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Date:   Thu, 1 Dec 2016 00:27:13 +0000
From:   Robert Shearman <rshearma@...cade.com>
To:     Alexander Duyck <alexander.duyck@...il.com>
CC:     David Miller <davem@...emloft.net>,
        Netdev <netdev@...r.kernel.org>,
        Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@...el.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH net] fib_trie: Avoid expensive update of suffix length
 when not required

On 29/11/16 23:14, Alexander Duyck wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 29, 2016 at 9:46 AM, Robert Shearman <rshearma@...cade.com> wrote:
>> With certain distributions of routes it can take a long time to add
>> and delete further routes at scale. For example, with a route for
>> 10.37.96.0/20 present it takes 47s to add ~200k contiguous /24 routes
>> from 8.0.0.0/24 through to 11.138.207.0/24. Perf shows the bottleneck
>> is update_suffix:
>>
>>       40.39%  [kernel]                      [k] update_suffix
>>        8.02%  libnl-3.so.200.19.0           [.] nl_hash_table_lookup
>
> Well yeah, it will be expensive when you have over 512K entries in a
> single node.  I'm assuming that is the case based on the fact that
> 200K routes will double up in the trie node due to broadcast and the
> route ending up in adjacent key vectors.

The example scenario was in fact using a large scale of just routes 
rather than addresses so there are no broadcast leafs (nor local leafs):

         +-- 8.0.0.0/6 18 2 52436 suffix/20
            |-- 8.0.0.0
               /24 universe UNICAST
            |-- 8.0.1.0
               /24 universe UNICAST
            |-- 8.0.2.0
               /24 universe UNICAST

(the "suffix/20" is for test purposes as per below). In this case the 
8.0.0.0/6 node has a child array of size 2^18 = 262144.

>
>> With these changes, the time is reduced to 4s for the same scale and
>> distribution of routes.
>>
>> The issue is that update_suffix does an O(n) walk on the children of a
>> node and the with a dense distribtion of routes the number of children
>> in a node tends towards the number of nodes in the tree.
>
> Other than the performance I was just wondering if you did any other
> validation to confirm that nothing else differs.  Basically it would
> just be a matter of verifying that /proc/net/fib_trie is the same
> before and after your patch.

Yes, to verify these changes I applied some local changes to dump the 
slen field of trie nodes from /proc/net/fib_trie. I presumed that the 
format of /proc/net/fib_trie is a public API that we can't break so I 
intend to submit this as a patch. I verified by inspection that the 
suffix length listed in the nodes was as expected when exercising the 
insert and remove functions for routes with both larger and smaller 
suffixes than in the current nodes, and then for the inflate, halve and 
flush cases.

I've now verified that a diff of /proc/net/fib_trie before and after my 
patch with all the routes added of my example scenario shows no changes.

>
...
>> Fixes: 5405afd1a306 ("fib_trie: Add tracking value for suffix length")
>> Signed-off-by: Robert Shearman <rshearma@...cade.com>
>
> So I am not entirely convinced this is a regression, I was wondering
> what your numbers looked like before the patch you are saying this
> fixes?  I recall I fixed a number of issues leading up to this so I am
> just curious.

At commit 21d1f11db0e2f20a549ad8322879507850544670 ("fib_trie: Remove 
checks for index >= tnode_child_length from tnode_get_child") which is 
the parent of 5405afd1a306:

$ time sudo ip route restore < ~/allroutes
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists

real	0m3.451s
user	0m0.184s
sys	0m2.004s


At commit 5405afd1a30620de8601436bae739c67c0bc7324 ("fib_trie: Add 
tracking value for suffix length"):

$ time sudo ip route restore < ~/allroutes
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists
RTNETLINK answers: File exists

real	0m48.624s
user	0m0.360s
sys	0m46.960s

So does that warrant a fixes tag for this patch?

