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Date:   Wed, 22 May 2019 12:50:46 -0700
From:   Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@...com>
To:     <andrii.nakryiko@...il.com>, <ast@...com>, <daniel@...earbox.net>,
        <netdev@...r.kernel.org>, <bpf@...r.kernel.org>,
        <kernel-team@...com>
CC:     Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@...com>
Subject: [PATCH bpf-next 05/12] libbpf: add resizable non-thread safe internal hashmap

There is a need for fast point lookups inside libbpf for multiple use
cases (e.g., name resolution for BTF-to-C conversion, by-name lookups in
BTF for upcoming BPF CO-RE relocation support, etc). This patch
implements simple resizable non-thread safe hashmap using single linked
list chains.

Four different insert strategies are supported:
 - HASHMAP_ADD - only add key/value if key doesn't exist yet;
 - HASHMAP_SET - add key/value pair if key doesn't exist yet; otherwise,
   update value;
 - HASHMAP_UPDATE - update value, if key already exists; otherwise, do
   nothing and return -ENOENT;
 - HASHMAP_APPEND - always add key/value pair, even if key already exists.
   This turns hashmap into a multimap by allowing multiple values to be
   associated with the same key. Most useful read API for such hashmap is
   hashmap__for_each_key_entry() iteration. If hashmap__find() is still
   used, it will return last inserted key/value entry (first in a bucket
   chain).

For HASHMAP_SET and HASHMAP_UPDATE, old key/value pair is returned, so
that calling code can handle proper memory management, if necessary.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@...com>
---
 tools/lib/bpf/Build     |   2 +-
 tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.c | 229 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.h | 173 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 403 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
 create mode 100644 tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.c
 create mode 100644 tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.h

diff --git a/tools/lib/bpf/Build b/tools/lib/bpf/Build
index ee9d5362f35b..dcf0d36598e0 100644
--- a/tools/lib/bpf/Build
+++ b/tools/lib/bpf/Build
@@ -1 +1 @@
-libbpf-y := libbpf.o bpf.o nlattr.o btf.o libbpf_errno.o str_error.o netlink.o bpf_prog_linfo.o libbpf_probes.o xsk.o
+libbpf-y := libbpf.o bpf.o nlattr.o btf.o libbpf_errno.o str_error.o netlink.o bpf_prog_linfo.o libbpf_probes.o xsk.o hashmap.o
diff --git a/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.c b/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..809afae42c59
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.c
@@ -0,0 +1,229 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: (LGPL-2.1 OR BSD-2-Clause)
+
+/*
+ * Generic non-thread safe hash map implementation.
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2019 Facebook
+ */
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <linux/err.h>
+#include "hashmap.h"
+
+/* start with 4 buckets */
+#define HASHMAP_MIN_CAP_BITS 2
+
+static inline void hashmap_add_entry(struct hashmap_entry **pprev,
+				     struct hashmap_entry *entry)
+{
+	entry->next = *pprev;
+	*pprev = entry;
+}
+
+static inline void hashmap_del_entry(struct hashmap_entry **pprev,
+				     struct hashmap_entry *entry)
+{
+	*pprev = entry->next;
+	entry->next = NULL;
+}
+
+void hashmap__init(struct hashmap *map, hashmap_hash_fn hash_fn,
+		   hashmap_equal_fn equal_fn, void *ctx)
+{
+	map->hash_fn = hash_fn;
+	map->equal_fn = equal_fn;
+	map->ctx = ctx;
+
+	map->buckets = NULL;
+	map->cap = 0;
+	map->cap_bits = 0;
+	map->sz = 0;
+}
+
+struct hashmap *hashmap__new(hashmap_hash_fn hash_fn,
+			     hashmap_equal_fn equal_fn,
+			     void *ctx)
+{
+	struct hashmap *map = malloc(sizeof(struct hashmap));
+
+	if (!map)
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+	hashmap__init(map, hash_fn, equal_fn, ctx);
+	return map;
+}
+
+void hashmap__clear(struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	free(map->buckets);
+	map->cap = map->cap_bits = map->sz = 0;
+}
+
+void hashmap__free(struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	if (!map)
+		return;
+
+	hashmap__clear(map);
+	free(map);
+}
+
