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Date:   Mon, 29 Apr 2019 03:17:05 +0300
From:   Vladimir Oltean <>
        Vladimir Oltean <>
Subject: [PATCH v4 net-next 11/12] Documentation: net: dsa: Add details about NXP SJA1105 driver

Signed-off-by: Vladimir Oltean <>
Changes in v4:
Removed the section about traffic, as well as mentions of other
unsupported yet features.

Changes in v3:
Reworked as rst, added a table for traffic support, added chapter for
switching features.

Changes in v2:
More verbiage at the end, regarding RGMII delays and potentially other
hardware-related caveats.

 Documentation/networking/dsa/index.rst   |   1 +
 Documentation/networking/dsa/sja1105.rst | 167 +++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 168 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/networking/dsa/sja1105.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dsa/index.rst b/Documentation/networking/dsa/index.rst
index 5c488d345a1e..0e5b7a9be406 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/dsa/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dsa/index.rst
@@ -8,3 +8,4 @@ Distributed Switch Architecture
+   sja1105
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dsa/sja1105.rst b/Documentation/networking/dsa/sja1105.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..71cdb19bb66e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dsa/sja1105.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,167 @@
+NXP SJA1105 switch driver
+The NXP SJA1105 is a family of 6 devices:
+- SJA1105E: First generation, no TTEthernet
+- SJA1105T: First generation, TTEthernet
+- SJA1105P: Second generation, no TTEthernet, no SGMII
+- SJA1105Q: Second generation, TTEthernet, no SGMII
+- SJA1105R: Second generation, no TTEthernet, SGMII
+- SJA1105S: Second generation, TTEthernet, SGMII
+These are SPI-managed automotive switches, with all ports being gigabit
+capable, and supporting MII/RMII/RGMII and optionally SGMII on one port.
+Being automotive parts, their configuration interface is geared towards
+set-and-forget use, with minimal dynamic interaction at runtime. They
+require a static configuration to be composed by software and packed
+with CRC and table headers, and sent over SPI.
+The static configuration is composed of several configuration tables. Each
+table takes a number of entries. Some configuration tables can be (partially)
+reconfigured at runtime, some not. Some tables are mandatory, some not:
+============================= ================== =============================
+Table                          Mandatory          Reconfigurable
+============================= ================== =============================
+Schedule                       no                 no
+Schedule entry points          if Scheduling      no
+VL Lookup                      no                 no
+VL Policing                    if VL Lookup       no
+VL Forwarding                  if VL Lookup       no
+L2 Lookup                      no                 no
+L2 Policing                    yes                no
+VLAN Lookup                    yes                yes
+L2 Forwarding                  yes                partially (fully on P/Q/R/S)
+MAC Config                     yes                partially (fully on P/Q/R/S)
+Schedule Params                if Scheduling      no
+Schedule Entry Points Params   if Scheduling      no
+VL Forwarding Params           if VL Forwarding   no
+L2 Lookup Params               no                 partially (fully on P/Q/R/S)
+L2 Forwarding Params           yes                no
+Clock Sync Params              no                 no
+AVB Params                     no                 no
+General Params                 yes                partially
+Retagging                      no                 yes
+xMII Params                    yes                no
+SGMII                          no                 yes
+============================= ================== =============================
+Also the configuration is write-only (software cannot read it back from the
+switch except for very few exceptions).
+The driver creates a static configuration at probe time, and keeps it at
+all times in memory, as a shadow for the hardware state. When required to
+change a hardware setting, the static configuration is also updated.
+If that changed setting can be transmitted to the switch through the dynamic
+reconfiguration interface, it is; otherwise the switch is reset and
+reprogrammed with the updated static configuration.
+Switching features
+The driver supports the configuration of L2 forwarding rules in hardware for
+port bridging. The forwarding, broadcast and flooding domain between ports can
+be restricted through two methods: either at the L2 forwarding level (isolate
+one bridge's ports from another's) or at the VLAN port membership level
+(isolate ports within the same bridge). The final forwarding decision taken by
+the hardware is a logical AND of these two sets of rules.
+The hardware tags all traffic internally with a port-based VLAN (pvid), or it
+decodes the VLAN information from the 802.1Q tag. Advanced VLAN classification
