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Date:	Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:04:47 +1100
From:	Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@...nel.crashing.org>
To:	Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@...hat.com>
Cc:	linux-arch@...r.kernel.org, netdev@...r.kernel.org,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, mathieu.desnoyers@...ymtl.ca,
	peterz@...radead.org, heiko.carstens@...ibm.com, mingo@...nel.org,
	mikey@...ling.org, linux@....linux.org.uk,
	donald.c.skidmore@...el.com, matthew.vick@...el.com,
	geert@...ux-m68k.org, jeffrey.t.kirsher@...el.com,
	romieu@...zoreil.com, paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com,
	nic_swsd@...ltek.com, will.deacon@....com, michael@...erman.id.au,
	tony.luck@...el.com, torvalds@...ux-foundation.org,
	oleg@...hat.com, schwidefsky@...ibm.com, fweisbec@...il.com,
	davem@...emloft.net
Subject: Re: [PATCH 2/4] arch: Add lightweight memory barriers fast_rmb()
 and fast_wmb()

On Mon, 2014-11-17 at 09:18 -0800, Alexander Duyck wrote:
> There are a number of situations where the mandatory barriers rmb() and
> wmb() are used to order memory/memory operations in the device drivers
> and those barriers are much heavier than they actually need to be.  For
> example in the case of PowerPC wmb() calls the heavy-weight sync
> instruction when for memory/memory operations all that is really needed is
> an lsync or eieio instruction.

So essentially those are the same as the smp_* variants but not nop'ed
out on !CONFIG_SMP right ? 

Ben.

> This commit adds a fast (and loose) version of the mandatory memory
> barriers rmb() and wmb().  The prefix to the name is actually based on the
> version of the functions that already exist in the mips and tile trees.
> However I thought it applicable since it gets at what we are trying to
> accomplish with these barriers and somethat implies their risky nature.
> 
> These new barriers are not as safe as the standard rmb() and wmb().
> Specifically they do not guarantee ordering between cache-enabled and
> cache-inhibited memories.  The primary use case for these would be to
> enforce ordering of memory reads/writes when accessing cache-enabled memory
> that is shared between the CPU and a device.
> 
> It may also be noted that there is no fast_mb().  This is due to the fact
> that most architectures didn't seem to have a good way to do a full memory
> barrier quickly and so they usually resorted to an mb() for their smp_mb
> call.  As such there no point in adding a fast_mb() function if it is going
> to map to mb() for all architectures anyway.
> 
> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@...nel.crashing.org>
> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@...il.com>
> Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@...ymtl.ca>
> Cc: Michael Ellerman <michael@...erman.id.au>
> Cc: Michael Neuling <mikey@...ling.org>
> Cc: Russell King <linux@....linux.org.uk>
> Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@...ux-m68k.org>
> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@...ibm.com>
> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>
> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@...ibm.com>
> Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@...el.com>
> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@...hat.com>
> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@....com>
> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@...ux.vnet.ibm.com>
> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
> Cc: David Miller <davem@...emloft.net>
> Signed-off-by: Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@...hat.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/memory-barriers.txt   |   41 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h      |    4 +++
>  arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h    |    3 +++
>  arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h     |    3 +++
>  arch/metag/include/asm/barrier.h    |   14 ++++++------
>  arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h  |   22 +++++++++++--------
>  arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h     |    2 ++
>  arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h |    3 +++
>  arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h      |   11 ++++++---
>  arch/x86/um/asm/barrier.h           |   13 ++++++-----
>  include/asm-generic/barrier.h       |    8 +++++++
>  11 files changed, 98 insertions(+), 26 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> index 22a969c..fe55dea 100644
> --- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> @@ -1615,6 +1615,47 @@ There are some more advanced barrier functions:
>       operations" subsection for information on where to use these.
>  
> 
> + (*) fast_wmb();
> + (*) fast_rmb();
> +
> +     These are for use with memory based device I/O to guarantee the ordering
> +     of cache-enabled writes or reads with respect to other writes or reads
> +     to cache-enabled memory.