+size_t hashmap__size(const struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	return map->sz;
+}
+
+size_t hashmap__capacity(const struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	return map->cap;
+}
+
+static inline bool hashmap_needs_to_grow(struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	/* grow if empty or more than 75% filled */
+	return (map->cap == 0) || ((map->sz + 1) * 4 / 3 > map->cap);
+}
+
+static inline int hashmap_grow(struct hashmap *map)
+{
+	struct hashmap_entry **new_buckets;
+	struct hashmap_entry *cur, *tmp;
+	size_t new_cap_bits, new_cap;
+	size_t h;
+	int bkt;
+
+	new_cap_bits = map->cap_bits + 1;
+	if (new_cap_bits < HASHMAP_MIN_CAP_BITS)
+		new_cap_bits = HASHMAP_MIN_CAP_BITS;
+
+	new_cap = 1UL << new_cap_bits;
+	new_buckets = calloc(new_cap, sizeof(new_buckets[0]));
+	if (!new_buckets)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	hashmap__for_each_entry_safe(map, cur, tmp, bkt) {
+		h = hash_bits(map->hash_fn(cur->key, map->ctx), new_cap_bits);
+		hashmap_add_entry(&new_buckets[h], cur);
+	}
+
+	map->cap = new_cap;
+	map->cap_bits = new_cap_bits;
+	free(map->buckets);
+	map->buckets = new_buckets;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool hashmap_find_entry(const struct hashmap *map,
+				      const void *key, size_t hash,
+				      struct hashmap_entry ***pprev,
+				      struct hashmap_entry **entry)
+{
+	struct hashmap_entry *cur, **prev_ptr;
+
+	if (!map->buckets)
+		return false;
+
+	for (prev_ptr = &map->buckets[hash], cur = *prev_ptr;
+	     cur;
+	     prev_ptr = &cur->next, cur = cur->next) {
+		if (map->equal_fn(cur->key, key, map->ctx)) {
+			if (pprev)
+				*pprev = prev_ptr;
+			*entry = cur;
+			return true;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return false;
+}
+
+int hashmap__insert(struct hashmap *map, const void *key, void *value,
+		    enum hashmap_insert_strategy strategy,
+		    const void **old_key, void **old_value)
+{
+	struct hashmap_entry *entry;
+	size_t h;
+	int err;
+
+	if (old_key)
+		*old_key = NULL;
+	if (old_value)
+		*old_value = NULL;
+
+	h = hash_bits(map->hash_fn(key, map->ctx), map->cap_bits);
+	if (strategy != HASHMAP_APPEND &&
+	    hashmap_find_entry(map, key, h, NULL, &entry)) {
+		if (old_key)
+			*old_key = entry->key;
+		if (old_value)
+			*old_value = entry->value;
+
+		if (strategy == HASHMAP_SET || strategy == HASHMAP_UPDATE) {
+			entry->key = key;
+			entry->value = value;
+			return 0;
+		} else if (strategy == HASHMAP_ADD) {
+			return -EEXIST;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (strategy == HASHMAP_UPDATE)
+		return -ENOENT;
+
+	if (hashmap_needs_to_grow(map)) {
+		err = hashmap_grow(map);
+		if (err)
+			return err;
+		h = hash_bits(map->hash_fn(key, map->ctx), map->cap_bits);
+	}
+
+	entry = malloc(sizeof(struct hashmap_entry));
+	if (!entry)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	entry->key = key;
+	entry->value = value;
+	hashmap_add_entry(&map->buckets[h], entry);
+	map->sz++;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+bool hashmap__find(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, void **value)
+{
+	struct hashmap_entry *entry;
+	size_t h;
+
+	h = hash_bits(map->hash_fn(key, map->ctx), map->cap_bits);
+	if (!hashmap_find_entry(map, key, h, NULL, &entry))
+		return false;
+
+	if (value)
+		*value = entry->value;
+	return true;
+}
+
+bool hashmap__delete(struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
+		     const void **old_key, void **old_value)
+{
+	struct hashmap_entry **pprev, *entry;
+	size_t h;
+
+	h = hash_bits(map->hash_fn(key, map->ctx), map->cap_bits);
+	if (!hashmap_find_entry(map, key, h, &pprev, &entry))
+		return false;
+
+	if (old_key)
+		*old_key = entry->key;
+	if (old_value)
+		*old_value = entry->value;
+
+	hashmap_del_entry(pprev, entry);
+	free(entry);
+	map->sz--;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
diff --git a/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.h b/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..03748a742146
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/lib/bpf/hashmap.h
@@ -0,0 +1,173 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: (LGPL-2.1 OR BSD-2-Clause) */
+
+/*
+ * Generic non-thread safe hash map implementation.
