size)
>  {
>  	long start, end, pos;
>  	struct location *l;
> -	unsigned long caddr, chandle;
> +	unsigned long caddr, chandle, cwaste;
>  	unsigned long age = jiffies - track->when;
>  	depot_stack_handle_t handle = 0;
> +	unsigned int waste = s->object_size - orig_size;
>  
>  #ifdef CONFIG_STACKDEPOT
>  	handle = READ_ONCE(track->handle);
> @@ -5007,11 +5077,13 @@ static int add_location(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
>  		if (pos == end)
>  			break;
>  
> -		caddr = t->loc[pos].addr;
> -		chandle = t->loc[pos].handle;
> -		if ((track->addr == caddr) && (handle == chandle)) {
> +		l = &t->loc[pos];
> +		caddr = l->addr;
> +		chandle = l->handle;
> +		cwaste = l->waste;
> +		if ((track->addr == caddr) && (handle == chandle) &&
> +			(waste == cwaste)) {
>  
> -			l = &t->loc[pos];
>  			l->count++;
>  			if (track->when) {
>  				l->sum_time += age;
> @@ -5036,6 +5108,9 @@ static int add_location(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
>  			end = pos;
>  		else if (track->addr == caddr && handle < chandle)
>  			end = pos;
> +		else if (track->addr == caddr && handle == chandle &&
> +				waste < cwaste)
> +			end = pos;
>  		else
>  			start = pos;
>  	}
> @@ -5059,6 +5134,7 @@ static int add_location(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
>  	l->min_pid = track->pid;
>  	l->max_pid = track->pid;
>  	l->handle = handle;
> +	l->waste = waste;
>  	cpumask_clear(to_cpumask(l->cpus));
>  	cpumask_set_cpu(track->cpu, to_cpumask(l->cpus));
>  	nodes_clear(l->nodes);
> @@ -5077,7 +5153,7 @@ static void process_slab(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
>  
>  	for_each_object(p, s, addr, slab->objects)
>  		if (!test_bit(__obj_to_index(s, addr, p), obj_map))
> -			add_location(t, s, get_track(s, p, alloc));
> +			add_location(t, s, get_track(s, p, alloc), get_orig_size(s, p));

I think it makes little sense to report waste in the 'free_traces' file?
So adjusted like this to make sure nothing is reported there:

@@ -5356,13 +5353,16 @@ static void process_slab(struct loc_track *t, struct kmem_cache *s,
                unsigned long *obj_map)
 {
        void *addr = slab_address(slab);
+       bool is_alloc = (alloc == TRACK_ALLOC);
        void *p;
 
        __fill_map(obj_map, s, slab);
 
        for_each_object(p, s, addr, slab->objects)
                if (!test_bit(__obj_to_index(s, addr, p), obj_map))
-                       add_location(t, s, get_track(s, p, alloc), get_orig_size(s, p));
+                       add_location(t, s, get_track(s, p, alloc),
+                                    is_alloc ? get_orig_size(s, p) :
+                                               s->object_size);


>  }
>  #endif  /* CONFIG_DEBUG_FS   */
>  #endif	/* CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG */
> @@ -5942,6 +6018,10 @@ static int slab_debugfs_show(struct seq_file *seq, void *v)
>  		else
>  			seq_puts(seq, "<not-available>");
>  
> +		if (l->waste)
> +			seq_printf(seq, " waste=%lu/%lu",
> +				l->count * l->waste, l->waste);
> +
>  		if (l->sum_time != l->min_time) {
>  			seq_printf(seq, " age=%ld/%llu/%ld",
>  				l->min_time, div_u64(l->sum_time, l->count),

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