+is not possible. Once attributed a VLAN tag, frames are checked against the
+port's membership rules and dropped at ingress if they don't match any VLAN.
+This behavior is available when switch ports are enslaved to a bridge with
+``vlan_filtering 1``.
+Normally the hardware is not configurable with respect to VLAN awareness, but
+by changing what TPID the switch searches 802.1Q tags for, the semantics of a
+bridge with ``vlan_filtering 0`` can be kept (accept all traffic, tagged or
+untagged), and therefore this mode is also supported.
+Segregating the switch ports in multiple bridges is supported (e.g. 2 + 2), but
+all bridges should have the same level of VLAN awareness (either both have
+``vlan_filtering`` 0, or both 1). Also an inevitable limitation of the fact
+that VLAN awareness is global at the switch level is that once a bridge with
+``vlan_filtering`` enslaves at least one switch port, the other un-bridged
+ports are no longer available for standalone traffic termination.
+Device Tree bindings and board design
+This section references ``Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/dsa/sja1105.txt``
+and aims to showcase some potential switch caveats.
+RMII PHY role and out-of-band signaling
+In the RMII spec, the 50 MHz clock signals are either driven by the MAC or by
+an external oscillator (but not by the PHY).
+But the spec is rather loose and devices go outside it in several ways.
+Some PHYs go against the spec and may provide an output pin where they source
+the 50 MHz clock themselves, in an attempt to be helpful.
+On the other hand, the SJA1105 is only binary configurable - when in the RMII
+MAC role it will also attempt to drive the clock signal. To prevent this from
+happening it must be put in RMII PHY role.
+But doing so has some unintended consequences.
+In the RMII spec, the PHY can transmit extra out-of-band signals via RXD[1:0].
+These are practically some extra code words (/J/ and /K/) sent prior to the
+preamble of each frame. The MAC does not have this out-of-band signaling
+mechanism defined by the RMII spec.
+So when the SJA1105 port is put in PHY role to avoid having 2 drivers on the
+clock signal, inevitably an RMII PHY-to-PHY connection is created. The SJA1105
+emulates a PHY interface fully and generates the /J/ and /K/ symbols prior to
+frame preambles, which the real PHY is not expected to understand. So the PHY
+simply encodes the extra symbols received from the SJA1105-as-PHY onto the
+100Base-Tx wire.
+On the other side of the wire, some link partners might discard these extra
+symbols, while others might choke on them and discard the entire Ethernet
+frames that follow along. This looks like packet loss with some link partners
+but not with others.
+The take-away is that in RMII mode, the SJA1105 must be let to drive the
+reference clock if connected to a PHY.
+RGMII fixed-link and internal delays
+As mentioned in the bindings document, the second generation of devices has
+tunable delay lines as part of the MAC, which can be used to establish the
+correct RGMII timing budget.
+When powered up, these can shift the Rx and Tx clocks with a phase difference
+between 73.8 and 101.7 degrees.
+The catch is that the delay lines need to lock onto a clock signal with a
+stable frequency. This means that there must be at least 2 microseconds of
+silence between the clock at the old vs at the new frequency. Otherwise the
+lock is lost and the delay lines must be reset (powered down and back up).
+In RGMII the clock frequency changes with link speed (125 MHz at 1000 Mbps, 25
+MHz at 100 Mbps and 2.5 MHz at 10 Mbps), and link speed might change during the
+AN process.
+In the situation where the switch port is connected through an RGMII fixed-link
+to a link partner whose link state life cycle is outside the control of Linux
+(such as a different SoC), then the delay lines would remain unlocked (and
+inactive) until there is manual intervention (ifdown/ifup on the switch port).
+The take-away is that in RGMII mode, the switch's internal delays are only
+reliable if the link partner never changes link speeds, or if it does, it does
+so in a way that is coordinated with the switch port (practically, both ends of
+the fixed-link are under control of the same Linux system).
+As to why would a fixed-link interface ever change link speeds: there are
+Ethernet controllers out there which come out of reset in 100 Mbps mode, and
+their driver inevitably needs to change the speed and clock frequency if it's
+required to work at gigabit.
+MDIO bus and PHY management
+The SJA1105 does not have an MDIO bus and does not perform in-band AN either.
+Therefore there is no link state notification coming from the switch device.
+A board would need to hook up the PHYs connected to the switch to any other
+MDIO bus available to Linux within the system (e.g. to the DSA master's MDIO
+bus). Link state management then works by the driver manually keeping in sync
+(over SPI commands) the MAC link speed with the settings negotiated by the PHY.

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