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2019 Facebook
+ */
+#ifndef __LIBBPF_HASHMAP_H
+#define __LIBBPF_HASHMAP_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stddef.h>
+#include "libbpf_internal.h"
+
+static inline size_t hash_bits(size_t h, int bits)
+{
+	/* shuffle bits and return requested number of upper bits */
+	return (h * 11400714819323198485llu) >> (__WORDSIZE - bits);
+}
+
+typedef size_t (*hashmap_hash_fn)(const void *key, void *ctx);
+typedef bool (*hashmap_equal_fn)(const void *key1, const void *key2, void *ctx);
+
+struct hashmap_entry {
+	const void *key;
+	void *value;
+	struct hashmap_entry *next;
+};
+
+struct hashmap {
+	hashmap_hash_fn hash_fn;
+	hashmap_equal_fn equal_fn;
+	void *ctx;
+
+	struct hashmap_entry **buckets;
+	size_t cap;
+	size_t cap_bits;
+	size_t sz;
+};
+
+#define HASHMAP_INIT(hash_fn, equal_fn, ctx) {	\
+	.hash_fn = (hash_fn),			\
+	.equal_fn = (equal_fn),			\
+	.ctx = (ctx),				\
+	.buckets = NULL,			\
+	.cap = 0,				\
+	.cap_bits = 0,				\
+	.sz = 0,				\
+}
+
+void hashmap__init(struct hashmap *map, hashmap_hash_fn hash_fn,
+		   hashmap_equal_fn equal_fn, void *ctx);
+struct hashmap *hashmap__new(hashmap_hash_fn hash_fn,
+			     hashmap_equal_fn equal_fn,
+			     void *ctx);
+void hashmap__clear(struct hashmap *map);
+void hashmap__free(struct hashmap *map);
+
+size_t hashmap__size(const struct hashmap *map);
+size_t hashmap__capacity(const struct hashmap *map);
+
+/*
+ * Hashmap insertion strategy:
+ * - HASHMAP_ADD - only add key/value if key doesn't exist yet;
+ * - HASHMAP_SET - add key/value pair if key doesn't exist yet; otherwise,
+ *   update value;
+ * - HASHMAP_UPDATE - update value, if key already exists; otherwise, do
+ *   nothing and return -ENOENT;
+ * - HASHMAP_APPEND - always add key/value pair, even if key already exists.
+ *   This turns hashmap into a multimap by allowing multiple values to be
+ *   associated with the same key. Most useful read API for such hashmap is
+ *   hashmap__for_each_key_entry() iteration. If hashmap__find() is still
+ *   used, it will return last inserted key/value entry (first in a bucket
+ *   chain).
