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Date:	Sun, 21 Apr 2013 12:53:21 +0200
From:	Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@...hat.com>
To:	Willem de Bruijn <willemb@...gle.com>
CC:	mtk.manpages@...il.com, linux-man@...r.kernel.org,
	netdev@...r.kernel.org, davem@...emloft.net, kaber@...sh.net,
	scott.a.mcmillan@...el.com, johann.baudy@...-log.net,
	herbert@...dor.hengli.com.au
Subject: Re: [PATCH] man: packet.7: document fanout, ring and auxiliary options

On 03/29/2013 02:29 PM, Willem de Bruijn wrote:
> The packet socket manual page does not list all socket options.

I guess this is version 2 of the patch, right?

> This patch adds descriptions of the common packet socket options
>    PACKET_AUXDATA, PACKET_FANOUT, PACKET_RX_RING, PACKET_STATISTICS,
>    PACKET_TX_RING
>
> and the ring-specific options
>    PACKET_LOSS, PACKET_RESERVE, PACKET_TIMESTAMP, PACKET_VERSION
>
> It does not yet add descriptions for
>    PACKET_COPY_THRESH, PACKET_HDRLEN, PACKET_ORIGDEV,
>    PACKET_TX_HAS_OFF, PACKET_TX_TIMESTAMP, PACKET_VNET_HDR
>
> It tries to balance being informative with exposing kernel detail
> that is unlikely to be used by most readers or that may change
> frequently. For implementation details, the manpage points to the
> documentation in kernel Documentation/networking. Let me know if
> options should be added or removed.
>
> Source: PACKET_FANOUT, PACKET_RX_RING and PACKET_VERSION are in
> /tools/testing/net/psock_fanout.c in the latest Linux kernel source
> tree. PACKET_STATISTICS was in the first version of that test.
> PACKET_TX_RING I have used elsewhere. The other options are based
> on reading kernel code.
>
> If you are on the CC: list, then you are the author of one of
> the commits referred to in this manpage. If you can, please
> check whether my description of your change is correct. Thanks.
>
> Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@...gle.com>

Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@...hat.com>

Content looks good to me, the two nitpicks below could be done in a tiny
follow-up patch.

Thanks for doing this Willem!

> ---
>   man7/packet.7 | 207 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
>   1 file changed, 198 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/man7/packet.7 b/man7/packet.7
> index 006f2ac..a84ebee 100644
> --- a/man7/packet.7
> +++ b/man7/packet.7
> @@ -177,17 +177,22 @@ and
>   .I sll_ifindex
>   are used.
>   .SS Socket options
> +Packet socket options are configured by calling
> +.BR setsockopt (2)
> +with level
> +.BR SOL_PACKET .
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_ADD_MEMBERSHIP
> +.PD 0
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_DROP_MEMBERSHIP
> +.PD
>   Packet sockets can be used to configure physical layer multicasting
>   and promiscuous mode.
> -It works by calling
> -.BR setsockopt (2)
> -on a packet socket for
> -.B SOL_PACKET
> -and one of the options
>   .B PACKET_ADD_MEMBERSHIP
> -to add a binding or
> +adds a binding and
>   .B PACKET_DROP_MEMBERSHIP
> -to drop it.
> +drops it.
>   They both expect a
>   .B packet_mreq
>   structure as argument:
> @@ -227,11 +232,195 @@ In addition the traditional ioctls
>   .BR SIOCADDMULTI ,
>   .B SIOCDELMULTI
>   can be used for the same purpose.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_AUXDATA " (since Linux 2.6.21)"
> +.\" commit 8dc4194474159660d7f37c495e3fc3f10d0db8cc
> +If this binary option is enabled, the packet socket passes a metadata
> +structure along with each packet in the
> +.BR recvmsg (2)
> +control field.
> +The structure can be read with
> +.BR cmsg (3).
> +It is defined as
> +
> +.in +4n
> +.nf
> +struct tpacket_auxdata {
> +    __u32 tp_status;
> +    __u32 tp_len;      /* packet length */
> +    __u32 tp_snaplen;  /* captured length */
> +    __u16 tp_mac;
> +    __u16 tp_net;
> +    __u16 tp_vlan_tci;
> +    __u16 tp_padding;
> +};
> +.fi
> +.in
> +
> +.I tp_net
> +stores the offset to the network layer.
> +If the packet socket is of type
> +.BR SOCK_DGRAM ,
> +then
> +.I tp_mac
> +is the same.
> +If it is of type
> +.BR SOCK_RAW ,
> +then that field stores the offset to the link layer frame.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT " (since Linux 3.1)"
> +.\" commit dc99f600698dcac69b8f56dda9a8a00d645c5ffc
> +To scale processing across threads, packet sockets can form a fanout
> +group.
> +In this mode, each matching packet is enqueued onto only one
> +socket in the group.
> +A socket joins a fanout group by calling
> +.BR setsockopt (2)
> +with level
> +.B SOL_PACKET
> +and option
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT .
> +Each network namespace can have up to 65536 independent groups.
> +A socket selects a group by encoding the ID in the first 16 bits of
> +the integer option value.
> +The first packet socket to join a group implicitly creates it.
> +To successfully join an existing group, subsequent packet sockets
> +must have the same protocol, device settings and fanout mode and
> +flags (see below).
> +Packet sockets can leave a fanout group only by closing the socket.
> +The group is deleted when the last socket is closed.
> +
> +Fanout supports multiple algorithms to spread traffic between sockets.
> +The default mode,
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT_HASH ,
> +sends packets from the same flow to the same socket to maintain
> +per-flow ordering.
> +For each packet, it chooses a socket by taking the packet flow hash
> +modulo the number of sockets in the group, where a flow hash is a hash
> +over network layer address and optional transport layer port fields.
> +The load balance mode
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT_LB
> +implements a round-robin algorithm.
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT_CPU
> +selects the socket based on the CPU that the packet arrived on.
> +
> +Fanout modes can take additional options.
> +IP fragmentation causes packets from the same flow to have different
> +flow hashes.
> +The flag
> +.BR PACKET_FANOUT_FLAG_DEFRAG ,
> +if set, causes packet to be defragmented before fanout is applied, to
> +preserve order even in this case.
> +Fanout mode and options are communicated in the second 16 bits of the
> +integer option value.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_LOSS " (with PACKET_TX_RING)"
> +If set, do not silently drop a packet on transmission error, but
> +return it with status set to
> +.BR TP_STATUS_WRONG_FORMAT .
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_RESERVE " (with PACKET_RX_RING)"
> +By default, a packet receive ring writes packets immediately following the
> +metadata structure and alignment padding.
> +This integer option reserves additional headroom.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_RX_RING
> +Create a memory mapped ring buffer for asynchronous packet reception.
> +The packet socket reserves a contiguous region of application address
> +space, lays it out into an array of packet slots and copies packets
> +(up to
> +.IR tp_snaplen)