>
> My thought is this seems more like a performance optimization than a
> fix.  If that is the case this probably belongs in net-next.
>
> It seems to me we might be able to simplify update_suffix rather than
> going through all this change.  That might be something that is more
> acceptable for net.  Have you looked at simply adding code so that
> there is a break inside update_suffix if (slen == tn->slen)?  We don't
> have to call it for if a leaf is added so it might make sense to add
> that check.

That doesn't really help since the search always starts from the 
smallest suffix length and thus could potentially require visiting a 
large number of children before finding the node that makes slen == 
tn->slen.

In the example above, 10.37.96.0/20 would be child number 140640 in node 
8.0.0.0/6 18. Since the loop starts out with stride = 2 this means that 
it requires 70320 iterations round to find 10.37.96.0/20 which 
contributes the largest suffix length to the node.

Now it may be possible to improve the algorithm by starting the search 
from the largest suffix length towards the smallest suffix length 
instead of the current smallest to largest, but there would still be 
distributions of routes that would lead to needing to visit a large 
number of nodes only to find that nothing has changed.

>
>> ---
>>  net/ipv4/fib_trie.c | 86 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------
>>  1 file changed, 62 insertions(+), 24 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/net/ipv4/fib_trie.c b/net/ipv4/fib_trie.c
>> index 026f309c51e9..701cae8af44a 100644
>> --- a/net/ipv4/fib_trie.c
>> +++ b/net/ipv4/fib_trie.c
>> @@ -421,8 +421,22 @@ static inline int tnode_full(struct key_vector *tn, struct key_vector *n)
>>         return n && ((n->pos + n->bits) == tn->pos) && IS_TNODE(n);
>>  }
>>
>> +static void node_push_suffix(struct key_vector *tn, struct key_vector *l)
>> +{
>> +       while (tn->slen < l->slen) {
>> +               tn->slen = l->slen;
>> +               tn = node_parent(tn);
>> +               if (!tn)
>> +                       break;
>
> I don't think the NULL check is necessary, at least it wasn't with the old code.

It wasn't necessary before because the root node had the largest 
possible suffix length of KEYLENGTH. This isn't the case for the nodes 
this is now called on since they're either nodes without parents or 
sub-tries that end up in node without a parent, where they're 
initialised to have the smallest possible suffix length for the node 
(equal to their position).

>
>> +       }
>> +}
>> +
>>  /* Add a child at position i overwriting the old value.
>>   * Update the value of full_children and empty_children.
>> + *
>> + * The suffix length of the parent node and the rest of the tree is
>> + * updated (if required) when adding/replacing a node, but is caller's
>> + * responsibility on removal.
>>   */
>>  static void put_child(struct key_vector *tn, unsigned long i,
>>                       struct key_vector *n)
>> @@ -447,8 +461,8 @@ static void put_child(struct key_vector *tn, unsigned long i,
>>         else if (!wasfull && isfull)
>>                 tn_info(tn)->full_children++;
>>
>> -       if (n && (tn->slen < n->slen))
>> -               tn->slen = n->slen;
>> +       if (n)
>> +               node_push_suffix(tn, n);
>
> This is just creating redundant work if we have to perform a resize.

The only real redundant work is the assignment of slen in tn, since the 
propagation up the trie has to happen regardless and if a subsequent 
resize results in changes to the trie then the propagation will stop at 
tn's parent since the suffix length of the tn's parent will not be less 
than tn's suffix length.