> +
> +     For example, consider a device driver that shares memory with a device
> +     and uses a descriptor status value to indicate if the descriptor belongs
> +     to the device or the CPU, and a doorbell to notify it when new
> +     descriptors are available:
> +
> +	if (desc->status != DEVICE_OWN) {
> +		/* do not read data until we own descriptor */
> +		fast_rmb();
> +
> +		/* read/modify data */
> +		read_data = desc->data;
> +		desc->data = write_data;
> +
> +		/* flush modifications before status update */
> +		fast_wmb();
> +
> +		/* assign ownership */
> +		desc->status = DEVICE_OWN;
> +
> +		/* force memory to sync before notifying device via MMIO */
> +		wmb();
> +
> +		/* notify device of new descriptors */
> +		writel(DESC_NOTIFY, doorbell);
> +	}
> +
> +     The fast_rmb() allows us guarantee the device has released ownership
> +     before we read the data from the descriptor, and he fast_wmb() allows
> +     us to guarantee the data is written to the descriptor before the device
> +     can see it now has ownership.  The wmb() is needed to guarantee that the
> +     cache-enabled memory writes have completed before attempting a write to
> +     the cache-inhibited MMIO region.
> +
> +
>  MMIO WRITE BARRIER
>  ------------------
>  
> diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h
> index c6a3e73..c57903c 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -43,10 +43,14 @@
>  #define mb()		do { dsb(); outer_sync(); } while (0)
>  #define rmb()		dsb()
>  #define wmb()		do { dsb(st); outer_sync(); } while (0)
> +#define fast_rmb()	dmb()
> +#define fast_wmb()	dmb(st)
>  #else
>  #define mb()		barrier()
>  #define rmb()		barrier()
>  #define wmb()		barrier()
> +#define fast_rmb()	barrier()
> +#define fast_wmb()	barrier()
>  #endif
>  
>  #ifndef CONFIG_SMP
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
> index 6389d60..3ca1a15 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -32,6 +32,9 @@
>  #define rmb()		dsb(ld)
>  #define wmb()		dsb(st)
>  
> +#define fast_rmb()	dmb(ld)
> +#define fast_wmb()	dmb(st)
> +
>  #ifndef CONFIG_SMP
>  #define smp_mb()	barrier()
>  #define smp_rmb()	barrier()
> diff --git a/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
> index e8fffb0..997f5b0 100644
> --- a/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -39,6 +39,9 @@
>  #define rmb()		mb()
>  #define wmb()		mb()
>  
> +#define fast_rmb()	mb()
> +#define fast_wmb()	mb()
> +
>  #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
>  # define smp_mb()	mb()
>  #else
> diff --git a/arch/metag/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/metag/include/asm/barrier.h
> index 6d8b8c9..edddb6d 100644
> --- a/arch/metag/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/metag/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -4,8 +4,6 @@
>  #include <asm/metag_mem.h>
>  
>  #define nop()		asm volatile ("NOP")
> -#define mb()		wmb()
> -#define rmb()		barrier()
>  
>  #ifdef CONFIG_METAG_META21
>  
> @@ -41,11 +39,13 @@ static inline void wr_fence(void)
>  
>  #endif /* !CONFIG_METAG_META21 */
>  
> -static inline void wmb(void)
> -{
> -	/* flush writes through the write combiner */
> -	wr_fence();
> -}
> +/* flush writes through the write combiner */
> +#define mb()		wr_fence()
> +#define rmb()		barrier()
> +#define wmb()		mb()
> +
> +#define fast_rmb()	rmb()
> +#define fast_wmb()	wmb()
>  
>  #ifndef CONFIG_SMP
>  #define fence()		do { } while (0)
> diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
> index cb6d66c..f480097 100644
> --- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -36,22 +36,20 @@
>  
>  #define set_mb(var, value)	do { var = value; mb(); } while (0)
>  
> -#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> -
>  #ifdef __SUBARCH_HAS_LWSYNC
>  #    define SMPWMB      LWSYNC
>  #else
>  #    define SMPWMB      eieio
>  #endif
>  
> -#define __lwsync()	__asm__ __volatile__ (stringify_in_c(LWSYNC) : : :"memory")
> +#define fast_rmb()	__asm__ __volatile__ (stringify_in_c(LWSYNC) : : :"memory")
> +#define fast_wmb()	__asm__ __volatile__ (stringify_in_c(SMPWMB) : : :"memory")
>  
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
>  #define smp_mb()	mb()
> -#define smp_rmb()	__lwsync()
> -#define smp_wmb()	__asm__ __volatile__ (stringify_in_c(SMPWMB) : : :"memory")
> +#define smp_rmb()	fast_rmb()
> +#define smp_wmb()	fast_wmb()
>  #else
> -#define __lwsync()	barrier()
> -
>  #define smp_mb()	barrier()
>  #define smp_rmb()	barrier()
>  #define smp_wmb()	barrier()
> @@ -69,10 +67,16 @@
>  #define data_barrier(x)	\
>  	asm volatile("twi 0,%0,0; isync" : : "r" (x) : "memory");
>  
> +/*
> + * The use of smp_rmb() in these functions are actually meant to map from
> + * smp_rmb()->fast_rmb()->LWSYNC.  This way if smp is disabled then
> + * smp_rmb()->barrier(), or if the platform doesn't support lwsync it will
> + * map to the more heavy-weight sync.
