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Date:   Wed, 25 Oct 2023 13:52:51 -0700
From:   Pawan Gupta <pawan.kumar.gupta@...ux.intel.com>
To:     Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>,
        Ingo Molnar <mingo@...hat.com>, Borislav Petkov <bp@...en8.de>,
        Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@...ux.intel.com>, x86@...nel.org,
        "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@...or.com>,
        Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>,
        Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@...nel.org>,
        Andy Lutomirski <luto@...nel.org>,
        Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>,
        Sean Christopherson <seanjc@...gle.com>,
        Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@...hat.com>, tony.luck@...el.com,
        ak@...ux.intel.com, tim.c.chen@...ux.intel.com
Cc:     linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-doc@...r.kernel.org,
        kvm@...r.kernel.org,
        Alyssa Milburn <alyssa.milburn@...ux.intel.com>,
        Daniel Sneddon <daniel.sneddon@...ux.intel.com>,
        antonio.gomez.iglesias@...ux.intel.com,
        Pawan Gupta <pawan.kumar.gupta@...ux.intel.com>,
        Alyssa Milburn <alyssa.milburn@...el.com>,
        Andrew Cooper <andrew.cooper3@...rix.com>
Subject: [PATCH  v3 1/6] x86/bugs: Add asm helpers for executing VERW

MDS mitigation requires clearing the CPU buffers before returning to
user. This needs to be done late in the exit-to-user path. Current
location of VERW leaves a possibility of kernel data ending up in CPU
buffers for memory accesses done after VERW such as:

  1. Kernel data accessed by an NMI between VERW and return-to-user can
     remain in CPU buffers ( since NMI returning to kernel does not
     execute VERW to clear CPU buffers.
  2. Alyssa reported that after VERW is executed,
     CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK=y scrubs the stack used by a system
     call. Memory accesses during stack scrubbing can move kernel stack
     contents into CPU buffers.
  3. When caller saved registers are restored after a return from
     function executing VERW, the kernel stack accesses can remain in
     CPU buffers(since they occur after VERW).

To fix this VERW needs to be moved very late in exit-to-user path.

In preparation for moving VERW to entry/exit asm code, create macros
that can be used in asm. Also make them depend on a new feature flag
X86_FEATURE_CLEAR_CPU_BUF.

Reported-by: Alyssa Milburn <alyssa.milburn@...el.com>
Suggested-by: Andrew Cooper <andrew.cooper3@...rix.com>
Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>
Signed-off-by: Pawan Gupta <pawan.kumar.gupta@...ux.intel.com>
---
 arch/x86/entry/entry.S               | 16 ++++++++++++++++
 arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h   |  2 +-
 arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h | 15 +++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 32 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/entry.S b/arch/x86/entry/entry.S
index bfb7bcb362bc..f8ba0c0b6e60 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/entry.S
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/entry.S
@@ -6,6 +6,9 @@
 #include <linux/linkage.h>
 #include <asm/export.h>
 #include <asm/msr-index.h>
+#include <asm/unwind_hints.h>
+#include <asm/segment.h>
+#include <asm/cache.h>
 
 .pushsection .noinstr.text, "ax"
 
@@ -20,3 +23,16 @@ SYM_FUNC_END(entry_ibpb)
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(entry_ibpb);
 
 .popsection
+
+.pushsection .entry.text, "ax"
+
+.align L1_CACHE_BYTES, 0xcc
+SYM_CODE_START_NOALIGN(mds_verw_sel)
+	UNWIND_HINT_UNDEFINED
+	ANNOTATE_NOENDBR
+	.word __KERNEL_DS
+SYM_CODE_END(mds_verw_sel);
+/* For KVM */
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(mds_verw_sel);
+
+.popsection
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
index 58cb9495e40f..f21fc0f12737 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
@@ -308,10 +308,10 @@
 #define X86_FEATURE_SMBA		(11*32+21) /* "" Slow Memory Bandwidth Allocation */
 #define X86_FEATURE_BMEC		(11*32+22) /* "" Bandwidth Monitoring Event Configuration */
 #define X86_FEATURE_USER_SHSTK		(11*32+23) /* Shadow stack support for user mode applications */
-
 #define X86_FEATURE_SRSO		(11*32+24) /* "" AMD BTB untrain RETs */
 #define X86_FEATURE_SRSO_ALIAS		(11*32+25) /* "" AMD BTB untrain RETs through aliasing */
 #define X86_FEATURE_IBPB_ON_VMEXIT	(11*32+26) /* "" Issue an IBPB only on VMEXIT */
+#define X86_FEATURE_CLEAR_CPU_BUF	(11*32+27) /* "" Clear CPU buffers */
 
 /* Intel-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x00000007:1 (EAX), word 12 */
 #define X86_FEATURE_AVX_VNNI		(12*32+ 4) /* AVX VNNI instructions */
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
index c55cc243592e..005e69f93115 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
@@ -329,6 +329,21 @@
 #endif
 .endm
 
+/*
+ * Macros to execute VERW instruction that mitigate transient data sampling
+ * attacks such as MDS. On affected systems a microcode update overloaded VERW
+ * instruction to also clear the CPU buffers. VERW clobbers CFLAGS.ZF.
+ *
+ * Note: Only the memory operand variant of VERW clears the CPU buffers.
+ */
+.macro EXEC_VERW
+	verw _ASM_RIP(mds_verw_sel)
+.endm
+
+.macro CLEAR_CPU_BUFFERS
+	ALTERNATIVE "", __stringify(EXEC_VERW), X86_FEATURE_CLEAR_CPU_BUF
+.endm
+
 #else /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
 
 #define ANNOTATE_RETPOLINE_SAFE					\

-- 
2.34.1


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