+ */
+enum hashmap_insert_strategy {
+	HASHMAP_ADD,
+	HASHMAP_SET,
+	HASHMAP_UPDATE,
+	HASHMAP_APPEND,
+};
+
+/*
+ * hashmap__insert() adds key/value entry w/ various semantics, depending on
+ * provided strategy value. If a given key/value pair replaced already
+ * existing key/value pair, both old key and old value will be returned
+ * through old_key and old_value to allow calling code do proper memory
+ * management.
+ */
+int hashmap__insert(struct hashmap *map, const void *key, void *value,
+		    enum hashmap_insert_strategy strategy,
+		    const void **old_key, void **old_value);
+
+static inline int hashmap__add(struct hashmap *map,
+			       const void *key, void *value)
+{
+	return hashmap__insert(map, key, value, HASHMAP_ADD, NULL, NULL);
+}
+
+static inline int hashmap__set(struct hashmap *map,
+			       const void *key, void *value,
+			       const void **old_key, void **old_value)
+{
+	return hashmap__insert(map, key, value, HASHMAP_SET,
+			       old_key, old_value);
+}
+
+static inline int hashmap__update(struct hashmap *map,
+				  const void *key, void *value,
+				  const void **old_key, void **old_value)
+{
+	return hashmap__insert(map, key, value, HASHMAP_UPDATE,
+			       old_key, old_value);
+}
+
+static inline int hashmap__append(struct hashmap *map,
+				  const void *key, void *value)
+{
+	return hashmap__insert(map, key, value, HASHMAP_APPEND, NULL, NULL);
+}
+
+bool hashmap__delete(struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
+		     const void **old_key, void **old_value);
+
+bool hashmap__find(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, void **value);
+
+/*
+ * hashmap__for_each_entry - iterate over all entries in hashmap
+ * @map: hashmap to iterate
+ * @cur: struct hashmap_entry * used as a loop cursor
+ * @bkt: integer used as a bucket loop cursor
+ */
+#define hashmap__for_each_entry(map, cur, bkt)				    \
+	for (bkt = 0; bkt < map->cap; bkt++)				    \
+		for (cur = map->buckets[bkt]; cur; cur = cur->next)
+
+/*
+ * hashmap__for_each_entry_safe - iterate over all entries in hashmap, safe
+ * against removals
+ * @map: hashmap to iterate
+ * @cur: struct hashmap_entry * used as a loop cursor
+ * @tmp: struct hashmap_entry * used as a temporary next cursor storage
+ * @bkt: integer used as a bucket loop cursor
+ */
+#define hashmap__for_each_entry_safe(map, cur, tmp, bkt)		    \
+	for (bkt = 0; bkt < map->cap; bkt++)				    \
+		for (cur = map->buckets[bkt];				    \
+		     cur && ({tmp = cur->next; true; });		    \
+		     cur = tmp)
+
+/*
+ * hashmap__for_each_key_entry - iterate over entries associated with given key
+ * @map: hashmap to iterate
+ * @cur: struct hashmap_entry * used as a loop cursor
+ * @key: key to iterate entries for
+ */
+#define hashmap__for_each_key_entry(map, cur, _key)			    \
+	for (cur = ({ size_t bkt = hash_bits(map->hash_fn((_key), map->ctx),\
+					     map->cap_bits);		    \
+		     map->buckets ? map->buckets[bkt] : NULL; });	    \
+	     cur;							    \
+	     cur = cur->next)						    \
+		if (map->equal_fn(cur->key, (_key), map->ctx))
+
+#define hashmap__for_each_key_entry_safe(map, cur, tmp, _key)		    \
+	for (cur = ({ size_t bkt = hash_bits(map->hash_fn((_key), map->ctx),\
+					     map->cap_bits);		    \
+		     cur = map->buckets ? map->buckets[bkt] : NULL; });	    \
+	     cur && ({ tmp = cur->next; true; });			    \
+	     cur = tmp)							    \
+		if (map->equal_fn(cur->key, (_key), map->ctx))
+
+#endif /* __LIBBPF_HASHMAP_H */
-- 
2.17.1

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