>
>>         rcu_assign_pointer(tn->tnode[i], n);
>>  }
...
>> -static void leaf_pull_suffix(struct key_vector *tp, struct key_vector *l)
>> +static void node_set_suffix(struct key_vector *tp, unsigned char slen)
>>  {
>> -       while ((tp->slen > tp->pos) && (tp->slen > l->slen)) {
>> -               if (update_suffix(tp) > l->slen)
>> +       if (slen > tp->slen)
>> +               tp->slen = slen;
>> +}
>> +
>> +static void node_pull_suffix(struct key_vector *tn)
>> +{
>> +       struct key_vector *tp;
>> +       unsigned char slen;
>> +
>> +       slen = update_suffix(tn);
>> +       tp = node_parent(tn);
>> +       while ((tp->slen > tp->pos) && (tp->slen > slen)) {
>> +               if (update_suffix(tp) > slen)
>>                         break;
>>                 tp = node_parent(tp);
>>         }
>>  }
>>
>
> I really hate all the renaming.  Can't you just leave these as
> leaf_pull_suffix and leaf_push _suffix.  I'm fine with us dropping the
> leaf of the suffix but the renaming just makes adds a bunch of noise.
> Really it might work better if you broke the replacement of the
> key_vector as a leaf with the suffix length into a separate patch,
> then you could do the rename as a part of that.

Ok, I'll leave the naming of leaf_push_suffix alone. Note that 
leaf_pull_suffix hasn't been renamed, the below in the diff is just an 
artifact of how diff decided to present the changes along with the 
moving of leaf_push_suffix.

>
>> -static void leaf_push_suffix(struct key_vector *tn, struct key_vector *l)
>> +static void leaf_pull_suffix(struct key_vector *tp, struct key_vector *l)
>>  {
>> -       /* if this is a new leaf then tn will be NULL and we can sort
>> -        * out parent suffix lengths as a part of trie_rebalance
>> -        */
>> -       while (tn->slen < l->slen) {
>> -               tn->slen = l->slen;
>> -               tn = node_parent(tn);
>> +       while ((tp->slen > tp->pos) && (tp->slen > l->slen)) {
>> +               if (update_suffix(tp) > l->slen)
>> +                       break;
>> +               tp = node_parent(tp);
>>         }
>>  }
>
> If possible it would work better if you could avoid moving functions
> around as a result of your changes.

Ok, I can add a forward declaration instead.

>
>> @@ -1107,7 +1122,7 @@ static int fib_insert_alias(struct trie *t, struct key_vector *tp,
>>         /* if we added to the tail node then we need to update slen */
>>         if (l->slen < new->fa_slen) {
>>                 l->slen = new->fa_slen;
>> -               leaf_push_suffix(tp, l);
>> +               node_push_suffix(tp, l);
>>         }
>>
>>         return 0;
...
>> @@ -1783,6 +1801,16 @@ void fib_table_flush_external(struct fib_table *tb)
>>                         if (IS_TRIE(pn))
>>                                 break;
>>
>> +                       /* push the suffix length to the parent node,
>> +                        * since a previous leaf removal may have
>> +                        * caused it to change
>> +                        */
>> +                       if (pn->slen > pn->pos) {
>> +                               unsigned char slen = update_suffix(pn);
>> +
>> +                               node_set_suffix(node_parent(pn), slen);
>> +                       }
>> +
>
> Why bother with the local variable?  You could just pass
> update_suffix(pn) as the parameter to your node_set_suffix function.

To avoid a long line on the node_set_suffix call or splitting it across 
lines, but I'll remove the local variable as you suggest and the same below.

>
>>                         /* resize completed node */
>>                         pn = resize(t, pn);
>>                         cindex = get_index(pkey, pn);
>> @@ -1849,6 +1877,16 @@ int fib_table_flush(struct net *net, struct fib_table *tb)
>>                         if (IS_TRIE(pn))
>>                                 break;
>>
>> +                       /* push the suffix length to the parent node,
>> +                        * since a previous leaf removal may have
>> +                        * caused it to change
>> +                        */
>> +                       if (pn->slen > pn->pos) {
>> +                               unsigned char slen = update_suffix(pn);
>> +
>> +                               node_set_suffix(node_parent(pn), slen);
>> +                       }
>> +
>
> Same here.
>
>>                         /* resize completed node */
>>                         pn = resize(t, pn);
>>                         cindex = get_index(pkey, pn);
>> --
>> 2.1.4
>>

Thanks,
Rob

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