> + */
>  #define smp_store_release(p, v)						\
>  do {									\
>  	compiletime_assert_atomic_type(*p);				\
> -	__lwsync();							\
> +	smp_rmb();							\
>  	ACCESS_ONCE(*p) = (v);						\
>  } while (0)
>  
> @@ -80,7 +84,7 @@ do {									\
>  ({									\
>  	typeof(*p) ___p1 = ACCESS_ONCE(*p);				\
>  	compiletime_assert_atomic_type(*p);				\
> -	__lwsync();							\
> +	smp_rmb();							\
>  	___p1;								\
>  })
>  
> diff --git a/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
> index 33d191d..9a31301 100644
> --- a/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -24,6 +24,8 @@
>  
>  #define rmb()				mb()
>  #define wmb()				mb()
> +#define fast_rmb()			rmb()
> +#define fast_wmb()			wmb()
>  #define smp_mb()			mb()
>  #define smp_rmb()			rmb()
>  #define smp_wmb()			wmb()
> diff --git a/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h b/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
> index 6c974c0..eac2777 100644
> --- a/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
> +++ b/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
> @@ -37,6 +37,9 @@ do {	__asm__ __volatile__("ba,pt	%%xcc, 1f\n\t" \
>  #define rmb()	__asm__ __volatile__("":::"memory")
>  #define wmb()	__asm__ __volatile__("":::"memory")
>  
> +#define fast_rmb()	rmb()
> +#define fast_wmb()	wmb()
> +
>  #define set_mb(__var, __value) \
>  	do { __var = __value; membar_safe("#StoreLoad"); } while(0)
>  
> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
> index 5238000..cf440e7 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -24,13 +24,16 @@
>  #define wmb()	asm volatile("sfence" ::: "memory")
>  #endif
>  
> -#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> -#define smp_mb()	mb()
>  #ifdef CONFIG_X86_PPRO_FENCE
> -# define smp_rmb()	rmb()
> +#define fast_rmb()	rmb()
>  #else
> -# define smp_rmb()	barrier()
> +#define fast_rmb()	barrier()
>  #endif
> +#define fast_wmb()	barrier()
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> +#define smp_mb()	mb()
> +#define smp_rmb()	fast_rmb()
>  #define smp_wmb()	barrier()
>  #define set_mb(var, value) do { (void)xchg(&var, value); } while (0)
>  #else /* !SMP */
> diff --git a/arch/x86/um/asm/barrier.h b/arch/x86/um/asm/barrier.h
> index d6511d9..2c0405d 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/um/asm/barrier.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/um/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -29,17 +29,18 @@
>  
>  #endif /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
>  
> -#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> -
> -#define smp_mb()	mb()
>  #ifdef CONFIG_X86_PPRO_FENCE
> -#define smp_rmb()	rmb()
> +#define fast_rmb()	rmb()
>  #else /* CONFIG_X86_PPRO_FENCE */
> -#define smp_rmb()	barrier()
> +#define fast_rmb()	barrier()
>  #endif /* CONFIG_X86_PPRO_FENCE */
> +#define fast_wmb()	barrier()
>  
> -#define smp_wmb()	barrier()
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
>  
> +#define smp_mb()	mb()
> +#define smp_rmb()	fast_rmb()
> +#define smp_wmb()	fast_wmb()
>  #define set_mb(var, value) do { (void)xchg(&var, value); } while (0)
>  
>  #else /* CONFIG_SMP */
> diff --git a/include/asm-generic/barrier.h b/include/asm-generic/barrier.h
> index 1402fa8..c1d60b9 100644
> --- a/include/asm-generic/barrier.h
> +++ b/include/asm-generic/barrier.h
> @@ -42,6 +42,14 @@
>  #define wmb()	mb()
>  #endif
>  
> +#ifndef fast_rmb
> +#define fast_rmb()	rmb()
> +#endif
> +
> +#ifndef fast_wmb
> +#define fast_wmb()	wmb()
> +#endif
> +
>  #ifndef read_barrier_depends
>  #define read_barrier_depends()		do { } while (0)
>  #endif
> 
> --
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