Just a nitpick: I think here the ')' should not be underlined. But this
could be fixed in a follow-up patch probably.

> +into subsequent slots.
> +Each packet is preceded by a metadata structure similar to
> +.IR tpacket_auxdata .
> +Packet socket and application communicate the head and tail of the ring
> +through the
> +.I tp_status
> +field.
> +The packet socket owns all slots with status
> +.BR TP_STATUS_KERNEL .
> +After filling a slot, it changes the status of the slot to transfer
> +ownership to the application.
> +During normal operation, the new status is
> +.BR TP_STATUS_USER ,
> +to signal that a correctly received packet has been stored.
> +When the application has finished processing a packet, it transfers
> +ownership of the slot back to the socket by setting the status to
> +.BR TP_STATUS_KERNEL .
> +Packet sockets implement multiple variants of the packet ring.
> +The implementation details are described in
> +.IR Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
> +in the Linux kernel source tree.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_STATISTICS
> +Retrieve packet socket statistics in the form of a structure
> +
> +.in +4n
> +.nf
> +struct tpacket_stats {
> +    __u32 tp_packets;  /* total packet count */
> +    __u32 tp_drops;    /* dropped packet count */
> +};
> +.fi
> +.in
> +
> +Receiving statistics resets the internal counters.
> +The statistics structure differs when using a ring of variant
> +.BR TPACKET_V3 .
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_TIMESTAMP " (with PACKET_RX_RING)"
> +.\" commit 614f60fa9d73a9e8fdff3df83381907fea7c5649
> +The packet receive ring always stores a timestamp in the metadata header.
> +By default, this is a software generated timestamp generated when the
> +packet is copied into the ring.
> +This integer option selects the type of timestamp.
> +Besides the default, it support the two hardware formats described in
> +.IR Documentation/networking/timestamping.txt
> +in the Linux kernel source tree.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_TX_RING " (since Linux 2.6.31)"
> +.\" commit 69e3c75f4d541a6eb151b3ef91f34033cb3ad6e1
> +Create a memory mapped ring buffer for packet transmission.
> +This option is similar to
> +.BR PACKET_RX_RING
> +and takes the same arguments.
> +The application writes packets into slots with status
> +.BR TP_STATUS_AVAILABLE
> +and schedules them for transmission by changing the status to
> +.BR TP_STATUS_SEND_REQUEST .
> +When packets are ready to be transmitted, the application calls
> +.BR send (2)
> +or a variant thereof.
> +The
> +.I buf
> +and
> +.I len
> +fields of this call are ignored.
> +If an address is passed using
> +.BR sendto (2)
> +or
> +.BR sendmsg (2) ,
> +then that overrides the socket default.
> +On successful transmission, the socket resets the slot to
> +.BR TP_STATUS_AVAILABLE .
> +It discards packets silently on error unless
> +.BR PACKET_LOSS
> +is set.
> +.TP
> +.BR PACKET_VERSION " (with PACKET_RX_RING)"
> +.\" commit bbd6ef87c544d88c30e4b762b1b61ef267a7d279
> +By default,
> +.BR PACKET_RX_RING
> +creates a packet receive ring of variant
> +.BR TPACKET_V1 .
> +To create another variant, configure the desired variant by setting this
> +integer option before creating the ring.
> +
>   .SS Ioctls
>   .B SIOCGSTAMP
>   can be used to receive the timestamp of the last received packet.
>   Argument is a
> -.I struct timeval.
> +.I struct timeval .

Ditto '.'

>   .\" FIXME Document SIOCGSTAMPNS
>
>   In addition all standard ioctls defined in
> @@ -318,7 +507,7 @@ header to get a fully conforming packet.
>   Incoming 802.3 packets are not multiplexed on the DSAP/SSAP protocol
>   fields; instead they are supplied to the user as protocol
>   .B ETH_P_802_2
> -with the LLC header prepended.
> +with the LLC header prefixed.
>   It is thus not possible to bind to
>   .BR ETH_P_802_3 ;
>   bind to
>
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